GREATER PALM SPRINGS CRYSTAL METH TASK FORCE. Crystal Meth 101. Orientation and Ground Rules. What is Critical Thinking?. Critical Thinking is the process of suspending one’s own belief system, cultural mores and values in order to examine the culture of another.
Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.
Crystal Meth 101
What is Critical Thinking?
Critical Thinking is the process of suspending one’s own belief system, cultural mores and values in order to examine the culture of another.
Critical Thinking includes the concept of belief system, cultural mores and values in order to examine the culture of another.person as subject, rather than person as object.
1 → 2
pain normal euphoria
1 →→ → 2
3 ← ← ←
pain normal euphoria
1 →→→ 2
3 ← ← ← ← ← ←
pain normal euphoria
1 → → 2
3 ← ← ←
pain normal euphoria
More regular use
Occasional use of alcohol and other drugs
Easy to get high
Alcohol or other drug use with friends
Thinking that “everyone does it”
Feeling pride in being able to “handle it”
Start having blackouts or overdoing it
Use on weeknights begin
Hiding how much you use
Making excuses about chemical use
Planning your day around your chemical use
Beginning to worry about your “stash” or supply
Changes in friends and meeting places
Decreased ability to stop
Unwilling to discuss problem
Family/friends express concern
Developing an “I don’t care” attitude
Loss of usual interests
Difficulty facing the day
Work and financial trouble
Fear and anxiety
Running out of alibis
Admitting complete defeat
ALCOHOLICS ANONYMOUS is a fellowship of men and women who share their experience, strength and hope with each other that they may solve their common problem and help others to recover from alcoholism. The only requirement for membership is a desire to stop drinking. There are no dues or fees for A.A. membership; we are self-supporting through our own contributions. A.A. is not allied with any sect, denomination, politics, organization or institution; does not wish to engage in any controversy; neither endorses nor opposes any causes. Our primary purpose is to stay sober and help other alcoholics to achieve sobriety.
Crystal Meth Anonymous is a fellowship of people for whom crystal meth has become a serious problem. The members of Crystal Meth Anonymous meet regularly, share support and fellowship, and create a safe environment in which to stay clean. The fellowship advocates complete abstinence from crystal meth, alcohol, inhalents…medication taken not as prescribed as well as all other mind altering substances.
ARE YOU A TWEAKER? belief system, cultural mores and values in order to examine the culture of another.
It doesn’t matter what you call it. It doesn’t matter how you did it. It brought us to our knees, because, without exception, that’s what it does.
Is speed a problem in your life? Are you an addict? Only you can answer those questions. For most of us who have admitted defeat, the answer is very clear. Yes, we had a problem with speed, and no, we couldn’t fix the problem by ourselves. We had to admit defeat to win. Speed was our master.
We couldn’t control our drug use. What started out as weekend or occasional use became daily use, and we soon found ourselves beyond human aid. We truly suffered from a lack of power to fix our problem.
Some of used speed as tool to work harder and longer, but we couldn’t keep a job. Others picked at their faces and arms for hours and hours or pulled out their hair. Some of us had uncontrollable sexual desire. Others endlessly tinkered with projects, accomplishing nothing, but found ourselves so busy we couldn’t get to work on time.
We deluded ourselves into thinking that staying up for nights on end was OK, that our tweaking was under control, and that we could quit if we wanted to, or that we couldn’t afford to quit, or that our using didn’t affect our lives.
Maybe we saw a friend go to jail, or lose their apartment, or lose their job, or lose the trust of their family, or die, but our clouded minds wouldn’t admit we were next.
Most of us saw no way out, believing that we would use until the day we died.
Almost universally, if we had an honest moment, we found that our drug usemade seemingly insurmountable problems in our lives.
The only way out was if we had the courage to admit that speed, our one time friend, was killing us.
It doesn’t matter how you got here. The courts sent some of us; others came for family or friends, and some of us came to CMA on our own. The question is if you want help and are willing to go to any lengths to change your life.
