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Library of Congress Subject Headings






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Purpose of Subject Headings. Provide additional access to the work via the subject contentBring together in the catalog items on the same subject using the same terminologyProvide a formal description of the subject content of any bibliographic unit in the most precise terms possible. . Growing petunias in Poughkeepsie.
Library of Congress Subject Headings

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1. Library of Congress Subject Headings [Put LOC Web page in cache] In the first section of the class we learned how to describe a book. We then talked about providing access to the record, and thus to the book. We talked about providing access by personal authors or corporate entities responsible for the intellectual content of the work, by the title of the book, and by the series. Now we're going to add additional means to access the record--via subjects. [Put LOC Web page in cache] In the first section of the class we learned how to describe a book. We then talked about providing access to the record, and thus to the book. We talked about providing access by personal authors or corporate entities responsible for the intellectual content of the work, by the title of the book, and by the series. Now we're going to add additional means to access the record--via subjects.

2. Purpose of Subject Headings Provide additional access to the work via the subject content Bring together in the catalog items on the same subject using the same terminology Provide a formal description of the subject content of any bibliographic unit in the most precise terms possible The purpose of subject headings is to : 1. Provide additional access to the work via the subject content. [click] This way you can find a work on Growing petunias in Poughkeepsie. 2. Bring together (collocate) in the catalog items on the same subject using the same terminology. [click] You don't want the user looking for works on cyberterrorism to have to look under cyberterrorism, cyber warfare, electronic warfare, information warfare, etc. [click] 3. Provide a formal description of the subject content of any bibliographic unit in the most precise terms possible Precision is important. You want your user to be able to directly get to the precise information she needs without having to wade through a lot of non-relevant materials. For example, if a patron who just got an aquarium comes to the library looking for books on guppies, you don?t want her to have to look at every book that has ever been written about any type of fish. You want your patron to be able to pull up books specifically about guppies if you have them. The purpose of subject headings is to : 1. Provide additional access to the work via the subject content. [click] This way you can find a work on Growing petunias in Poughkeepsie. 2. Bring together (collocate) in the catalog items on the same subject using the same terminology. [click] You don't want the user looking for works on cyberterrorism to have to look under cyberterrorism, cyber warfare, electronic warfare, information warfare, etc. [click] 3. Provide a formal description of the subject content of any bibliographic unit in the most precise terms possible Precision is important. You want your user to be able to directly get to the precise information she needs without having to wade through a lot of non-relevant materials. For example, if a patron who just got an aquarium comes to the library looking for books on guppies, you don?t want her to have to look at every book that has ever been written about any type of fish. You want your patron to be able to pull up books specifically about guppies if you have them.

3. Cataloging a book on Koi Let?s say you have a book about Koi?those colorful fish that can cost more than a car. [click] You want your reader who is getting started on raising koi to be able to find this book. So you add a subject heading: koi. [click] Now a person who searches on that subject heading has access to the book. [click] But that patron who searches on ?koi? will also find lots of other books on koi as well because that subject heading collocates?brings together?the books about koi in your catalog. Let?s say you have a book about Koi?those colorful fish that can cost more than a car. [click] You want your reader who is getting started on raising koi to be able to find this book. So you add a subject heading: koi. [click] Now a person who searches on that subject heading has access to the book. [click] But that patron who searches on ?koi? will also find lots of other books on koi as well because that subject heading collocates?brings together?the books about koi in your catalog.

4. Specificity of heading Notice how specific our subject heading is. [click] We do not add a broad subject heading like fishes. Now, why not? Because we want to reserve the broader term for general books on fish. [click] If we put the broader term on books with very specific content, then the patron looking for a generalized book on fishes would get hundreds of books that wouldn?t fulfill his or her information needs. Notice how specific our subject heading is. [click] We do not add a broad subject heading like fishes. Now, why not? Because we want to reserve the broader term for general books on fish. [click] If we put the broader term on books with very specific content, then the patron looking for a generalized book on fishes would get hundreds of books that wouldn?t fulfill his or her information needs.

5. Indexing The assignment of subject headings is a type of indexing. Indexing can be defined as: The process of analyzing a bibliographic entity and creating entries for it, especially subject entries, in an index. The assignment of subject headings is a type of indexing. Indexing can be defined as: The process of analyzing a bibliographic entity and creating entries for it, especially subject entries, in an index.

6. Subject cataloging ? two main steps Subject cataloging basically involves two main steps: Conceptual analysis - decide what the book is about One of the neat things about being a cataloger is that you must look through a book in order to determine what it is about. Translation - conversion of the conceptual analysis into a particular set of terms Subject cataloging basically involves two main steps: Conceptual analysis - decide what the book is about One of the neat things about being a cataloger is that you must look through a book in order to determine what it is about. Translation - conversion of the conceptual analysis into a particular set of terms

7. Lists of authorized terms There are a variety of sets of terms out there to use. The sets you are most likely to encounter in academic, public, or school libraries are: LCSH (what we will use in this class) Subject Headings for Children's Literature (used in conjunction with LCSH) Sears List of Subject Headings (orig. called Subject Headings for Small Libraries by Minnie Earl Sears, 1923) MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) In England, PRECIS (Preserved Context Index System) was used for subject indexing books in the British National Bibliography. Adopted in some Commonwealth libraries.There are a variety of sets of terms out there to use. The sets you are most likely to encounter in academic, public, or school libraries are: LCSH (what we will use in this class) Subject Headings for Children's Literature (used in conjunction with LCSH) Sears List of Subject Headings (orig. called Subject Headings for Small Libraries by Minnie Earl Sears, 1923) MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) In England, PRECIS (Preserved Context Index System) was used for subject indexing books in the British National Bibliography. Adopted in some Commonwealth libraries.

8. Controlled vocabulary The list of authorized headings is referred to as a controlled vocabulary. In subject cataloging we don't make up terms for each item we're cataloging - we select terms from a list of authorized subject headings that best describe what the book is about. In an online catalog we create a link between the bibliographic record?the record for the book?and the authority record for an authorized term. The list of authorized headings is referred to as a controlled vocabulary. In subject cataloging we don't make up terms for each item we're cataloging - we select terms from a list of authorized subject headings that best describe what the book is about. In an online catalog we create a link between the bibliographic record?the record for the book?and the authority record for an authorized term.

9. Problem: Ambiguity One of the reasons we use a controlled vocabulary is to deal with the problem of ambiguity. What are the meanings for the word "fault?" geologic faults blame electrical faults faults in tennis If we used the term for all three meanings, when the user searched for items about geologic faults she would also get a bunch of non-relevant items about establishing blame or electrical short-outs. One of the reasons we use a controlled vocabulary is to deal with the problem of ambiguity. What are the meanings for the word "fault?" geologic faults blame electrical faults faults in tennis If we used the term for all three meanings, when the user searched for items about geologic faults she would also get a bunch of non-relevant items about establishing blame or electrical short-outs.

