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Funding issues and debt management. David Miles, with Laurence Mutkin and Rustom Irani. Summary. • Implications of the Budget for Gilt issuance in FY 2007-8 and beyond • The outlook for Gilt market during FY 2007-08 Supply vs demand: issuance; pension funds; Bank of England

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Funding issues and debt management l.jpg

Funding issues and debt management

David Miles, with Laurence Mutkin and Rustom Irani


Summary l.jpg
Summary

•Implications of the Budget for Gilt issuance in FY 2007-8 and beyond

• The outlook for Gilt market during FY 2007-08

  • Supply vs demand: issuance; pension funds; Bank of England

  • Issuance options for the DMO

    • The case for further issuance of very long maturity bonds

    • Alternative funding instruments: longevity bonds?

      • Medium term issues

    • The changing debt structure and the transmission mechanism of monetary policy

    • Tax relief on interest payments


  • Gilt issuance the dmo s illustrative projections based on pre budget report forecasts l.jpg
    Gilt issuance: the DMO’s illustrative projections based on Pre-Budget Report forecasts

    Table 6.3

    £ billion

    2006-07

    2007-08

    2008-09

    2009-10

    2010-11

    2011-12

    Central government net cash requirement

    41.2

    35

    31

    33

    29

    32

    Redemptions

    29.9

    29

    17

    16

    30

    27

    Financing requirement

    71.1

    64

    48

    49

    59

    59

    Other sources of

    financing

    -8.6*

    -2

    -2

    -2

    -2

    -2

    Illustrative gross gilt sales

    62.5

    62

    46

    47

    57

    57

    .

    Note: 2006–07 financing requirement and estimate of gross gilt sales are from the PBR; *includes proceeds from restructuring balance sheet of British Nuclear Fuels (BNFL) and sales of national savings net of the reduction in the stock of Treasury bills; other projections assume national savings and investments run at £2 billion a year and that other factors (for example, changes in the public sector net cash position and changes in the stock of Treasury bills) have zero net impact.

    Sources: Debt Management Office; Morgan Stanley Research


    Outlook for gross gilt issuance l.jpg
    Outlook for gross gilt issuance Pre-Budget Report forecasts

    Table 6.4

    £ billion

    2006-07

    2007-08

    2008-09

    2009-10

    2010-11

    2011-12

    DMO/PBR illustrative gilt sales

    62.5

    62.0

    46.0

    47.0

    57.0

    57.0

    IFS base case

    63.8

    63.9

    49.8

    48.6

    56.3

    56.4

    Morgan Stanley central case

    63.5

    65.0

    49.9

    47.4

    54.1

    51.7

    Morgan Stanley

    pessimistic case

    63.6

    65.0

    54.6

    54.8

    62.7

    59.4

    .

    Notes: The alternative projections in Table 6.4 to the PBR/DMO illustrations are not really forecasts of what gilt sales would be since they are based on an assumption of unchanged spending plans and tax rates.

    Sources: IFS; Morgan Stanley Research; HM Treasury


    Gilt supply l.jpg
    Gilt Supply Pre-Budget Report forecasts

    • Somewhat higher issuance than government predicts is possible: but the level of debt/GDP remains entirely manageable, and consistent with historic norms

    • Higher issuance has not driven gilt yields higher – on the contrary, they remain at historic lows

    • The DMO has skewed issuance to long-maturity conventional and inflation-linked bonds, in response to persistent demand for long-duration nominal and real assets.

    • But long-dated yields remain low in relative and absolute terms


    National debt as a proportion of national income since 1855 l.jpg
    National debt as a proportion of national income since 1855 Pre-Budget Report forecasts

    Figure 6.1

    Notes: Pre-1974 series is gross nominal liabilities of the National Loans Fund (formerly known as the National Debt). 1974 onwards it is the General Government Gross Debt.

    Source: HM Treasury, Office for National Statistics


    Long term real interest rates on uk conventional debt l.jpg
    Long term real interest rates on UK conventional debt Pre-Budget Report forecasts

    Figure 6.4

    Notes: Nominal 2.5% consol rate less long term inflation expectations; 1940-59 is omitted from the figure because rationing during this time period made price data unreliable, leading to a negative real long-term interest rate.