Human Immunodeficiency Virus
is the virus that weakens the immune system and can cause AIDS. The virus can be passed from one person to another through blood-to-blood and sexual contact. Pregnant women can pass HIV to their baby during pregnancy or delivery as well as through breast feeding. People with HIV have what is called HIV infection.
Traditionally only AIDS cases have been reported. But recently in California, new cases of HIVinfection are being reported by a unique identifier (no names).
The earliest known case was from a blood sample collected in 1959 from a man in the Republic of Congo (how he became infected is not known). Genetic analysis of this blood sample suggests that HIV-1 may have stemmed from a single virus in the late 1940’s or early 1950’s.
The cause of AIDS is a virus that scientists isolated in 1983. The virus was first named HTLV-III (human T-cell lymphotropic virus-type III. Later it was changed to HIV.
There are two types of HIV. HIV-1 mostly found in the U.S. HIV-2 mostly found in Europe, Asia, Africa and Sub-Saharan countries.
Some scientists believe belief system, cultural mores and values in order to examine the culture of another.HIV spread from monkeys to humans between 1926 – 1946. Recent research indicates HIV most probably first crossed species from chimpanzees to humans as early as 1675 and did not establish itself as a epidemic in Africa until 1930.
Researchers studied 1,213 plasma samples obtained from Africa between 1959 – 1982. The 1959 sample tested positive HIV-1 becoming the oldest confirmed case of HIV. The case of a Manchester sailor who died of AIDS-like illness in 1959 was reported to be the oldest, but it has not been confirmed.
Gay men in the US & Sweden – heterosexuals in Tanzania and Haiti begin showing symptoms of what later be called AIDS.
1984 belief system, cultural mores and values in order to examine the culture of another.
Robert Gallo claims he discovered the virus a year later after the French isolated it. U.S. President Reagan has not mentioned the word AIDS in public. 11,055 cases in the U.S.; 5,620 dead.History
CDC notices an alarming rate of of rare cancer (Kaposi's Sarcoma). First called “gay cancer” soon after rename it GRID (gay related immune deficiency). 1,614 AIDS cases diagnosed in the U.S.; 619 dead
CDC warns blood banks of possible problem with the blood supply. Institut Pasteur in France finds the virus. 4,749 cases of AIDS in the U.S.; 2,122 dead.
FDA approves the first HIV-1 antibody test. The first International Conference on AIDS is held in Atlanta, GA. Nothing from President Reagan yet. 22,996 AIDS cases in the U.S.; 12,592 dead – including: Rock Hudson and Ricky Wilson (B-52’s).
AZT becomes the first drug approved by the FDA. 71,176 AIDS cases diagnosed in the U.S.; 41,027 dead – including: Liberace and Michael Bennett (Chorus Line).
Ronald Reagan apologizes for his neglect of the epidemic while he was president. Magic Johnson tells the world he has HIV. 257,750 AIDS diagnosed in the U.S.; 157,637 dead – including: Keith Haring (artist), Ryan White.
FDA approves the first Protease Inhibitors for HIV treatment. 534,806 AIDS diagnosis, 332,249 dead in the U.S.
For the first time, death from AIDS plummeted more than 40 percent during the first half of 1997. Scientists say the decline can be traced to new drugs. As well the number of new cases of AIDS are decreasing, but about 40,000 new HIV infections occur each year.''
For the first time in more than 17 years, the Bay Area Reporter (A SF Gay weekly) contained no obituaries of AIDS victims.
CDC reports that HIV infection rates rising among Gay and Bisexual men.
When HIV infects the body, it prefers to attack certain cells of our defense system. These cells are called helper T cells. HIV specializes in these cells since these cells have CD4 molecules on the surface to which HIV binds
helper T cell
A person normally has between 600 – 1500 T cells
The virus anchors itself to the CD4 on the surface of the helper T cell causing the viral membrane to fuse with the host cell’s membrane. This is how the virus genetic information gets inside the cell.
The virus’s DNA converts itself into RNA
A copy of the RNA genetic information is added to the bubble . This section of the cell membrane turns inside out and new viruses are released.
The release of new virus particles significantly weakens the host cell which soon dies. That’s how the immune system weakens.
