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Enriching Human Development Analysis: Use of Qualitative Data. By Richard Ssewakiryanga Team Leader Uganda Participatory Poverty Assessment Process Ministry of Finance, Planning and Economic Development P.O.Box 8147, Kampala, Uganda Tel: 256 41 236205

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Enriching Human Development Analysis: Use of Qualitative Data

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Enriching Human Development Analysis: Use of Qualitative Data

By Richard Ssewakiryanga

Team Leader

Uganda Participatory Poverty Assessment Process

Ministry of Finance, Planning and Economic Development

P.O.Box 8147, Kampala, Uganda

Tel: 256 41 236205

Email: Richard.Ssewakiryanga@finance.go.ug


Outline

  • What is the role of qualitative data?

  • What approaches are used in qual. data?

  • Comparison of qual. and quant approaches

  • Possible ways of Combining approaches

  • Uganda Lessons on Qualitative data and policy change

HDRO/RBA Regional Technical Workshop on Measuring Human Development

Nairobi – September - 2007


What is the role of qualitative data?

  • Qualitative data are not exclusive domain of qualitative research

  • Qualitative therefore refers to that which may not be rendered into numerical form

  • Quantitative researchers accept that the goal of science is to discover the truths that exist in the world and use scientific method build a more complete understanding of reality

HDRO/RBA Regional Technical Workshop on Measuring Human Development

Nairobi – September - 2007


What is the role of qualitative data?

  • Qualitative researchers recognize that relevant reality as far as human experience is concerned is that which takes place in subjective experience, in a social context, and in historical time

  • Thus, qualitative research is concerned about uncovering knowledge about how people think and feel about the circumstances in which they find themselves WITHOUT making judgments about whether those thoughts and feelings are valid or statistically representative

  • In policy work - Participatory Poverty Assessment (PPAs) have been very instrumental in getting Govts to appreciate the role of qualitative data

HDRO/RBA Regional Technical Workshop on Measuring Human Development

Nairobi – September - 2007


PPA Approaches

  • Bottom-up consultations beginning at the local/community level

  • Reliance on participatory methodologies from the PRA research tradition

  • Emphasis on deepening understanding of poverty and policy

  • Bridging gaps between state and non-state actors

HDRO/RBA Regional Technical Workshop on Measuring Human Development

Nairobi – September - 2007


Comparison of qualitative and quantitative approaches

HDRO/RBA Regional Technical Workshop on Measuring Human Development

Nairobi – September - 2007


Qualitative/PPA

Based on local people’s perceptions and experiences

Subjective (based on people’s views about intangible aspects such as well being/ill being

Quantitative/Survey

Based on household income using consumption expenditure as a proxy

Objective (based on actual counts of a phenomena)

Types of data

HDRO/RBA Regional Technical Workshop on Measuring Human Development

Nairobi – September - 2007


Qualitative/PPA

Purposive – selects sites to capture regional variations

Representative - aims at producing data that captures diversity in poverty trends within the sampled population

Quantitative/Survey

Random – sites selected on the basis of probability

Representative - aims at producing ‘generalisable’ poverty trends in the entire population

Types of sampling

HDRO/RBA Regional Technical Workshop on Measuring Human Development

Nairobi – September - 2007


Qualitative/PPA

Contextual methods – attempts to capture poverty trends within socio-economic and cultural contexts

Time span/intervals – determined by participant using time trend analysis tools

Quantitative/Survey

Non-contextual – designed to collect poverty trends that are untainted by contextual peculiarities

Time span/intervals – determined by researcher and respondents only required to recollect income and consumption data as determined structured in the q’naire

Types of methods

HDRO/RBA Regional Technical Workshop on Measuring Human Development

Nairobi – September - 2007


Qualitative/PPA

Complex criteria is used to determine poverty status

The intensity and extent of shocks is used to determine mobility in well being

Quantitative/Survey

Increase in household consumption means reduction in poverty

Proportion of households below the poverty line is used to determine increases or reduction on poverty

Nature of results

HDRO/RBA Regional Technical Workshop on Measuring Human Development

Nairobi – September - 2007


Qualitative/PPA

Strategic responses and people’s expectations

Can only be interpreted in context (too many variables have to be considered)

Quantitative/Survey

Perverse consumption (e.g alcohol consumption, fuel-wood)

Income considered a proxy for poverty (only one variable is used)

Possible Limitations

HDRO/RBA Regional Technical Workshop on Measuring Human Development

Nairobi – September - 2007


Relationship Btn the 2 Data Sets

Findings are not directly comparable – there is no contradiction btn the two data sets

  • Different dimensions of poverty are used in trend analysis (income vs holistic)

  • Different levels are considered in poverty analysis (individual/household vs community)

  • Different assumptions are used in measuring poverty (researcher's definitions vs people’s)

  • Different methodologies (population samples, reference points, time intervals)

HDRO/RBA Regional Technical Workshop on Measuring Human Development

Nairobi – September - 2007


Possible Ways of Combining

Each data set has limitations but combining is possible in 3 major ways:

  • Integrating methodologies – (use qual or quant to design quant or qual q’naire, survey respondents, sample strata e.t.c)

  • Merging findings (analyzing info from qual or quant to derive one set of recommendations)

  • Enriching qual or quant results (by explaining, confirming verifying and ‘refuting’)

HDRO/RBA Regional Technical Workshop on Measuring Human Development

Nairobi – September - 2007


Possibilities in the context of HDRs

  • Ensure systematic use of qual data thru joint data collection, analysis and reporting in all HDRs

    • Don’t use qual data only when you have bad or no statistics!

  • Support professional collection of qual data

  • Invest in combined methodology initiatives/networks at the global, regional and national levels

  • Create ‘qual-data literacy’ in policy circles as part of HDR advocacy work

HDRO/RBA Regional Technical Workshop on Measuring Human Development

Nairobi – September - 2007


PPA Findings:

Poverty varies across the country

Safe water supply a priority of the poor

People outraged by level of corruption

People lack information on Govt policies & resource flows

Powerlessness as a key dimension of poverty

Isolation is a key cause of poverty

Insecurity is a fundamental factor preventing the poor moving out of poverty

Govt policy response:

Flexible Central Govt grants to LGs

Budget for improving water supply raised

Additional focus on Governance & accountability

Information needs a cross cutting issue

Devt of the Social Development Sector

Re-emphasised the issue of geographical disparities

Pillar on security, Questions about defense budget and defense review

Do PPAs lead to Policy Change?Lessons fron Uganda…

HDRO/RBA Regional Technical Workshop on Measuring Human Development

Nairobi – September - 2007


Thank you for listening!

HDRO/RBA Regional Technical Workshop on Measuring Human Development

Nairobi – September - 2007


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