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Hamline University Graduate School St. Paul, Minnesota. The Frog Malformities Issue: How Can My Students Help?. Hamline University Graduate School St. Paul, Minnesota. http://cgee.hamline.edu/frogs.

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Hamline University Graduate SchoolSt. Paul, Minnesota

The Frog Malformities Issue:

How Can My Students Help?


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Hamline University Graduate SchoolSt. Paul, Minnesota

http://cgee.hamline.edu/frogs


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Scientists in MN and elsewhere had found malformed frogs in the early 1990s. Then the issue hit the national media in 1995. Why?

Students in Henderson, MN, found hundreds of malformed frogs at a site.

A Thousand Friends of Frogs was formed in the wake of this media coverage


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What are we being told by: the early 1990s. Then the issue hit the national media in 1995. Why?

Amphibian (frog and toad) malformities

Amphibian populations locally and globally

But first……


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Vs. the early 1990s. Then the issue hit the national media in 1995. Why?

cold blood cold blood

smooth or slimy skin warty and dry skin

strong, long legs and stubby bodies with short webbed hind feet hind legs

two bulging eyes parotid glands behind eyes

lay eggs in clusters lay eggs in long chains

a group of frogs is called a group of toads is called

an ARMY of frogs a KNOT of toads

Frogs have:

Toads have:


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Anuran the early 1990s. Then the issue hit the national media in 1995. Why?Diversity


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Frogs and Toads the early 1990s. Then the issue hit the national media in 1995. Why?

14 species in MN

92 species

in USA

3,300 species

in the world


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MN Frogs and Toads the early 1990s. Then the issue hit the national media in 1995. Why?


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Amphibian Habitats the early 1990s. Then the issue hit the national media in 1995. Why?

forests

grasslands

lakes, ponds, marshes

rivers and streams


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Why We Care the early 1990s. Then the issue hit the national media in 1995. Why?

  • Amphibians are a part of the planet’s bio-diversity.

2.Amphibians interact in interesting ways with each other and the environment, i.e. both prey and predators


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Why We Care the early 1990s. Then the issue hit the national media in 1995. Why?

3. Amphibians provide benefits to humansi.e. Gastric Brooding Frog of Australia might have provided answers for people suffering from gastric ulcers

(Case of the Vanishing Frogs, T. Halliday and W. R. Heyer).


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4. Frogs As Bio-indicators the early 1990s. Then the issue hit the national media in 1995. Why?

1) double life--amphibious

2) permeable skin

3) absorb and concentrate toxins--biomagnification


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4. Frogs As Bio-indicators the early 1990s. Then the issue hit the national media in 1995. Why?

Biomagnification: a process in which retained substances become more concentrated with each link in the food chain


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Malformed Amphibians the early 1990s. Then the issue hit the national media in 1995. Why?


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External Malformations the early 1990s. Then the issue hit the national media in 1995. Why?

  • extra or missing limbs

  • branching limbs

  • spikes or protuberances

  • missing eyes

  • abnormal webbing


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Internal Malformations the early 1990s. Then the issue hit the national media in 1995. Why?

  • reproductive

  • digestive

  • urinary


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Malformed Frog Pictures the early 1990s. Then the issue hit the national media in 1995. Why?


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Dr. David Hoppe, University of Minnesota-Morris the early 1990s. Then the issue hit the national media in 1995. Why?


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Dr. David Hoppe, University of Minnesota-Morris the early 1990s. Then the issue hit the national media in 1995. Why?


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Dr. David Hoppe, University of Minnesota-Morris the early 1990s. Then the issue hit the national media in 1995. Why?


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Dr. David Hoppe, University of Minnesota-Morris the early 1990s. Then the issue hit the national media in 1995. Why?


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Causes of Malformations the early 1990s. Then the issue hit the national media in 1995. Why?

  • genetic origins

  • parasite disruption of limb formation

  • chemical contamination

  • viruses

  • ultraviolet radiation

  • physical trauma (predation,

    people)


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Trematode (flatworm) cysts have been demonstrated to cause problems in limb bud development in tadpoles

Dr. Stanley K. Sessions, Hartwick College


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Dr. Stanley K. Sessions, Hartwick College problems in limb bud development in tadpoles


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Possible Chemical Contaminants problems in limb bud development in tadpoles

  • agrochemicals

  • heavy metals

  • acid rain

  • chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)


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Types of Agrochemicals problems in limb bud development in tadpoles

  • herbicides

    Maneb-fungicide

  • pesticides

    propylthiourea

  • fertilizers

Dr. Stanley K. Sessions,

Hartwick College


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Types of Agrochemicals problems in limb bud development in tadpoles

applications of the herbicide atrazine have led to egg mortality and tadpole deformities (Hazelwood 1970)