These bodily fluids have been proven to spread HIV:
An HIV infected person receives an AIDS diagnosis after developing one of the CDC-defined opportunistic infections and or a CD4 cell count of below 200.
AIDS cases are reportable to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
1. belief system, cultural mores and values in order to examine the culture of another. Candidiasis of bronchi, trachea, or lungs
2. Candidiasis, esophageal
3. CD4 counts below 200, or a CD4 percentage less than 14
4. Cervical cancer, invasive
5. Coccidiomycosis, disseminated or extrapulmonary (Valley Fever)
6. Cryptococcosis, extrapulmonary
7. Cryptosporidiosis, chronic intestinal (>1 month duration)
8. Cytomegalovirus disease (CMV); other than liver, spleen or nodes
9. Cytomegalovirus retinitis (with loss of vision)
10. HIV encephalopathy
11. Herpes simplex: chronic ulcer(s) (>1 month duration); or bronchitis, pneumonitis, or esophagitis
12. Histoplasmosis, disseminated or extrapulmonary
AIDS Defining Conditions
13.Isosporiasis, chronic intestinal (>1 month duration)
14. Kaposi's Sarcoma (KS)
15. Lymphoma, Burkitt's (or equivalent term)
16. Lymphoma, immunoblastic (or equivalent term)
17. Lymphoma, primary in brain
18. Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC), disseminated or extrapulmonary
19. Mycobacterium tuberculosis, any site (pulmonary or extrapulmonary)
20. Mycobacterium,, disseminated or extrapulmonary
21. Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP)
22. Pneumonia, recurrent
23. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML)
24 Salmonella septicemia, recurrent
25. Toxoplasmosis of brain
26. Wasting syndrome due to HIV
Detects the specific immune response to HIV the body sends out to fight HIV infection (antibodies). Takes 2 weeks to 6 months (window period) to develop enough antibodies for the test to be 99.8 % accurate.
PCR/DNA (Viral Load)
Detects the presence of the HIV-1 or HIV-2 in the body. The window period for this test is 14 days to be 100% accurate.
Cause Chlamydia Trachomatis (Bacteria)
How transmitted Direct contact with infected sexual
fluids during genital, oral or anal sex.
Symptoms Many males and most females have no
symptoms. May have burning on urination, discharge,
abdominal pain, pain during sex, or females may bleed
during or after sex. Symptoms begin 1-3 weeks or
longer after contact
Diagnostic tests Swab of urethra in males or cervix in
females, urine test, or swab of anus or throat
Complications Can cause Pelvic Inflammatory Disease
(PID) in females, which is a serious infection of the
reproductive organs that can lead to sterility. It can also
cause eye infections or pneumonia in infant during
Cause Neisseria Gonorrhea (Bacteria)
How transmitted Direct contact with infected sexual
fluids during genital, oral or anal sex.
Symptoms May have no symptoms - especially
females. May have burning while urinating, and thick
Diagnostic tests Swab of urethra in male and cervix in
female, urine test, and throat swab.
Complications Can cause PID in females, which can
lead to sterility. Can cause heart and brain infection.
Can cause blindness in infants if infected during birth.
Cause Treponema Pallidum (Bacteria)
How transmitted Direct contact with sores of infected
person. Case remains infectious for up to 2 years after
Symptoms A painless open sore (chancre) appears
between 10 days and 3 months after exposure. May
also cause skin rash on hands and feet. All symptoms
go away without treatment.
Diagnostic tests Blood test. Swab of chancre.
Complications Can cause heart, brain, spinal cord,
bone and joint damage. Can cause death if
Cause Herpes Simplex Virus
How transmitted Direct skin-to-skin contact with the
site of infection to the site of contact during genital,
oral or anal sex.
Symptoms Painful sores appear on the genital, rectum,
or other parts of the body. Symptoms usually disappear
causing victims to mistakenly think they are cured.
Repeated outbreaks are common.
Diagnostic tests Swab of the sores or blisters. A blood
test is not a good indicator of infection.
Treatment Antiviral creams or pills. There is no cure.