10. Specify single meaning per term In order to reduce ambiguity we select one meaning for the term. That meaning will be specified either through a parenthetical gloss, as is the case here, or through a scope note that describes how a term is to be used. In order to reduce ambiguity we select one meaning for the term. That meaning will be specified either through a parenthetical gloss, as is the case here, or through a scope note that describes how a term is to be used.

11. Problem: Synonyms Another problem is that of synonyms--many terms being used to denote the same concept. Authors will use the terms UFOs, flying saucers, alien spacecraft, and unidentified flying objects. However, we don't want our users to have to search on all the possible terms to find everything related to that particular topic. Research tells us that a user who finds one item will think that's all we have; the user won't think to search on all the possible synonyms. Another problem is that of synonyms--many terms being used to denote the same concept. Authors will use the terms UFOs, flying saucers, alien spacecraft, and unidentified flying objects. However, we don't want our users to have to search on all the possible terms to find everything related to that particular topic. Research tells us that a user who finds one item will think that's all we have; the user won't think to search on all the possible synonyms.

12. Single authorized term per subject We deal with the problem of synonyms by selecting a single, authorized term to represent a particular concept. Thus, no matter which term the author has used, we would apply the subject heading "Unidentified flying objects" to all works on that subject. The user then must perform only one subject search to find everything in the catalog related to that subject. [click] If the person searches on ?Flying saucers? we point them to the authorized term. We deal with the problem of synonyms by selecting a single, authorized term to represent a particular concept. Thus, no matter which term the author has used, we would apply the subject heading "Unidentified flying objects" to all works on that subject. The user then must perform only one subject search to find everything in the catalog related to that subject. [click] If the person searches on ?Flying saucers? we point them to the authorized term.

13. Controlled vocabulary (1) Restricted to authorized terms Increases precision ? fewer "false drops" Out-performs keyword searches Because we use only authorized terms as subject headings, with a single, well-defined term per subject, searching using controlled vocabulary can be more precise. Searching a controlled vocabulary generally out-performs keyword searches. Because we use only authorized terms as subject headings, with a single, well-defined term per subject, searching using controlled vocabulary can be more precise. Searching a controlled vocabulary generally out-performs keyword searches.

14. Controlled vocabulary (2) Expensive ? requires human knowledge A drawback to controlled vocabulary is that it is expensive. It requires human knowledge in order to select the appropriate terms to apply to the record. A drawback to controlled vocabulary is that it is expensive. It requires human knowledge in order to select the appropriate terms to apply to the record.

15. Controlled vocabulary (3) Implemented in two ways: Pre-coordinate indexing Post-coordinate indexing There are two types of indexing using controlled vocabulary: Pre-coordinate indexing Post-coordinate indexing There are two types of indexing using controlled vocabulary: Pre-coordinate indexing Post-coordinate indexing

16. Pre-coordinate subject heading Examples: Pre-coordinate indexing uses terms that are chosen and coordinated (put together as a string) at the time of indexing. Examples would be: Railroads?Right of way?Massachusetts Children as inventors Pre-coordinate indexing uses terms that are chosen and coordinated (put together as a string) at the time of indexing. Examples would be: Railroads?Right of way?Massachusetts Children as inventors

17. Post-coordinate descriptors Railroads In post-coordinate indexing the indexer applies discrete terms to the record. The searcher then puts these terms together at the time of the search. As an example, a record might have 3 descriptors: railroads, right of way, and Massachusetts. [click] To retrieve items on that specific topic the searcher would type in those three descriptors, joined together with the Boolean AND operator. [click] The system would then create three sets of records containing the three terms and retrieve the intersection of those three sets. [click] To describe children as inventors you would add the two broad descriptors: children ; inventors. [click] Then connect them with AND in order to get works that included both terms in the descriptor field. In post-coordinate indexing the indexer applies discrete terms to the record. The searcher then puts these terms together at the time of the search. As an example, a record might have 3 descriptors: railroads, right of way, and Massachusetts. [click] To retrieve items on that specific topic the searcher would type in those three descriptors, joined together with the Boolean AND operator. [click] The system would then create three sets of records containing the three terms and retrieve the intersection of those three sets. [click] To describe children as inventors you would add the two broad descriptors: children ; inventors. [click] Then connect them with AND in order to get works that included both terms in the descriptor field.

18. Pre-Coordinate Indexing (1) Indexing using terms that are chosen and coordinated at the time of indexing Usually a person trained in indexing assigns the terms Can be one term or a combination of terms but they are pre-determined (i.e., they are ?authority controlled?) As I mentioned before, pre-coordinate indexing uses terms that are chosen and coordinated at the time of indexing. The indexer pulls the elements together into a single subject heading. This requires persons who are trained not only in finding the constituent elements but in putting them together according the the rules for that controlled vocabulary. The Library of Congress Subject Headings constitute a pre-coordinate indexing system. We select terms either already built for us or construct terms from elements listed in: LCSH Free-floating subdivisions Using the rules found in: Subject Cataloging Manual As I mentioned before, pre-coordinate indexing uses terms that are chosen and coordinated at the time of indexing. The indexer pulls the elements together into a single subject heading. This requires persons who are trained not only in finding the constituent elements but in putting them together according the the rules for that controlled vocabulary. The Library of Congress Subject Headings constitute a pre-coordinate indexing system. We select terms either already built for us or construct terms from elements listed in: LCSH Free-floating subdivisions Using the rules found in: Subject Cataloging Manual

19. Pre-Coordinate Indexing (2) Older; associated with books Associated with card catalogs Usually referred to as subject headings Examples: Children as air pilots Humor in education Older; associated with books - LCSH has been around for over a century Associated with card catalogs - now utilized in Online Public Access Catalogs Pre-coordinate index terms are usually referred to as subject headings Examples: Children as air pilots Humor in education You can see from these examples that the meanings are specific and explicit. Older; associated with books - LCSH has been around for over a century Associated with card catalogs - now utilized in Online Public Access Catalogs Pre-coordinate index terms are usually referred to as subject headings Examples: Children as air pilots Humor in education You can see from these examples that the meanings are specific and explicit.

