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NOTICE : An Architecture for the No tification of T raffic I ncidents and C ong e stion. Dr. Michele C. Weigle Department of Computer Science Old Dominion University (Work done with Dr. Stephan Olariu and Gongjun Yan) . Norfolk State University Department of Computer Science Colloquium

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Notice an architecture for the no tification of t raffic i ncidents and c ong e stion l.jpg

NOTICE: An Architecture for the Notification of Traffic Incidents and Congestion

Dr. Michele C. Weigle

Department of Computer Science

Old Dominion University

(Work done with Dr. Stephan Olariu and Gongjun Yan)

Norfolk State University

Department of Computer Science Colloquium

March 1, 2007


Motivation l.jpg

EXIT 12

Exit while you

still can!

From trekearth.com

Motivation

Give drivers advance warning of upcoming traffic congestion


Outline l.jpg
Outline

  • Overview of Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks (VANETs)

  • Security Issues in VANETs

  • Our Approach: NOTICE

  • Simulations

  • Conclusions


Vehicular ad hoc networks vanets l.jpg

c1

c2

c4

c3

c5

EXIT 12

C1 speed 0

C2 speed 0

C3 speed 0

Vehicular Ad-Hoc NetworksVANETs

  • Traffic information

    • cars report their position and speed to surrounding cars

    • car may suggest an alternate route

  • Weather warnings

  • Collision warning

  • Platooning

  • Intersection Assistance


Vanets approaches l.jpg
VANETsApproaches

  • V2V only (zero infrastructure, purely ad-hoc)

    • require no outside infrastructure or roadside devices

    • vehicles communicate with each other to determine traffic situation

  • V2V and V2I

    • requires some outside infrastructure, often in the form of roadside devices

    • infrastructure can provide aggregation/processing, encryption key distribution, access to larger network


Vanets v2v v2i architecture l.jpg

From “The Security of Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks”, M. Raya and J.-P. Hubaux, SASN 2005

VANETsV2V / V2I Architecture


Security issues adversaries l.jpg
Security Issues Raya and J.-P. Hubaux, SASN 2005 Adversaries

  • Greedy Drivers

    • convince neighbors that congestion is ahead to clear roads

  • Snoops

    • driver profiling, tracking

  • Pranksters

    • hack things “just for fun”

  • Industrial Insiders

    • if mechanics are in charge of uploading software, they can load malicious programs

  • Malicious Attackers

    • terrorists, criminals with specific targets in mind

Bryan Parno and Adrian Perrig. Challenges in Securing Vehicular Networks, HotNets 2005.


Security issues attacks l.jpg
Security Issues Raya and J.-P. Hubaux, SASN 2005 Attacks

  • Denial of Service (DoS)

    • overwhelm a vehicle’s resources or jam communication channels

  • Message Suppression

    • selectively drop messages, suppress congestion alerts

  • Fabrication

    • broadcast false information into network

  • Alteration

    • alter existing data, replaying earlier transmissions, disrupt voting mechanisms

Bryan Parno and Adrian Perrig. Challenges in Securing Vehicular Networks, HotNets 2005.


Security issues approaches l.jpg
Security Issues Raya and J.-P. Hubaux, SASN 2005 Approaches

  • Digitally sign (encrypt with private key) each message sent by a vehicle

    • a vehicle is issued a certificate from an authority

    • certificate verifies vehicle’s public key used for decryption

    • disadvantage: allows tracking of vehicles

  • Pre-load many different anonymous key pairs and change keys at certain intervals

    • disadvantage: malicious user could use the keys to impersonate multiple vehicles

Key: Reliably associate a message with physical vehicle


Our approach notice l.jpg
Our Approach Raya and J.-P. Hubaux, SASN 2005 NOTICE

  • Allow the roadway to associate messages with physical vehicles

  • Embed intelligent sensor belts in the highway

  • When a car passes over the belt, it reports its speed to the belt

  • The belt makes decisions about where congestion is occurring based on reports from cars and other belts

speed 55


Notice car model and belt model l.jpg

Event Data Recorder (EDR) Raya and J.-P. Hubaux, SASN 2005

tamper-proof

records location, speed, etc.