Complications Can pass to other sites if not careful
with hand washing after touching sores. Infants can be
infected at birth causing serious medical problems
Cause Human Papilloma Virus
How transmitted Direct skin-to-skin contact with an infected person or previously infected person. Warts may show up anywhere from 1 1/2 to 8 months after exposure.
Symptoms Causes a wart usually on genitals. May cause itching or burning. Usually found on the penis, vulva
(vagina), but also may be found on the mouth, throat,
cervix and anus.
Diagnostic tests Direct visual exam. Pap tests in females.
Treatment Warts may be removed with either liquid,
freezing or laser. Surgery may be required if severe.
Cause and Transmission: The virus can be spread by percutaneous routes (e.g. needle sharing, acupuncture, ear piercing, tattooing, transfusions, receiving blood products) and through very close personal contact involving the exchange of blood or secretions (e.g. sex, child birth, breast feeding, anal rimming, etc.). The most common means of transmission of HBV in the U.S. is via the sexual route.
• Anorexia; recovery follows regaining appetite.
• Nausea pain and fullness in the upper right
• Arthritis and rash
• Liver shrinkage
• Severe liver damage and bleeding; can be fatal.
At high risk for HBV infection:
• Intravenous drug users
• Patients undergoing blood transfusions or
• Personnel in contact with blood and blood products
• Individuals with multiple sexual contacts
(heterosexual and homosexual)
• Immunosuppressed individuals
(e.g. people who are HIV +)
• Infants born to mothers with chronic HBV
• Residents and staff members of institutions for the
Cause Phthirus Pubis (Pubic Lice)
How transmitted Close physical contact with an infected person (especially sexual contact) Also possible through sharing bedding, clothes, towels and possibly toilet seat.
Symptoms persistent itch in pubic hair - usually worse at night. May see live crab or brown specks in underwear.
Diagnostic tests Visual examination
Treatment Medicated lotion applied to pubic hair.
Complications Secondary infections from scratching.
- Skin to skin contact with another person infected or colonized with MRSA
- Contact with a surface contaminated with the organism
Crystal methamphetamine goes by lots of different street names:
The 2nd Mrs. Carrington
and lots more.
But whatever it goes by, crystal is a stimulant – an ‘upper.’
Amphetamines were first synthesized in 1887. The related compound, methamphetamine was first synthesized in Japan in 1919.
In the United States, post-war studies of American military prisoners revealed that a notable number of these guys reported abusing amphetamine inhalers. In 1959, the first use in the United States of intravenous injection of the contents of a Benzedrine inhaler was reported; in 1971, the last non-prescription inhaler was removed from the U.S. market pursuant to the passage of the Controlled Substances Act of 1970.
In the United States, there have been three distinct methamphetamine epidemics: one in the 1950s, a second in the late 1960s, and the third and current one that began in the mid-1990s. What makes the current epidemic so concerning is its relationship to the HIV epidemic because men on speed are taking increased risks that they would not ordinarily take.
The most common way to produce meth is a quick cook process that only requires a few hours. The main ingredients are ephedrine and pseudoephedrine. But because our government so tightly controls these substances, they are very hard to get.
The main effects of tightening federal control have been that:While speed can be and is locally made, it’s often produced by large drug cartels in countries where access to ephedrine is legal.
Increased regulation of ephedrine and pseudoephedrine has meant that cheap substitutes or more toxic substances are often used as replacements.
There are a variety of ways to cook speed – and they’ve changed over the years. The biggest reason for the changes is that the government keeps cracking down on access to the raw ingredients and home cooks have to improvise.
Cooking speed is a toxic process, involving dangerous liquids, solids and gases that are pretty gruesome to name. And the mess that’s left over after production is incredibly toxic. Did you know that the number one use of Superfund dollars in California is cleaning up after meth labs? When they go in to clean up, those guys are wearing haz-mat space suits!!Then, there is the important question of what the speed is ‘cut’ with, meaning what other substances have been added to the meth to stretch out how much is produced. These substances can include: talcum powder, salt, sugar, Prozac, protease inhibitors, Ritalin, laxatives and Epsom salts.