20. Advantages of Pre-Coordinate Indexing (1) Consistency - we all use the same terms to mean the same things More precise - we can obtain things specifically about our topic Consistency - we all use the same terms to mean the same things More precise - we can obtain things specifically about our topic

21. Advantages of Pre-Coordinate Indexing (2) Prevents false drops - because the phrase has been constructed in a manner that has a specific meaning Children as inventors would obtain works dealing with children in the role of inventors rather than inventors creating objects for children Prevents false drops - because the phrase has been constructed in a manner that has a specific meaning Children as inventors would obtain works dealing with children in the role of inventors rather than inventors creating objects for children

22. Disadvantages of Pre-coordinate Indexing (1) Assumes that users know the indexing language--both its vocabulary and syntax. Everyone has to use the same term; if I don't know the predetermined term or if I have a different perception of the same thing then I may not find the item. Assumes that users know the indexing language--both its vocabulary and syntax. Everyone has to use the same term; if I don't know the predetermined term or if I have a different perception of the same thing then I may not find the item. Assumes that users know the indexing language--both its vocabulary and syntax. Everyone has to use the same term; if I don't know the predetermined term or if I have a different perception of the same thing then I may not find the item.

23. Disadvantages of Pre-coordinate Indexing (2) Some systems will not allow user to search on subordinate term Some systems will not allow user to search on subordinate term For example, if you have: Seeds?Cleaning?Equipment and supplies The system may not allow you to search on equipment and supplies and find this subject heading Or it may be difficult to determine how to do a keyword search in the subject heading index. UH Voyager offers only a browse search on the ?basic search? page. To do a keyword search of the subject heading index you must go into the ?guided search? page. Some systems will not allow user to search on subordinate term For example, if you have: Seeds?Cleaning?Equipment and supplies The system may not allow you to search on equipment and supplies and find this subject heading Or it may be difficult to determine how to do a keyword search in the subject heading index. UH Voyager offers only a browse search on the ?basic search? page. To do a keyword search of the subject heading index you must go into the ?guided search? page.

24. Searching for subject heading France?History?Revolution, 1789-1799?Art and the Revolution?Catalogs. Let?s a user wants to find catalogs of works of art about the French Revolution. The actual subject heading is France?History?Revolution, 1789-1799?Art and the Revolution?Catalogs. The user goes to the Library of Congress Website and decides to do a ?basic search.? So the user types in ?art of the French revolution? and selects a subject browse. Let?s a user wants to find catalogs of works of art about the French Revolution. The actual subject heading is France?History?Revolution, 1789-1799?Art and the Revolution?Catalogs. The user goes to the Library of Congress Website and decides to do a ?basic search.? So the user types in ?art of the French revolution? and selects a subject browse.

25. Searching for subject heading France?History?Revolution, 1789-1799?Art and the Revolution?Catalogs. This is what the user will get. [click] Notice that there is nothing between Art of the print and Art of the Soviet Union. This is what the user will get. [click] Notice that there is nothing between Art of the print and Art of the Soviet Union.

26. Searching for subject heading France?History?Revolution, 1789-1799?Art and the Revolution?Catalogs. If we don?t know the LCSH subject heading, we must use the ?Guided Search? option. [click] If we don?t know the LCSH subject heading, we must use the ?Guided Search? option. [click]

27. Searching for subject heading France?History?Revolution, 1789-1799?Art and the Revolution?Catalogs. On the Guided Search page we type in: Revolution France Art Catalogs [click] We select ?all of these? [click] Then we select a subject keyword search [click] Then begin search [click] On the Guided Search page we type in: Revolution France Art Catalogs [click] We select ?all of these? [click] Then we select a subject keyword search [click] Then begin search [click]

28. Searching for subject heading France?History?Revolution, 1789-1799?Art and the Revolution?Catalogs. Now we get a list of items that match our search criteria. [click] Let?s look at one of these. Now we get a list of items that match our search criteria. [click] Let?s look at one of these.

29. Searching for subject heading France?History?Revolution, 1789-1799?Art and the Revolution?Catalogs. Notice that it has our subject heading. From here we can click on our subject heading to get to other works with that heading. Notice that it has our subject heading. From here we can click on our subject heading to get to other works with that heading.

30. Post-Coordinate Indexing (1) Coordination takes place at time of retrieval Example would be ERIC descriptors Newer; associated with documents Coordination takes place at time of retrieval Example would be ERIC descriptors Newer; associated with document retrieval systems [show example of ERIC record] Coordination takes place at time of retrieval Example would be ERIC descriptors Newer; associated with document retrieval systems [show example of ERIC record]

31. Eric descriptors Notice the nature of the descriptors. [click] Gifted Children Measures They?re very broad However, there are lots of them. So to find this article we would search put many of terms together in our search statement. Notice the nature of the descriptors. [click] Gifted Children Measures They?re very broad However, there are lots of them. So to find this article we would search put many of terms together in our search statement.

32. Post-Coordinate Indexing (2) Associated with computers and Boolean logic Usually referred to as descriptors Examples: Children Gifted Foreign countries Associated with computers and Boolean logic Usually referred to as descriptors Examples: Children Gifted Then user would put these terms together in an attempt to find documents related to children as inventors. Demo: Gifted children in China LCSH: Gifted children?China Eric: Gifted AND Children AND ?Foreign countries? (broader, not as precise) Associated with computers and Boolean logic Usually referred to as descriptors Examples: Children Gifted Then user would put these terms together in an attempt to find documents related to children as inventors. Demo: Gifted children in China LCSH: Gifted children?China Eric: Gifted AND Children AND ?Foreign countries? (broader, not as precise)

33. Gifted children in China Let?s do a couple of searches to demonstrate. Let?s say we?re looking for works on gifted children in China. [click] Let?s start by searching our pre-coordinated terms in the Library of Congress. [click] Let?s type gifted children china. [click] Select Subject browse and see what we get. Let?s do a couple of searches to demonstrate. Let?s say we?re looking for works on gifted children in China. [click] Let?s start by searching our pre-coordinated terms in the Library of Congress. [click] Let?s type gifted children china. [click] Select Subject browse and see what we get.

34. Gifted children in China The system displays a listing of subject headings that match our query. [click] The first three are: Gifted children?China Gifted children?China?Anecdotes Gifted children?China?Biography [click] Let?s click on the first one to see what we get. The system displays a listing of subject headings that match our query. [click] The first three are: Gifted children?China Gifted children?China?Anecdotes Gifted children?China?Biography [click] Let?s click on the first one to see what we get.

35. Gifted children in China Two items are retrieved. [click] Let?s click on one of them.Two items are retrieved. [click] Let?s click on one of them.

36. Gifted children in China Now, this is in Chinese so I can?t read it but the subject heading [click] assures me that this work is about gifted children in China. Spot on. Now, this is in Chinese so I can?t read it but the subject heading [click] assures me that this work is about gifted children in China. Spot on.

