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Acid. Base. Arrhenius (grade 11). Bronsted. Extending Acid/Base Concepts. 1 a) proton, hydronium, H 3 O + b) all release H + : mono = releases 1 H + , poly = more than 1, di = two, tri = three c) Neutralization. 1d), 2a). Produces H + in solution. Produces OH – in solution.

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Extending acid base concepts l.jpg

Acid

Base

Arrhenius (grade 11)

Bronsted

Extending Acid/Base Concepts

1 a) proton, hydronium, H3O+

b) all release H+: mono = releases 1 H+, poly = more than 1, di = two, tri = three

c) Neutralization

1d), 2a)

Produces H+ in solution

Produces OH– in solution

HCl  H+ + Cl–

NaOH  OH– + Na+

H+ donor

H+ acceptor

HCl+NaOHH2O+NaCl

2 b) i) there is no water/solution, thus aqueous ions do not form (no H+ or OH–)


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+

H

H

-

H

N

+

H

Cl

N

H

H

+

Cl

H

H

Extending Acid/Base Concepts

2b) ii) diagram as on pg. 418

iii) HCl is an acid because it donates H+, NH3 accepts H+ and therefore is the base

(NH4+ and Cl– then form an ionic compound)

3a) Lewis acid: electron pair acceptor

Lewis base: electron pair donor

3b) the Lewis definition is universal because Arrhenius and Bronsted are special cases (as above or in reaction on pg. 428)


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Extending Acid/Base Concepts

4 a) HCN(l) + H2O  CN–(aq) + H3O+(aq)

b) Forward: HCN is acid, H2O is base

4 a) HCN(l) + H2OCN–(aq) + H3O+(aq)

c) Reverse: H3O+ is acid, CN– is base

d) A conjugate acid-base pair are two substances that differ from each other by just one proton (H+)

e) HCN and CN– and H2O and H3O+ are conjugate acid-base pairs

See back of textbook for answers to

PE 25 – 28, and RE 11.77

For more lessons, visit www.chalkbored.com


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