    Source: Morgan Stanley Research. Estimates of real yields are based on the nominal yield on consols net of a measure of expected inflation over the coming 10 years. For a detailed description of the method used to construct the real yields see “Where should long-term interest rates be today? A 300 year view”, David Miles a, Melanie Baker and Vladimir Pillonca, March 2005, Morgan Stanley research.


    Conventional gilt sales according to maturity type l.jpg
    Conventional gilt sales according to maturity type Pre-Budget Report forecasts

    Figure 6.5

    Notes: 5s30s (right axis) is defined as the yield of a typical 30-year government bond less the yield of a typical 5-year government bond. The axis is inverted.

    Source: Debt Management Office.


    Composition of stock of uk government debt l.jpg
    Composition of stock of UK government debt Pre-Budget Report forecasts

    Figure 6.6

    Notes: Measures based on nominal (uplifted) par amounts of outstanding debt at end March..

    Source: Debt Management Office.


    International real yields on inflation proof l.jpg
    International real yields on inflation-proof Pre-Budget Report forecasts

    Figure 6.3

    Source: Bloomberg.


    Sources of demand db pension system l.jpg
    Sources of Demand – DB Pension System Pre-Budget Report forecasts

    • DB pension system size: approx GBP 750 bn

    For Purple Book sample (85% of schemes by value)

    • allocation to bonds: approx 28%

    • Aggregate s 179 deficit: £33.8bn

    • Aggregate sensitivity of scheme funding to 0.01 move in Gilt yields: £1.3bn

    A source of continuing demand for very long duration nominal and real Gilts (and derivatives)


    Sources of demand boe open market operations l.jpg
    Sources of Demand – BoE Open Market Operations Pre-Budget Report forecasts

    • OMO reform: gradual switch from repurchase operations to outright purchases

    • In “ramp up” phase: purchases of £4bn per year for first three years

    • Likely to begin before the end of calendar 2007

    A source of steady demand for nominal Gilts between 5- and 20-years to maturity


    The outlook l.jpg
    The Outlook Pre-Budget Report forecasts

    • Gross gilt issuance in 2007-08 is likely to be similar to that in 2006-07: the outlook for future years is for a substantial reduction, thanks to falling redemptions

    • Expect issuance to continue to follow recent years’ pattern: become skewed to long-dated conventional and inflation-linked Gilts, in response to strong demand

    • Demand for long-dated duration from pension funds will continue

    • Bank of England to become a marginal but consistent buyer across maturities

      So what is an optimal debt issuance strategy?


    Gilt portfolio maturity and duration l.jpg
    Gilt portfolio maturity and duration Pre-Budget Report forecasts

    Figure 6.7

    Source: Debt Management Office


    Average spot yield curves on 18th of january 2007 l.jpg
    Average spot yield curves on 18th of January 2007 Pre-Budget Report forecasts

    Figure 6.8

    Source: Bank of England


    The dmo s modelling results composition of nominal issuance strategies l.jpg

    30-year nominal Pre-Budget Report forecasts

    1-year nominal

    10-year nominal

    5-year nominal

    bond

    bond

    bond

    bond

    The DMO’s modelling results Composition of nominal issuance strategies

    Table 6.7

    Strategy 1

    17.5%

    17.5%

    30.0%

    35.0%

    Strategy 2

    35.0%

    30.0%

    35.0%

    Strategy 3

    50.0%

    50.0%

    Strategy 4

    100.0%

    .

    Debt Management Office


    Simulation results for nominal issuance strategies l.jpg
    Simulation results for nominal issuance strategies Pre-Budget Report forecasts

    Table 6.8

    Strategy 1

    Strategy 2

    Strategy 3

    Strategy 4

    Debt cost/GDP at t=500

    Mean

    1.41

    1.43

    1.41

    1.39

    Standard deviation

    0.20

    0.20

    0.20

    0.19

    95th percentile

    1.75

    1.76

    1.74

    1.72

    Debt cost/GDP over the interval t=400 to t=500

    Mean mean

    1.42

    1.43

    1.41

    1.39

    Mean standard deviation

    0.20

    0.20

    0.20

    0.19

    Mean 95th percentile

    1.73

    1.77

    1.74

    1.71

    Notes: Figures are quarterly, annualised and expressed in percentage points.