There are a few ways to do speed. For the most part, the methods depend on which orifice you put the drug in and whether it’s a solid, liquid or gas when it goes in.Each way of doing the drug involves a different ritual. It also takes a different time to kick in – some methods deliver the drug to your brain faster. Remember, faster isn’t necessarily better – faster can also mean more addictive and it can involve more potential harms.
How it’s done:
Can be taken in pill form by putting it into empty gelatin capsules. Other people mix it into water, juice, soda or add it to coffee to make ‘biker coffee.’Time for high to occur:About 20-30 minutes – slow and ‘gentler’ than other methods.This method involves the fewest risks. However, it’s not without risk, especially if there are contaminants in the speed or if stomach troubles, like ulcers are present.
How it’s done:
This is the most common method of use. The crystals are chopped up into a powder using a razor blade or Exacto-Knife. The powder is inhaled directly into the nasal passages through a straw or rolled up bill. Once inside the nose and sinuses, the drug is absorbed by the blood vessels. Time for high to occur:About 3-5 minutes. Snorting drugs tends to destroy the tissue in the nose. The lining of the nasal passages is fairly delicate and can be injured leading to nose bleeds, sinus trouble, and in some cases permanent damage to the nasal structure. Sharing straws or bills can transmit all types of germs from the common cold and flu to possibly Hepatitis C (and theoretically HIV).
How it’s done:
The drug is heated in a glass pipe until it becomes gaseous (smoke); then, it’s inhaled into the lungs, finally entering the blood stream via the lungs.
Time for high to occur:Time to get off about 7-10 seconds – very quick.Smoke irritates the lungs, which can lead to breathing difficulties and coughing. It’s also most likely carcinogenic. People with asthma, emphysema, and other lung problems are particularly at risk. If you are smoking speed, you are most likely going to consume larger quantities of the drug much faster than if you are snorting or swallowing. Keep in mind, the time to for the high to occur is much quicker and the high is more intense, therefore the tendency to develop addictions to speed using this method is much greater.
How it’s done:
The speed is dissolved in water, then a syringe or too without a needle is used to “bump” this liquid solution of crystal into your ass. The drug is absorbed by the blood vessels in the lining of the rectum.Time for high to occur:3-5 minutes.
For a anal receptive bottom after booty bumping, there will be something else in your rectum besides absorbent blood vessels. Also present will be a somewhat abrasive powder which can increase chances for internal abrasion and condom breakage. If there a condom is not used, the risk for abrasions both in the rectum and the penis increase the chance for exchange of blood. Possible damage to the mucous membranes, burning or tearing of the tissue of the rectum which will put you at high risk of transmitting HIV and other STDs.
How it’s done:
The tip of a short glass stem, or the middle of longer stem, is heated until it’s red-hot. The end of the stem is placed over a bump or line. The heat vaporizes the speed and the vapor is inhaled, usually through the nose.Time for high to occur:Similar to smoking, about 7-10 seconds. As with smoking, the vapor may be carcinogenic and can definitely irritate your lungs. Since you rail through your nose, so there’s also irritation of the nasal passages to consider. The stem will be very very hot, and burns can occur.
How it’s done:
Crystal is injected directly into the veins with a needle and syringe, commonly known as "works". Other known ways of injecting crystal are "muscling" - injection of the drug into muscle and "skin popping"- injecting the drug under the skin. Muscling and skin popping are not recommended because you won’t get high and it’s almost a guarantee for an abscess.Time to get off: About 15-30 seconds.Injecting directly into the veins is the most dangerous of all forms of administration, as this bypasses all the defenses the body has to protect its blood supply. Abscesses – If the skin through which you inject has bacteria on it, you can develop an abscess at the injection site. Sharing works can transmit numerous diseases such as Hep B, Hep C and HIV. If there is a bubble of air in the mixture, it can travel through the veins to the heart and cause the heart to stop. Any contaminants in the crystal will be injected directly into the bloodstream.
· The dose reaches the brain almost immediately, increasing the possibility of overdose.
· Impurities are introduced directly into the bloodstream and can cause infections.