Two transceivers

one for handshaking, Th

one for data transfer, Td

Pressure sensors

detect passing cars

Two transceivers

one for handshaking, BTh

short range (~1m)

one for data transfer, BTd

larger range (~3m)

NOTICECar Model and Belt Model

EDR

BTd

Td

Th

BTh


Notice belt to belt communication l.jpg
NOTICE Raya and J.-P. Hubaux, SASN 2005 Belt-to-Belt Communication

  • Individual belt in each lane

  • Connected belts (sub-belts) communicate instantaneously

  • Non-connected belts do not directly communicate

    • use cars as data mules

  • Gives encrypted message to a car to drop off at next belt

[avg spd 55]

[avg spd 55]


Notice belt to car communication handshaking l.jpg

EDR Raya and J.-P. Hubaux, SASN 2005

Td

Th

NOTICEBelt-to-Car Communication - Handshaking

  • Belt sends “Hello” message to car

    • ID of belt

    • frequency channel for further communication, 

    • one-time shared encryption key, 

  • Car sends short acknowledgement

BTh


Notice belt to car communication data transfer l.jpg

EDR Raya and J.-P. Hubaux, SASN 2005

Td

Th

NOTICEBelt-to-Car Communication - Data Transfer

  • Belt sends query

  • Car sends message from previous belt

  • Car sends encrypted (with ) EDR data

  • Belt sends encrypted (with ) traffic information

  • Belt sends encrypted message for next belt

3m

BTd


Notice information propagation l.jpg

EXIT 12 Raya and J.-P. Hubaux, SASN 2005

NOTICEInformation Propagation

A2

A1

  • B1 is aware of traffic slowdown

    • creates encrypted message with latest traffic statistics

  • Information is provided to B2

  • B2 uploads message onto car destined for C2

  • When C2 receives message, it provides it to C1

  • C1 notifies passing cars

B2

B1

C2

C1


Notice urgent mode l.jpg

EXIT 12 Raya and J.-P. Hubaux, SASN 2005

NOTICEUrgent Mode

A2

A1

  • B2 uploads message with urgent bit set onto car destined for C2

  • Car broadcasts message to other cars for faster delivery

  • Cars are passing encrypted messages, so no security risk

B2

B1

C2

C1


Notice role based communication l.jpg

EXIT 12 Raya and J.-P. Hubaux, SASN 2005

NOTICERole-Based Communication

  • Emergency responders can provide information to NOTICE belts

  • Special encryption key used

  • Validate incident/congestion inference made by belts


Notice evacuations l.jpg
NOTICE Raya and J.-P. Hubaux, SASN 2005 Evacuations

  • Evacuees need information about resources

    • gasoline, hotels, shelters, etc.

  • Emergency management centers need method to disseminate information

  • Enhanced NOTICE can provide this

    • temporary infrastructure connected to belts for long-range communication

      • to emergency management centers

      • for backward propagation during contraflow


Notice evacuations19 l.jpg
NOTICE Raya and J.-P. Hubaux, SASN 2005 Evacuations

  • Cars that have refueled report to nearest belt

  • Location and time of refuel propagated backwards by temporary infrastructure

  • Cars needing gas can exit at the appropriate location


Notice simulations l.jpg
NOTICE Raya and J.-P. Hubaux, SASN 2005 Simulations

  • Developed a Java-based simulator

    • based on applet using realistic highway traffic model

    • http://www.traffic-simulation.de/

  • Measured message propagation time

    • normal mode

      • car receiving message carries it to the next belt

    • urgent mode

      • car receiving message broadcasts it to nearby cars

  • Traffic intensities from 70 vehicles/hr to 3600 vehicles/hr


Notice simulations21 l.jpg
NOTICE Raya and J.-P. Hubaux, SASN 2005 Simulations


Notice simulations22 l.jpg
NOTICE Raya and J.-P. Hubaux, SASN 2005 Simulations


Conclusion l.jpg
Conclusion Raya and J.-P. Hubaux, SASN 2005

  • NOTICE: An Architecture for the Notification of Traffic Incidents and Congestion

  • Provides security and privacy

    • belts can independently corroborate information provided by vehicles

  • Works in sparse or dense traffic

  • Extensions for evacuation scenarios


Future work l.jpg
Future Work Raya and J.-P. Hubaux, SASN 2005

  • Enhance our simulator

    • wireless channel conditions

  • Rules for how far to propagate congestion notifications

  • Rules for how to infer occurrence of traffic incident or congestion

  • Use with non-intrusive sensor


Slide25 l.jpg

Michele C. Weigle Raya and J.-P. Hubaux, SASN 2005

Department of Computer Science

Old Dominion University

Norfolk, VA

[email protected]

http://www.cs.odu.edu/~mweigle

VANET Research Group @ ODU

http://www.cs.odu.edu/~vanet


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