    Source: Debt Management Office


    Composition of further issuance strategies l.jpg

    30-year nominal Pre-Budget Report forecasts

    1-year nominal

    10-year nominal

    5-year nominal

    bond

    bond

    bond

    bond

    Composition of further issuance strategies

    Table 6.9

    Strategy 5

    17.5%

    17.5%

    30.0%

    35.0%

    Strategy 6

    35.0%

    30.0%

    35.0%

    Strategy 7

    50.0%

    50.0%

    Strategy 8

    100.0%

    .

    Source: Debt Management Office


    Slide19 l.jpg
    Simulation results for further issuance strategies with shares of inflation-linked bonds (with accrued compensation on principal)

    Table 6.10

    Strategy 5

    Strategy 6

    Strategy 7

    Strategy 8

    Debt cost/GDP at t=500

    Mean

    1.42

    1.42

    1.41

    1.38

    Standard deviation

    0.21

    0.21

    0.21

    0.27

    95th percentile

    1.80

    1.77

    1.79

    1.83

    Debt cost/GDP over the interval t=400 to t=500

    Mean mean

    1.41

    1.42

    1.41

    1.39

    Mean standard deviation

    0.21

    0.21

    0.22

    0.28

    Mean 95th percentile

    1.78

    1.77

    1.78

    1.85

    Notes: Figures are quarterly, annualised and expressed in percentage points.

    Source: Debt Management Office


    What if the dmo just issued long bonds l.jpg
    What if the DMO just issued long bonds? shares of inflation-linked bonds (with accrued compensation on principal)

    • Unless offset by companies and households moving to shorter maturity and duration debt it would continue to lengthen the overall stock of debt.

    • This has potential implications for monetary policy


    Corporate debt as a proportion of domestic production l.jpg
    Corporate debt as a proportion of domestic production shares of inflation-linked bonds (with accrued compensation on principal)

    Figure 6.9

    Source: Office for National Statistics


    Bonds issued as a proportion of non financial institutions debt l.jpg
    Bonds issued as a proportion of non-financial institutions’ debt

    Figure 6.10

    Source: Office for National Statistics


    Breakdown of household debt l.jpg
    Breakdown of household debt institutions’ debt

    Figure 6.11

    Source: Office for National Statistics


    Value of fixed rate mortgages as proportion of all mortgages l.jpg
    Value of fixed institutions’ debt rate mortgages as proportion of all mortgages

    Figure 6.12

    Notes: Includes the stock of both capped and fixed-rate mortgages.

    Source: CACI Mortgage Market Database


    The maturity and duration of debt and monetary policy l.jpg
    The maturity and duration of debt and monetary policy institutions’ debt

    • Relatively more debt is now longer term and with fixed rates. This is likely to have affected the impact of monetary policy.

    • But it is not clear that there been an absolute reduction in the effectiveness of monetary policy.

    • In part this is because the sensitivity of longer-term interest rates to shorter-term rates – or more generally to monetary policy actions (including words - that is Bank of England statements, reports and speeches) - is significant.

    • Even if we ignore this channel it is still the case that the absolute amount of variable rate debt, relative to national income, has almost certainly risen.

    • We conclude that the rising maturity and duration of debt – increasing fixity of interest rates – has not reduced the effectiveness of monetary policy.


    Summary26 l.jpg
    Summary institutions’ debt

    • In recent years the UK government’s cost of borrowing has been falling in both nominal and real terms, even though the amount it has borrowed has been rising and has consistently exceeded its own forecasts.

    In the light of this, we should not expect a big impact on the cost of debt if the government issues a few billion pounds more than its central forecasts.

    • Modelling the impact of random factors on different debt issuance strategies provides strong reasons to favour a strategy involving greater issuance of long-dated conventional and long-dated indexed debt.


    Summary27 l.jpg
    Summary institutions’ debt

    • Despite the potentially large cost that the ultimate holders of longevity risk might need to be compensated with, it is not at all clear that this reflects a market failure. There remains a rather weak case for government action in this area.

      • Removing the ability of non-financial companies to deduct interest payments from the measure of profits on which they pay corporation tax might allow the rate of corporation tax to be cut from 30% to 20% with no net loss of revenue.


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