37. Gifted children in China Let?s search for items on the same topic in Eric. Eric is a post-coordinated system. [click] Let?s type in gifted, children, and china. [click] We AND them together. [click] And we indicate that we want the system to look for our words in the Subject Descriptors field. [click] We tell the system to do a search.Let?s search for items on the same topic in Eric. Eric is a post-coordinated system. [click] Let?s type in gifted, children, and china. [click] We AND them together. [click] And we indicate that we want the system to look for our words in the Subject Descriptors field. [click] We tell the system to do a search.

38. Gifted children in China [click] We get a message that no results were found.[click] We get a message that no results were found.

39. Gifted children in China [click] So we try gifted, children, and foreign countries. [click] Again we select Subject Descriptors for all three.[click] So we try gifted, children, and foreign countries. [click] Again we select Subject Descriptors for all three.

40. Gifted children in China 97 items are retrieved. But we can immediately see that the results are less precise. The second item listed deals with gifted American and German adolescent women. Not what we?re looking for. [click] Let?s click on one that look?s promising. 97 items are retrieved. But we can immediately see that the results are less precise. The second item listed deals with gifted American and German adolescent women. Not what we?re looking for. [click] Let?s click on one that look?s promising.

41. Gifted children in China Here?s our record. [click] Notice the descriptors. Brain? That?s pretty broad. Here?s our record. [click] Notice the descriptors. Brain? That?s pretty broad.

42. Advantages of Post-coordinated Indexing Allowed the freedom to combine authorized terms that are relevant Can do Boolean logic Allowed the freedom to combine authorized terms that are relevant Can do Boolean logic Allowed the freedom to combine authorized terms that are relevant Can do Boolean logic

43. Disadvantage of Post-Coordinated Indexing Lack of precision: Few items really can be described by a single descriptor; most searches involve Boolean logic, truncation, etc. These techniques, while powerful, result in obtaining things we don't want (e.g., children AND inventors will retrieve items about people who invent things for children as well as children as inventors). Lack of precision: Few items really can be described by a single descriptor; most searches involve Boolean logic, truncation, etc. These techniques, while powerful, result in obtaining things we don't want (e.g., children AND inventors will retrieve items about people who invent things for children as well as children as inventors). And, of course, many patrons don't really know how to use Boolean operators--which tend to be counterintuitive. AND doesn't increase the retrieval set, it reduces it. Lack of precision: Few items really can be described by a single descriptor; most searches involve Boolean logic, truncation, etc. These techniques, while powerful, result in obtaining things we don't want (e.g., children AND inventors will retrieve items about people who invent things for children as well as children as inventors). And, of course, many patrons don't really know how to use Boolean operators--which tend to be counterintuitive. AND doesn't increase the retrieval set, it reduces it.

44. In general? Post-coordinated indexing increases recall (retrieves more items) but decreases precision. If both the indexer and the searcher know the indexing language, and both do their jobs well, then pre-coordinate indexing will do as well as or better than post-coordinate indexing. Post-coordinated indexing increases recall (retrieves more items) but decreases precision. If both the indexer and the searcher know the indexing language, and both do their jobs well, then pre-coordinate indexing will do as well as or better than post-coordinate indexing. Post-coordinated indexing increases recall (retrieves more items) but decreases precision. If both the indexer and the searcher know the indexing language, and both do their jobs well, then pre-coordinate indexing will do as well as or better than post-coordinate indexing.

45. Cutter's Rules for a Dictionary Catalog (1) The reader as focus: Use terms that the user uses In the cataloging world, one of the figures that stands out in our history is Charles Ammi Cutter. Cutter wrote a work that is still referenced when we talk about what a catalog should do. First published as Rules for a Printed Dictionary Catalogue in 1876, the fourth edition coming out in 1904, this work laid out some of the basic principles we adhere to today. The reader as focus: Use terms that the user uses. Thus, in general, you'll see the common name for a species instead of the scientific name. Housefly not Musca domestica In the cataloging world, one of the figures that stands out in our history is Charles Ammi Cutter. Cutter wrote a work that is still referenced when we talk about what a catalog should do. First published as Rules for a Printed Dictionary Catalogue in 1876, the fourth edition coming out in 1904, this work laid out some of the basic principles we adhere to today. The reader as focus: Use terms that the user uses. Thus, in general, you'll see the common name for a species instead of the scientific name. Housefly not Musca domestica

46. Cutter's Rules for a Dictionary Catalog (2) Unity Objective is to unite all the books about a specific subject under one heading. Even if the various authors have used varying terminology, we want the catalog user to be able to search under a single subject heading and retrieve all the materials on that subject.Unity Objective is to unite all the books about a specific subject under one heading. Even if the various authors have used varying terminology, we want the catalog user to be able to search under a single subject heading and retrieve all the materials on that subject.

47. Cutter's Rules for a Dictionary Catalog (3) Usage Common usage (determined by literary mandate) Go with the most commonly used term for the subject. This is determined by literary mandate. This can sometimes be a problem. [click] What happened here in Hawai`i in 1893? [click] This is the old LC subject heading for that event. Old: Hawaii?History?Revolution of 1893 Ruth Horie & the Library of Congress [click] This is the new heading: New: Hawaii?History?Overthrow of the Monarchy, 1893 Go with the most commonly used term for the subject. This is determined by literary mandate. This can sometimes be a problem. [click] What happened here in Hawai`i in 1893? [click] This is the old LC subject heading for that event. Old: Hawaii?History?Revolution of 1893 Ruth Horie & the Library of Congress [click] This is the new heading: New: Hawaii?History?Overthrow of the Monarchy, 1893

48. Cutter's Rules for a Dictionary Catalog (4) Specificity The terms should be as specific as possible (e.g. Calico cats) In applying headings, rather than using broader subject heading use 2 specific headings if apply Rule of 3: If more than 3 related subject headings use the broader term (e.g., 4 dog breeds) Specificity The terms should be as specific as possible: The headings should be as specific as the topic it is intended to cover. The heading should not be broader than the topic. (Lois Mai Chan) If the book is about calico cats, use the subject heading calico cats, not cat breeds, or cats, or domestic animals. In applying headings, rather than using broader subject heading use 2 specific headings if apply Goldfish and Guppies (not Aquarium fishes) Rule of 3: If more than 3 related subject headings use the broader term (e.g., 4 dog breeds) Poodles, Golden retrievers, Welsh corgies, and collies Use dog breedsSpecificity The terms should be as specific as possible: The headings should be as specific as the topic it is intended to cover. The heading should not be broader than the topic. (Lois Mai Chan) If the book is about calico cats, use the subject heading calico cats, not cat breeds, or cats, or domestic animals. In applying headings, rather than using broader subject heading use 2 specific headings if apply Goldfish and Guppies (not Aquarium fishes) Rule of 3: If more than 3 related subject headings use the broader term (e.g., 4 dog breeds) Poodles, Golden retrievers, Welsh corgies, and collies Use dog breeds