· Repeated injections damage the veins, leading to abscesses.
· Sharing syringes can cause hepatitis and HIV, the virus that can cause AIDS.
· The 'comedown' off speed can make your patron tired, lethargic and depressed. This may tempt users to take more.
· Paranoia. Extended use of speed can cause psychosis. The user may think that everybody is out to get them, or that they are being followed or watched.
· Mixing speed with other drugs, particularly other stimulants, can increase the risk of adverse reactions.
· Speed users are at higher HIV and hepatitis risk through unsafe sex and needle sharing.
· Although rare, speed can cause seizures, heart attacks, strokes, and death from overdose.
Combining other amphetamines – like speed – with protease inhibitors could cause potentially fatal interactions.
We get asked all the time to translate dealer lingo (and seasoned user lingo) into plain English – How much is in a teenager? What’s an 8-ball?
A common reason people bone up on their weights and measures is to make sure their dealer isn’t ripping them off. It’s equally important to always know how much you’re consuming, especially if you’re buying in bulk.Eating a pint of ice cream isn’t the same thing as downing a half gallon.
The most common quantity that speed is sold in is a quarter. Usually a quarter fills up half of a small plastic baggie (1” x 1”) and it weighs a quarter gram – hence the name. A half is just twice the amount of a quarter. People also buy it in grams or in multiple quarters or grams (for instance, three quarters).
To remember what a teenager is, think ‘sweet 16’– because a teenager is 1/16th of an ounce. And the way to remember how much is in an 8-ball is to think 8 cause an 8-ball is 1/8th of an ounce.
Building Blocks of Mood
Natural HighsOur bodies also store these chemicals and can release larger than normal amounts in response to a specific life event (stimulus). For instance, having a hot guy cruise you or finding a 50-dollar bill on the street could be enough of a stimulus for the brain to release a little extra. When this happens, you feel a surge of happiness or pleasure.
Natural Limits on Pleasure
The Rush of Speed
After a few hours at this elevated state, the levels of these feel-good chemicals start to plunge. That’s when people say they’re 'coming down'.There are lots of factors that go into a crash, like lack of sleep, nutrition and exhaustion from a state of heightened awareness and activity. But in terms of brain chemistry, the crash also has to do with how the levels of dopamine and serotonin begin to fall well below normal baseline levels — what goes up must come down.
After the high, the body needs some time to replenish its stores of dopamine and serotonin. Usually, this period lasts 7-to-10 days and for that time period after using, you’ve got lower than normal levels of these vital chemicals; that’s why people often feel drained, life-less or have difficulty concentrating or focusing for days after using speed. Stimulant withdrawal induces depression— it can’t happen any other way.When most people talk about the crash from speed, they usually describe the initial comedown and the first day or two of rebounding. What people don’t usually factor in is the period of time (7 to 10 days) that it takes for the body to return to baseline levels of dopamine and serotonin in the brain. Given this perspective, if a first-time user does a small amount of speed, the high will last for approximately one day and the crash can last for 10 days.
When most people talk about the crash from speed, they usually describe the initial comedown and the first day or two of rebounding. What people don’t usually factor in is the period of time (7 to 10 days) that it takes for the body to return to baseline levels of dopamine and serotonin in the brain. Given this perspective, if a first-time user does a small amount of speed, the high will last for approximately one day and the crash can last for 10 days.
Longer-term UseLooking at the above description, it takes 10 days for this person to return to baseline. Where things get complicated is if they use speed again before the brain gets back to baseline levels of dopamine and serotonin. What happens in this scenario is that the person shoots back up again and can then deplete their back-up supply even more. So, in the lowest part of the crash, they could go even lower and it can take even longer to get back to baseline.One of the big concerns about frequent, repeated use of methamphetamine is that the brain can remain depleted of serotonin and dopamine for long periods of time. This can have lots of effects: people can literally forget what life is like at baseline and just get used to being hung-over all the time. When this happens, people usually lose their toehold on life and begin to see it all in terms of black (the crash) and white (the high).