Dr. Stanley K. Sessions,

Hartwick College


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Correlations to Human Health Concerns problems in limb bud development in tadpoles

  • high nitrate levels (from fertilizers) in human drinking water and frog breeding ponds are hazardous

  • human birth defects result from pesticideapplication

  • UV radiationresults in blindness and skin cancer in humans and other animals; DNA damage in developing frog eggs


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Joan Chadde problems in limb bud development in tadpoles

Amphibian Malformation Survey of the Western Upper Peninsula Using Middle/High School Classes


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Where have all the frogs gone? problems in limb bud development in tadpolesGlobal Amphibian Decline

  • a concern during the past decade

  • frog declines widespread and well-documented

  • possible causes include habitat destruction, increased UV radiation, and chemical contamination


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Global Population Declines problems in limb bud development in tadpoles

  • Loss of habitat

    from filling in wetlands to create more farmland for crops, and to build more houses and roads

(Case of the Vanishing Frogs, T. Halliday and W. R. Heyer).


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Global Population Declines problems in limb bud development in tadpoles

  • Increasing ultraviolet radiation

  • Pollution by chemicals

  • Acid rain

  • Pathogens

  • Parasites

  • Introduction of non-native species


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Global Population Declines problems in limb bud development in tadpoles

Amphibian declines occurring in

locations where habitats relatively

undisturbed.

Australia:

Gastric Brooding Frog

last seen in wild in 1980s


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Global Population Declines problems in limb bud development in tadpoles

Monteverde, Costa Rica:

Golden Toad

last seen 1988


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Global Population Declines problems in limb bud development in tadpoles

Other places experiencing declines include:

Puerto Rico

Ecuador

Venezuela

Brazil

U.S. Rocky Mountains

Cascade Mountain Range in Washington,

Oregon, and California


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Stakeholders/Interest Groups problems in limb bud development in tadpoles

Scientists:

Minnesota Pollution Control Agency

Environmental Protection Agency

Individual scientists promoting different hypotheses

Industry and Agriculture

Policy-Makers

Citizens (Adults and students)


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What You and Your Students problems in limb bud development in tadpolesCan Do to Help!


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C problems in limb bud development in tadpolesare

Adopt

Look

Listen

Answer the


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Malformity and Calling Surveys problems in limb bud development in tadpoles

Various types of surveys depending on your objectives

Malformity surveys: deal specifically with malformities in amphibians

Calling surveys: need to know the calls of anurans

terrestrial salamander monitoring

aquatic surveys


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Malformity and Calling Surveys problems in limb bud development in tadpoles

A Thousand Friends of Frogs has two surveys—

Malformity and Calling

http://cgee.hamline.edu/frogs/students/involved.html


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Malformity and Calling Surveys problems in limb bud development in tadpoles

Malformity survey

Protocols for collecting and reporting data.

Data collected andtransferred to scientists

Results on web site

http://cgee.hamline.edu/frogs/science/datasht.html

Calling survey: Minnesota Frog Watch

Over 100 volunteers surveying in the state

Working with MN Dept. Natural Resources

http://cgee.hamline.edu/frogs/science/wach2000.html


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Malformity and Calling Surveys problems in limb bud development in tadpoles

North American Reporting Center for Amphibian Malformities (NARCAM)

http://www.npwrc.usgs.gov/narcam

Report data on the web


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Malformity and Calling Surveys problems in limb bud development in tadpoles

North American Amphibian

Monitoring Project (NAAMP)

http://www.im.nbs.gov/amphibs.html

Protocols for reporting data

State coordinators


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Malformity and Calling Surveys problems in limb bud development in tadpoles

What you need to know to survey?

Depends on type of survey conducted

ID of frogs, toads and salamanders—color, shape, etc.

Calls of frogs and toads

Let’s learn a few calls!!

Bullfrog

Spring Peepers


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Malformity and Calling Surveys problems in limb bud development in tadpoles

Kristin Schuster

Science Teacher

Houghton Middle School

Michigan


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Student Activities problems in limb bud development in tadpoles

Other student activities

Student Reports on Project Web Site

Student Poetry

Student Writing

Student Art


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Celebrating problems in limb bud development in tadpolesamphibians

Australia

Finland

Scotland

Minnesota


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Helping Our problems in limb bud development in tadpolesPlanet Earth (H.O.P.E.) Frogs


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Resources problems in limb bud development in tadpoles

A Thousand Friends of Frogs

http://cgee.hamline.edu/frogs

FrogWeb

http://frogweb.gov

Audiotapes and Book


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