49. Library of Congress Subject Headings Established ~1898* Adopted by many libraries around the world Now published annually Now five volumes Referred to as LCSH or ?The Big Red Books? Subject authority records available online LCSH is an official list of Library of Congress Subject Headings that have been established over the years since 1898. (Actually LC used the ALA list of headings at first, then started added its own terms to that list.) It has been adopted by many libraries, including many that do not use the LC classification schemes. You can use the Dewey Decimal classification scheme to create call numbers but LCSH to provide subject access. The early editions were published every five years or so. Now they are published annually. We are also up to five volumes. In the vernacular they're referred to as either LCSH or "The Big Red Books" (for obvious reasons). You can also access the LCSH authority records online at the Library of Congress Web site, although the syndetic structure is more readily visible in the print edition. LCSH is an official list of Library of Congress Subject Headings that have been established over the years since 1898. (Actually LC used the ALA list of headings at first, then started added its own terms to that list.) It has been adopted by many libraries, including many that do not use the LC classification schemes. You can use the Dewey Decimal classification scheme to create call numbers but LCSH to provide subject access. The early editions were published every five years or so. Now they are published annually. We are also up to five volumes. In the vernacular they're referred to as either LCSH or "The Big Red Books" (for obvious reasons). You can also access the LCSH authority records online at the Library of Congress Web site, although the syndetic structure is more readily visible in the print edition.

50. Types of LCSH headings Single nouns Two word headings Adjectival headings Conjunctive headings Prepositional headings Glossed headings Proper nouns LCSH headings are varied in terms of number of constituent words and type. We'll see examples of each of these types of headings. LCSH headings are varied in terms of number of constituent words and type. We'll see examples of each of these types of headings.

51. Authorized terms Authorized terms are in BOLD print This is really important. Authorized terms are in BOLD print. If a term is not in BOLD print you cannot use it. LCSH has a lot of pointers from unauthorized to authorized terms. You must follow the pointers until you reach the BOLDFACE, authorized term.This is really important. Authorized terms are in BOLD print. If a term is not in BOLD print you cannot use it. LCSH has a lot of pointers from unauthorized to authorized terms. You must follow the pointers until you reach the BOLDFACE, authorized term.

52. Authorized terms in bold Aztec dance Aztec drama USE Nahuatl drama Aztec Eagle, Mexican order of the USE Orden Mexicana del Aguila Azteca Aztec ethics [Open volume 1 to page with Aztec dance] Note that The terms Aztec dance and Aztec ethics are bold-faced. These are authorized terms. You can use them as your subject headings. The terms in-between are USE references. They are not authorized terms. Rather they point you to authorized terms. However, you would not take the terms from this page. Rather, you would find the bold-faced authorized term elsewhere in LCSH before using it as your heading. The reason is that there may be a scope note that tells you how (or how not) to use the term, or more specific terms that be might more appropriate.[Open volume 1 to page with Aztec dance] Note that The terms Aztec dance and Aztec ethics are bold-faced. These are authorized terms. You can use them as your subject headings. The terms in-between are USE references. They are not authorized terms. Rather they point you to authorized terms. However, you would not take the terms from this page. Rather, you would find the bold-faced authorized term elsewhere in LCSH before using it as your heading. The reason is that there may be a scope note that tells you how (or how not) to use the term, or more specific terms that be might more appropriate.

53. Headings ? Nouns Concepts ? usually singular Love Viscosity Bereavement Objects ? usually plural Birds Bookmobiles LCSH headings can be simple nouns. In older headings abstract concepts were generally represented using the singular form; objects were usually plural, but that distinction doesn't really hold with newer headings. Subject headings are not established with an article in the initial position.LCSH headings can be simple nouns. In older headings abstract concepts were generally represented using the singular form; objects were usually plural, but that distinction doesn't really hold with newer headings. Subject headings are not established with an article in the initial position.

54. Korean-Japanese dictionary Why is it important to note that sometimes the heading is plural rather than singular? This is a record for a Korean-Japanese dictionary. Is the English word ?dictionary? found anywhere in this record? Let?s enlarge the title and subject heading fields. Why is it important to note that sometimes the heading is plural rather than singular? This is a record for a Korean-Japanese dictionary. Is the English word ?dictionary? found anywhere in this record? Let?s enlarge the title and subject heading fields.

55. Korean-Japanese dictionary The title is not in English, so it doesn?t contain the English word ?dictionary.? And the subject headings both contain the word ?dictionaries? not ?dictionary.? So if you did a keyword search on ?Korean and Japanese and dictionary? this record would not be retrieved. The title is not in English, so it doesn?t contain the English word ?dictionary.? And the subject headings both contain the word ?dictionaries? not ?dictionary.? So if you did a keyword search on ?Korean and Japanese and dictionary? this record would not be retrieved.

56. Headings ? Nouns (cont'd) Exceptions to the singular/plural generalization Bibliography Movement toward singular nouns Authorized terms in BOLD print Exceptions to the singular/plural generalization Bibliography Movement toward singular nouns Authorized terms in BOLD printExceptions to the singular/plural generalization Bibliography Movement toward singular nouns Authorized terms in BOLD print

57. New terms Cyberspace (May Subd Geog) BT Space and time RT Computers Telematics ? Religious aspects ? ? Buddhism, [Christianity, etc.] Cyberterrorism (May Subd Geog) Here are entered works on attacks or threats of attack against any portion of an information infrastructure. Terms continue to be added to LCSH. Here are a couple of examples of recently created headings. In 1898 there was no cyberterrorism. It often takes awhile for a heading to be established for a new concept. As mentioned previously, LCSH terms are established by literary mandate. Sometimes it takes awhile for a term to become established in the literature for an emerging concept. Note: when you see [Christianity, etc.] it means you can subsitute the name of any religion. Cyberspace?Religious aspects?Hinduism. Terms continue to be added to LCSH. Here are a couple of examples of recently created headings. In 1898 there was no cyberterrorism. It often takes awhile for a heading to be established for a new concept. As mentioned previously, LCSH terms are established by literary mandate. Sometimes it takes awhile for a term to become established in the literature for an emerging concept. Note: when you see [Christianity, etc.] it means you can subsitute the name of any religion. Cyberspace?Religious aspects?Hinduism.