Let’s say someone uses speed twice per month, spaced two weeks apart. If being high is day one, then the crash begins on day two and lasts until day twelve. Then they get three days at baseline before the whole cycle starts up again. For more frequent users, months or years can go by without ever returning to baseline. And without access to who we are when we’re at baseline, people can get very confused about who they really are— and take their crashing selves to be their real self. Another major concern is that just like Pavlov’s dogs, the brain can learn to only release pleasure chemicals when speed is used. So things that normally get people off just don’t get them off anymore — like seeing a great movie, riding roller coasters or finding the man of their dreams. Pleasure becomes synonymous with speed and everything else, more-or-less, pales in comparison.
Another major concern is that the part of the brain that regulates the release and absorption of these chemicals can get temporarily or permanently damaged. Most heavy users of speed who stop notice that it can take a long time before things return to normal again.
To change the way a person thinks, feels, and sees, crystal meth must first pass through the blood-brain barrier (BBB). When crystal crosses the BBB, several brain chemicals called neurotransmitters are released into the bloodstream.
Neurotransmitters send “emergency alert” messages to the heart, the digestive system, the kidneys, the lungs and the glands that make the body’s hormones.
The job of the nervous system is to carry messages from your brain to the rest of your body. When you use crystal, your nervous system shifts into high gear. The brain floods your body with "danger" messages. Your body responds immediately to what it thinks is a threat. It prepares to fight or run away.
Common body reponses to perceived danger include: belief system, cultural mores and values in order to examine the culture of another.
Concerns of regular, long-term crystal use belief system, cultural mores and values in order to examine the culture of another.
*Stores of neurotransmitters get depleted.
*Paranoia and anxiety become more frequent and last longer.
*Psychosis develops from too much dopamine, norepinephrine and lack of sleep.
*Blocked blood vessels within the brain can lead to increased chances of stroke.
Recent research has shown that long-term meth use destroys nerve cells in the brain that regulate dopamine, muscle movement, memory, and decision-making. This damage can be widespread and permanent.
How does all this work? belief system, cultural mores and values in order to examine the culture of another.
Don't be confused. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is not a concrete roadblock. Actually, the BBB is a sleeve-like filter of tightly packed fat cells. This “sleeve” lines the inside wall of the tiny blood vessels (capillaries) that carry fresh blood to the brain.
What does the BBB do?
Two of its most important functions are (1) to protect the brain from germs; and (2) to act as the gateway to the central nervous system. All PSYCHOACTIVE drugs (those that change the way we think, feel and see) cross the BBB.
HOW DOES CRYSTAL WORK? belief system, cultural mores and values in order to examine the culture of another.
Crystal looks and acts like a neurotransmitter. That's why neurons absorb the drug. When nerve cells soak up crystal, the natural neurotransmitters are pushed out and replaced. When these chemicals get pushed out of the nerve cells, they are released into the bloodstream. Once released, neurotransmitters start “talking” to the rest of the body. We might say that crystal ups the volume of the conversation from a whisper to a scream.
Three neurotransmitters play a big part in how crystal affects the mind and body:
Dopamine gives us a sense of reward and pleasure. It is also associated with body movement. Too little dopamine causes paralysis or Parkinson's-like tremors and rigidity: you get locked in your body. Too much dopamine and a person can become paranoid, hear voices and get twisted thoughts. Sound familiar?
Serotonin is involved in sleep and sensory perception. It plays a role in depression, sex, and the regulating. Serotonin is involved with many emotional disorders like schizophrenia, phobias, super-aggressive state adn obsessive-compulsive behavior. Too much serotonin can make it difficult (or impossible) to have an orgasm.
Norepinephrine increases alertness and concentration. It helps kill pain and regulates blood pressure. Basic instincts like hunger, thirst and sex can be triggered by release of norepinephrine. Too much norepinephrine contribultes to crystal dick.
Teeth and gums need blood to stay healthy. Crystal causes the vessels that supply blood to oral tissues to shrink up.
Reduced blood supply causes tissues to break down.
With repeated shrinking, the blood vessels don't recover and tissues die.