58. Library of Congress. Subject Authority Cooperative Program Libraries can propose new subject headings to the Library of Congress through the Subject Authority Cooperative Program. There is an online form available at the Library of Congress Web site. The library would give the source where the term was found. "It is seldom acceptable to cite only the work cataloged as authority for a new concept, except in the case of certain named entities such as obscure archaeological sites, brand name products, computer languages, etc. Although the concept may have been found only in the work being cataloged, other sources appropriate to the subject area in question should be cited to demonstrate that the concept was properly investigated." The Subject Authority Cooperative Program (SACO) was established to provide a means for libraries to submit subject headings and classification numbers to the Library of Congress via the Program for Cooperative Cataloging (PCC). Libraries can propose new subject headings to the Library of Congress through the Subject Authority Cooperative Program. There is an online form available at the Library of Congress Web site. The library would give the source where the term was found. "It is seldom acceptable to cite only the work cataloged as authority for a new concept, except in the case of certain named entities such as obscure archaeological sites, brand name products, computer languages, etc. Although the concept may have been found only in the work being cataloged, other sources appropriate to the subject area in question should be cited to demonstrate that the concept was properly investigated." The Subject Authority Cooperative Program (SACO) was established to provide a means for libraries to submit subject headings and classification numbers to the Library of Congress via the Program for Cooperative Cataloging (PCC).

59. Two word headings Adjective & noun Normal word order (current policy) Chariot racing Inverted form ? used to bring noun into initial position Charities, Medical There are also two-word headings, often a modifier followed by a noun or as an inverted heading: noun, adjective. The latter are used to bring together a number of related headings. Not used as often because users tend not to search this way. There are also two-word headings, often a modifier followed by a noun or as an inverted heading: noun, adjective. The latter are used to bring together a number of related headings. Not used as often because users tend not to search this way.

60. Inverted heading Bull Run, 1st Battle of, Va., 1861 Here is an example of an inverted heading that would bring together materials related to a particular place. If the heading were not inverted all the battles throughout history and around the world would file together. Here is an example of an inverted heading that would bring together materials related to a particular place. If the heading were not inverted all the battles throughout history and around the world would file together.

61. Adjectival headings (1) Common adjective Dental records Ethnic, national, or geographic adjective African American librarians Participial (verb form used as adjective) modifiers Applied anthropology There are also a variety of adjectival headings. The adjective can be a common adjective such as dental or it can refer to an ethnic group, a nation, or some other place. Glacial climates. Arts, Italian Italian American art There are also a variety of adjectival headings. The adjective can be a common adjective such as dental or it can refer to an ethnic group, a nation, or some other place. Glacial climates. Arts, Italian Italian American art

62. Adjectival headings (2) Common noun used as a modifier Household pests Proper noun used as modifier Disney characters You?ll also see a common noun used as a modifier, as in ?Household pets? or a proper noun used as a modifer, as in ?Disney characters.? You?ll also see a common noun used as a modifier, as in ?Household pets? or a proper noun used as a modifer, as in ?Disney characters.?

63. Conjunctive phrase headings (1) Two or more nouns connected by and or ending with etc. Established to describe a relationship Sometimes you?ll a heading that consists of two or more nouns connected by ?and? Sometimes you?ll a heading that consists of two or more nouns connected by ?and?

64. Conjunctive phrase headings (2) May include similar elements Wit and humor May be opposites Right and wrong Sometimes these headings have two closely related terms like ?wit and humor.? Sometimes they consists of opposites like ?right and wrong.? Sometimes these headings have two closely related terms like ?wit and humor.? Sometimes they consists of opposites like ?right and wrong.?

65. Prepositional phrase headings Express relationships Art in education Inverted (no longer added) Plants, Effect of alcohol on (New term: Plants?Effect of alcohol on) Prepositional phrase headings are used to express precise relationships. Art in education. Children in art. Prepositional phrase headings are used to express precise relationships. Art in education. Children in art.

66. Prepositional phrase heading examples against Offenses against property as Alfalfa as feed for Sports for children of Illustration of books to Ceramic to metal bonding You can see that using a prepositional phrase in a heading tends to limit that heading to a single meaning. You can see that using a prepositional phrase in a heading tends to limit that heading to a single meaning.

67. Glossed headings Also called parenthetical qualifiers Used to reduce ambiguity, clarify identical terms Annuals (plants) Bear (Fictitious character : Henson) COGNAC (Computer) UF Combined geometric-network analog computer (Computer) We saw earlier that one of the reasons to have a controlled vocabulary is to restrict a term to a single meaning, thereby increasing the precision of our searches. One of the ways we do that is to add a parenthetical gloss. Lots of things occur annually, but our subject heading ?annuals? refers to plants. We saw earlier that one of the reasons to have a controlled vocabulary is to restrict a term to a single meaning, thereby increasing the precision of our searches. One of the ways we do that is to add a parenthetical gloss. Lots of things occur annually, but our subject heading ?annuals? refers to plants.

68. Headings ? Proper nouns Any proper name can be used as a subject heading Not all will appear in LCSH Correct form in LC's Name Authority File (NAF) Name established in accordance with LC's interpretation of AACR2R Washington, George, 1732-1799 Gandhi family Not all authorized subject headings are listed in LCSH. Any proper name can be used as a subject heading. In many cases a name in the name authority file will not be re-listed in LCSH. You can imagine how much larger LCSH would be if it included every person who has been the subject of a book. However, you will find the person in the Name Authority File. The name of any person can be used as a subject heading, even if it is not in either LCSH or the NAF. You simply record the person?s name in the manner prescribed by AACR2R. [G.W. is in online subject authority file. Abraham Lincoln is. Monica Lewinsky is.] Not all authorized subject headings are listed in LCSH. Any proper name can be used as a subject heading. In many cases a name in the name authority file will not be re-listed in LCSH. You can imagine how much larger LCSH would be if it included every person who has been the subject of a book. However, you will find the person in the Name Authority File. The name of any person can be used as a subject heading, even if it is not in either LCSH or the NAF. You simply record the person?s name in the manner prescribed by AACR2R. [G.W. is in online subject authority file. Abraham Lincoln is. Monica Lewinsky is.]

69. Components of entry Heading Subdivision for heading Syndetic information Class numbers Scope notes A listing for a term can actually be fairly extensive, with a number of different elements. We?ll discuss each one of these individually. First is the heading itself, recorded flush left in the column. Following the main term there may be subdivisions that have already been established for the heading. There may be syndetic information?information linking this term to other terms in LCSH. In order to assist in finding an appropriate LC classification, there may be suggested class numbers. And there may be a scope note to tell us how a term is to be used. Let?s look at some examples. A listing for a term can actually be fairly extensive, with a number of different elements. We?ll discuss each one of these individually. First is the heading itself, recorded flush left in the column. Following the main term there may be subdivisions that have already been established for the heading. There may be syndetic information?information linking this term to other terms in LCSH. In order to assist in finding an appropriate LC classification, there may be suggested class numbers. And there may be a scope note to tell us how a term is to be used. Let?s look at some examples.

70. Main terms First of all, there is the heading itself?the main term. Here the terms ?Peabody picture vocabulary test? and ?Peace? are both authorized terms. Note that they are flush-left in the column and bold-face. First of all, there is the heading itself?the main term. Here the terms ?Peabody picture vocabulary test? and ?Peace? are both authorized terms. Note that they are flush-left in the column and bold-face.

71. Use references You will also encounter USE references. These point you to an authorized heading. For example, if you look under ?Pacifists? for African American pacifists you?ll find a USE reference that points you to the correct heading. Again, never stop here. There may be a scope note under the African American pacifists that indicates the term is not right for the book you are cataloging. Or there may be a more specific heading or a subdivision that might be appropriate. For example, the heading African American pacifist?History might be the term that is appropriate for the work in hand. You will also encounter USE references. These point you to an authorized heading. For example, if you look under ?Pacifists? for African American pacifists you?ll find a USE reference that points you to the correct heading. Again, never stop here. There may be a scope note under the African American pacifists that indicates the term is not right for the book you are cataloging. Or there may be a more specific heading or a subdivision that might be appropriate. For example, the heading African American pacifist?History might be the term that is appropriate for the work in hand.

72. Use-for references Use-for references serve two functions. First, they help to identify the concepts for which a particular term is used. For example, the subject heading Unidentified flying objects is the authorized term for flying saucers, UFO phenomena, etc. The Use-for references also indicate references you would probably want to include in your catalog. If a user looks under Saucers, flying in the card catalog he or she should find a card that reads ?See unidentified flying objects.? This is handled by the subject authority record in an online catalog. Use-for references serve two functions. First, they help to identify the concepts for which a particular term is used. For example, the subject heading Unidentified flying objects is the authorized term for flying saucers, UFO phenomena, etc. The Use-for references also indicate references you would probably want to include in your catalog. If a user looks under Saucers, flying in the card catalog he or she should find a card that reads ?See unidentified flying objects.? This is handled by the subject authority record in an online catalog.

73. MARC authority record for Unidentified flying objects This is part of a MARC authority record for Unidentified flying objects. You?re not going to have to create authority records for subject headings. In fact, you?re not going to use MARC at all on the quiz in this section. But I thought you should see what such a record looks like. [Do a subject search in LoC for ?flying saucers? in the authority file. Click on ?more info?] This is part of a MARC authority record for Unidentified flying objects. You?re not going to have to create authority records for subject headings. In fact, you?re not going to use MARC at all on the quiz in this section. But I thought you should see what such a record looks like. [Do a subject search in LoC for ?flying saucers? in the authority file. Click on ?more info?]

74. USE and UF references Use and use-for references are reciprocal. For example, the authorized term Ahimsa as a use-for reference (see-from) for non-harming. If you look under non-harming you find a use reference pointing you to the authorize term, Ahimsa. Use and use-for references are reciprocal. For example, the authorized term Ahimsa as a use-for reference (see-from) for non-harming. If you look under non-harming you find a use reference pointing you to the authorize term, Ahimsa.

75. NT - Narrower terms This is where we start seeing syndetic structure. LCSH doesn?t just have terms. It also gives pointers to narrower, broader, or related terms. This allows the cataloger and the user to find the best match between need and term. NT stands for narrower term. For example, under cereal products we find the narrower terms ?alimentary paste products,? ?cereal-soy blends,? and so forth. Again, you want to use the most precise terminology possible so that your user can hone in on exactly the resource needed to fulfill their information need. We wouldn?t catalog from here, of course. If cereal-soy blends is more appropriate we would look further down in the volume until we found that subject heading listed in bold. There might be an even more specific term that would be appropriate. [Search LoC for cereal products. Click on ?more info.?] This is where we start seeing syndetic structure. LCSH doesn?t just have terms. It also gives pointers to narrower, broader, or related terms. This allows the cataloger and the user to find the best match between need and term. NT stands for narrower term. For example, under cereal products we find the narrower terms ?alimentary paste products,? ?cereal-soy blends,? and so forth. Again, you want to use the most precise terminology possible so that your user can hone in on exactly the resource needed to fulfill their information need. We wouldn?t catalog from here, of course. If cereal-soy blends is more appropriate we would look further down in the volume until we found that subject heading listed in bold. There might be an even more specific term that would be appropriate. [Search LoC for cereal products. Click on ?more info.?]

76. Narrower and broader terms Narrower and broader terms are also reciprocal. Under ?fairies? we see ?elves? as a narrower term. So under ?elves? we see ?fairies? as a broader term. Narrower and broader terms are also reciprocal. Under ?fairies? we see ?elves? as a narrower term. So under ?elves? we see ?fairies? as a broader term.

77. RT - Related terms Related terms are terms that are related to the main term but not hierarchically?one is not a subset of the other. Here term ?Stars? has the related term ?Circumstellar matter.? SA ? See also LCSH doesn?t list all star here as NTs?probably decided there are too many of them? Related terms are terms that are related to the main term but not hierarchically?one is not a subset of the other. Here term ?Stars? has the related term ?Circumstellar matter.? SA ? See also LCSH doesn?t list all star here as NTs?probably decided there are too many of them?

78. Related terms - reciprocal BT RT RT TERM RT RT NT BT RT RT TERM RT RT NT

79. Syndetic structure Now the syndetic structure should be becoming clear. The syndetic structure shows the relationships between the terms and thus allows the user to navigate through the terms until he or she finds the most appropriate term for what he or she is looking for. Now the syndetic structure should be becoming clear. The syndetic structure shows the relationships between the terms and thus allows the user to navigate through the terms until he or she finds the most appropriate term for what he or she is looking for.

80. Topical subdivisions Many headings have established subdivisions. These are used to add specificity. Subdivisions are indented. The em dash stands for the main entry. The subdivisions here are topical subdivisions. Meaning they are topics within the main topic. The two subdivisions shown indicate a particular styles of Decoration and ornament. The boxes at the bottom show how you would record the headings on a catalog card. It is also the way you will record the headings on your quiz. You will not need to use MARC. Many headings have established subdivisions. These are used to add specificity. Subdivisions are indented. The em dash stands for the main entry. The subdivisions here are topical subdivisions. Meaning they are topics within the main topic. The two subdivisions shown indicate a particular styles of Decoration and ornament. The boxes at the bottom show how you would record the headings on a catalog card. It is also the way you will record the headings on your quiz. You will not need to use MARC.