Crystal also causes dry mouth. Saliva neutralizes acids in the mouth. Less saliva means more acid. Acids eat away at the minerals in tooth enamel and cause holes or weak spots that turn into cavities.
ORAL HEALTH TIPS
Brush and floss your teeth on a regular basis.Brushing and flossing get rid of bacteria that feed on sugars in the mouth. When bacteria eat sugars, they secrete acid. More acid means more tooth and gum decay.
Oral sex is more risky when gums or teeth are not healthy. HIV and other micro-organisms from your partner's penis can mix with your blood and cause infection. If you have bad oral health, it's best to use a condom when you give head.
Respiratory System: Lungs
Lungs transfer oxygen from the outside air to the bloodstream. Blood carries oxygen to every cell and tissue in the body. Cells need a constant supply of oxygen and nutrients to make energy.
Crystal relaxes air passages and opens them up. This increases the intake of oxygen so that the body can fight harder or run faster.
*Materials used to cut crystal can block blood vessels in the lungs
*Long term use can permanently reduce the amount of air the lungs can take in
HEART, BLOOD, VEINS and ARTERIES
Arteries pump fresh blood, oxygen, nutrients and drugs out from the heart to the brain and body. After the fresh blood nourishes the muscles and organs of the body, veins collect the "tired" blood and carry it back to the heart.
The liver is the body's largest internal organ. Along with the kidneys, the liver clears the blood of drugs and poisons that might otherwise build up in the body.
The liver breaks crystal down into simpler chemicals so they can be excreted. Each time blood circulates through the liver, it breaks down more of the drug.
Healthy Liver Tip
Injectors who share needles or works can also get HEPATITIS C, a serious and chronic inflammation of the liver. Hepatitis C can cause liver cancer and cirrhosis.
Never share needles, cookers, water or cottons.
*Crystal competes with other drugs to get broken down in the liver.
*The liver cannot break down the overload of toxic substances in the bloodstream. This leads to dangerous drug interactions and stimulant overdose. Overdose can mean sudden and dangerous increase in blood pressure causing a severe lack of oxygen and blood to the brain.
* Body temperature can go up to dangerous levels. Sweating (which cools the body down) sometimes does not happen in stimulant overdose.
* User could see spots (due to pressure on the nerves in the eye) or pass out. Chances of heart attack, stroke, or coma go up.
The kidneys filter the blood and get rid of fluid wastes through urine. Crystal is filtered by, then excreted through the kidneys. Kidneys also balance the acid level in your body's fluids.
*Crystal constricts blood vessels in the kidneys.
*With less blood flow, the kidneys produce less urine. Toxic wastes get recycled back into the bloodstream. When toxic blood reaches the brain, you can get headaches and suffer confusion.
*Urine becomes very concentrated and sits in the bladder. This can result in bladder infections. Kidneys can get inflamed.
THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
The digestive system breaks down nutrients into simpler chemicals. The body uses these chemicals for energy and to build and repair cells and tissues.
Crystal slows down or stops the movement of the digestive tract.This slows the breakdown of food and nutrients. Appetite and thirst decrease.
*Malnutrition, anorexia, weight loss
*Dehydration, dry mouth
CRYSTAL AND SEX
When it comes to sex, crystal is a drug of contradictions. Some men use crystal to boost their sex drive, prolong sex play and delay orgasm. But many men also experience “crystal dick” (can’t keep a hard-on). For guys who do keep hard, the delay of orgasm can last too long and become painful. The sexual effects of crystal are probably related to the way hormones and neurotransmitters – two types of body chemicals – interact with each other.
Generally speaking, sexually charged images, thoughts and places cause the body to produce sex hormones – chemicals that increase sexual arousal and excitement. Crystal, on the other hand, causes the release of neurotransmitters – nervous system chemicals that boost energy and concentration. If a person uses crystal in a sexually charged environment, neurotransmitters combine with sex hormones to boost sexual arousal and performance. But over the course of a high, levels of these chemicals shift and change.
The result is not always ideal.
High levels of certain neurotransmitters actually impede arousal and performance. The result is crystal dick and delayed orgasm.