81. Period subdivisions (1) We can also have period subdivisions. Under the heading for the history of church and state in Germany we have the subdivisions 19th century, the period 1933-1945, and from 1945 onward. These are period subdivisions specifically formulated for this heading. From your knowledge of European history you can see why these periods would be meaningful. We can also have period subdivisions. Under the heading for the history of church and state in Germany we have the subdivisions 19th century, the period 1933-1945, and from 1945 onward. These are period subdivisions specifically formulated for this heading. From your knowledge of European history you can see why these periods would be meaningful.

82. Period subdivisions (2) The box at the bottom indicates how the heading would be written on a catalog card and thus on your quiz. First the main heading (Church and state), followed by the first subdivision (German), followed by a further subdivision (History), followed by the period subdivision (1945-). The box at the bottom indicates how the heading would be written on a catalog card and thus on your quiz. First the main heading (Church and state), followed by the first subdivision (German), followed by a further subdivision (History), followed by the period subdivision (1945-).

83. Geographic subdivisions (1) Geographic subdivisions limit the topic to a particular region. This doesn?t mean that the book was published in Africa. It means that the book is about musical instruments in or of Africa. Geographic subdivisions limit the topic to a particular region. This doesn?t mean that the book was published in Africa. It means that the book is about musical instruments in or of Africa.

84. Geographic subdivisions (2) In the previous slide we had geographic subdivisions already established in LCSH. In some cases we are given permission to add a geographic subdivision ourselves. We can only add a geographic subdivision when we are told to do so. We?ll talk about the form of such subdivisions next week. Here we are given permission (?May subdivide geographically?) to add a geographic subdivision to the subject heading ?Musical groups.? Thus, if we have a book about musical groups in Italy, we are allowed to add Italy as a geographical subdivision. In the previous slide we had geographic subdivisions already established in LCSH. In some cases we are given permission to add a geographic subdivision ourselves. We can only add a geographic subdivision when we are told to do so. We?ll talk about the form of such subdivisions next week. Here we are given permission (?May subdivide geographically?) to add a geographic subdivision to the subject heading ?Musical groups.? Thus, if we have a book about musical groups in Italy, we are allowed to add Italy as a geographical subdivision.

85. Geographic subdivisions (3) Sometimes within a heading we are limited as to which subdivisions may be geographically subdivided. [click] Notice that the main heading here (Construction industry) may be subdivided geographically. [click] The subdivision ?Finance? may not. [click] But one level down the ?Law and legislation? subdivision may. We add our geographic subdivision at the most specific point where it is permitted. In other words, we add it at the right-hand-most element in the subject heading where it is allowed. The two blue boxes indicate allowable headings. Sometimes within a heading we are limited as to which subdivisions may be geographically subdivided. [click] Notice that the main heading here (Construction industry) may be subdivided geographically. [click] The subdivision ?Finance? may not. [click] But one level down the ?Law and legislation? subdivision may. We add our geographic subdivision at the most specific point where it is permitted. In other words, we add it at the right-hand-most element in the subject heading where it is allowed. The two blue boxes indicate allowable headings.

86. Geographic subdivisions (4) If we have a book about law and legislation concerning the financing of the construction industry in Italy, we geographically subdivide at the most specific element where we are allowed to subdivide geographically. Thus, we geographically subdivide at ?Law and legislation? as it is the most specific point at which we can geographically subdivide. [on board] Construction industry?Finance?Law and legislation If we have a book about law and legislation concerning the financing of the construction industry in Italy, we geographically subdivide at the most specific element where we are allowed to subdivide geographically. Thus, we geographically subdivide at ?Law and legislation? as it is the most specific point at which we can geographically subdivide. [on board] Construction industry?Finance?Law and legislation

87. Building heading with geographic subdivision Building our subject heading with a geographic subdivision involves 3 steps: We select or construct the heading without any geographic subdivision. We determine the most specific point in our heading where the heading can be subdivided. We add our geographic subdivision following that point.Building our subject heading with a geographic subdivision involves 3 steps: We select or construct the heading without any geographic subdivision. We determine the most specific point in our heading where the heading can be subdivided. We add our geographic subdivision following that point.

88. Scope notes A scope note gives additional information about the subject heading. How it is used or, in some cases, how it may not be used. A scope note gives additional information about the subject heading. How it is used or, in some cases, how it may not be used.

89. Class references LCSH also includes class references for those who are classifying their collection using the Library of Congress Classification system. When you undertake the task of creating an LCC call number in the next section of the course you can use the class references for a subject heading as starting points. LCSH also includes class references for those who are classifying their collection using the Library of Congress Classification system. When you undertake the task of creating an LCC call number in the next section of the course you can use the class references for a subject heading as starting points.

90. Subject headings in the card catalog This is an example of an ?added-entry? card catalog that would be filed under the subject heading. The main entry would be filed under Cole. The red text is the subject heading as it would be represented on the card?main heading followed by an em dash followed by a subdivision. This is an example of an ?added-entry? card catalog that would be filed under the subject heading. The main entry would be filed under Cole. The red text is the subject heading as it would be represented on the card?main heading followed by an em dash followed by a subdivision.

91. Subject headings: MARC format The box at the bottom shows how the same heading would be represented in MARC format. Bahamas is a geographic heading so it is recorded in a 651 field. The first indicator for the 651 field is un defined. The second indicator indicates the authority file from which the heading came. In this case we have a 0 to indicate that this heading came from the Library of Congress Subject Headings. The box at the bottom shows how the same heading would be represented in MARC format. Bahamas is a geographic heading so it is recorded in a 651 field. The first indicator for the 651 field is un defined. The second indicator indicates the authority file from which the heading came. In this case we have a 0 to indicate that this heading came from the Library of Congress Subject Headings.

92. MARC subject access fields In a bibliographic record, these are some of the subject access fields. You will not need to know these for your LCSH quiz. Notice that these are all repeatable. You would have a 6XX field for every subject heading you add. In a bibliographic record, these are some of the subject access fields. You will not need to know these for your LCSH quiz. Notice that these are all repeatable. You would have a 6XX field for every subject heading you add.

93. MARC record with subject headings Here is a MARC record for a book with several subject headings added. The 650 field is a topical heading that has been subdivided geographically. Subfield z is used for the geographical subdivision. And Subfield x (History) is used for a topical subdivision. The 651 field is a geographical heading that has been subdivided topically. Subfield a gives the geographic name. Subfield x is used for the topical subdivisions. Here is a MARC record for a book with several subject headings added. The 650 field is a topical heading that has been subdivided geographically. Subfield z is used for the geographical subdivision. And Subfield x (History) is used for a topical subdivision. The 651 field is a geographical heading that has been subdivided topically. Subfield a gives the geographic name. Subfield x is used for the topical subdivisions.


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