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“Drugs are bad. You shouldn’t do drugs. If you do them, you’re bad. Because drugs are bad.” -- Mr. Mackey “Drugs are bad because if you do drugs, you’re a hippie and hippies suck.” -- Eric Cartman. Drugs Use: Nature and Extent. CJ/PS 4530 The War on Drugs a Dr. Matt presentation.

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drugs use nature and extent

“Drugs are bad. You shouldn’tdo drugs. If you do them, you’rebad. Because drugs are bad.”-- Mr. Mackey

“Drugs are bad because if you dodrugs, you’re a hippie andhippies suck.”

-- Eric Cartman

Drugs Use: Nature and Extent

CJ/PS 4530The War on Drugs

a Dr. Matt presentation

major types of drugs
Major Types of Drugs
  • Drugs are categorized according to their major effects on brain function and human behavior
  • stimulants
  • depressants
  • hallucinogens / psychedelics / dissociative anesthetics
  • narcotics/opiates
  • inhalants
major types of drugs3
Major Types of Drugs
  • Stimulants – stimulate central nervous system (CNS) / increase activity of the brain and spinal chord
  • Depressants – lessen activity of the CNS / decrease or stop vital functions
  • Hallucinogens – produce mood and perceptual changes varying from sensory illusions to hallucinations
  • Narcotics– opium and opium derivatives, and their synthetic versions, used mostly as pain killers
  • Also:analgesics (painkiller), sedatives (calming aid), hypnotics (sleep aid)
slide4

Some examples …

  • Stimulants – Caffeine, Nicotine, Cocaine, Amphetamines, Methamphetamine
  • Depressants – Alcohol, Barbiturates, Benzodiazepines
  • Hallucinogens – LSD, PCP, Marijuana, Shrooms, Peyote
  • Narcotics– Heroin, Codeine, Morphine, Oxycodone

Some “club drugs” …

  • Methylenedioxymethamphetamine or MDMA … aka ecstasy(stimulant)
  • Gamma-hydroxybutyrate or GHB … aka grievous bodily harm(depressant)
  • Flunitrazepam / Rohypnol … aka roofies (depressant)
  • Ketamine … aka special K(hallucinogen)
extent of drug use in usa
Extent of Drug Use in USA
  • Major sources of information about drug use:
  • National Survey of Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) -- national survey/interviews with approximately 70,000 randomly selected individuals aged 12 and older
  • Started in 1971, modified twice (1999 and 2002)
  • National and state-level estimates of the past month, past year, and lifetime use of tobacco, alcohol, illicit drugs, and non-medical use of prescription drugs
extent of drug use in usa6
Extent of Drug Use in USA
  • Major sources of information about drug use:
  • Monitoring the Future (MTF) -- national survey/interviews with approximately 50,000 randomly selected students in 8th, 10th and 12th graders
  • Started in 1975 (12th graders), added other grades in 1991
  • National estimates of the past month, past year, and lifetime use of tobacco, alcohol, illicit drugs, and non-medical use of prescription drugs
  • Also measures disapproval and perceived harmfulness & availability
extent of drug use in us nsduh
Extent of Drug Use in US(NSDUH)
  • NSDUH findings:
  • Lifetime use: 114.3 million users (46.1% of pop.)
    • Mostly marijuana (40.6%) followed by psychotherapeutics (20.3%)
  • Past year use: 35.7 million users (14.4%)
    • Most marijuana (10.1%) followed by psychotherapeutics (6.6%)
  • Past month (current) use: 19.9 million users (8% of pop.)
extent of drug use in us nsduh14
Extent of Drug Use in US(NSDUH)
  • Other interesting facts re current use (NSDUH):
  • Current use lower for full-time college students than non-students (but higher lifetime use for students)
  • Current use lowest for college grads
  • Current use lowest for full-time employed (but most users are employed)
  • Highest rates in the west, lowest in the south
  • Highest rates in cities, lowest in rural counties
extent of drug use in us nsduh15
Extent of Drug Use in US(NSDUH)
  • Now more initiates of prescription drug use per year than marijuana!
extent of drug use in us nsduh16
Extent of Drug Use in US(NSDUH)
  • Other interesting facts re current use (NSDUH):
  • 51.1% use alcohol
  • 23.3% binge drink (5 or more drinks at one setting at least once a month)
  • 6.9% heavy drink (5 or more drinks at one setting at least five times a month)
extent of drug use in us nsduh18
Extent of Drug Use in US(NSDUH)
  • 28.6% use tobacco
  • 24.2% smoke cigarettes
extent of drug use in us nsduh19
Extent of Drug Use in US(NSDUH)
  • Highest rates of smoking for 18-25 year olds (36.2%) versus 9.8% of 12-17 year olds
extent of drug use in us nsduh20
Extent of Drug Use in US(NSDUH)
  • Other interesting facts re current use (NSDUH):
  • Users of alcohol and tobacco more likely to be current users of illicit drugs
  • Tobacco users about 9 times more likely …
  • Heavy drinkers about 12 times more likely …
extent of drug use in us mtf
Extent of Drug Usein US (MTF)
  • MTF findings (12th, 10th, 8th graders)
  • Lifetime use: 47.4%, 34.1%, 19.6%
  • Past year use: 36.6%, 26.9%, 14.1%
  • Past month (current) use: 22.3%, 15.8%, 7.6%
  • Current use is higher among 12th graders for virtually every drug (one drug consistently higher for 8th graders)
extent of drug use in us mtf22
Extent of Drug Usein US (MTF)
  • MTF Prevalence of Current Use (12th graders):
  • Alcohol – 43.1%
  • Been drunk – 27.6%
  • Cigarettes – 20.4%
  • Marijuana – 19.4%
extent of drug use in us mtf23
Extent of Drug Usein US (MTF)
  • Smokeless tobacco – 6.5%
  • Narcotics – 3.8% (heroin – 0.4%)
  • Amphetamines – 2.9% (meth – 0.6%)
  • Sedatives – 2.8%
  • Tranquilizers – 2.6%
extent of drug use in us mtf24
Extent of Drug Usein US (MTF)
  • Hallucinogens – 2.2% (LSD – 1.1%)
  • Cocaine – 1.9%
  • Ecstasy – 1.8%
  • Inhalants – 1.4%
  • Steroids – 1%
extent of drug use in us mtf25
Extent of Drug Usein US (MTF)
  • Current use(MTF)

Trend lines

extent of drug use in us mtf26
Extent of Drug Usein US (MTF)
  • Other interesting facts re current use (MTF):
  • Perceived harmfulness of drug use generally NOT up
  • Perceived disapproval of drug use generally NOT up
  • Perceived availability of drugs generally NOT down
if we re going to have a war on drugs which drugs should we pursue
If we’re going to have a “war on drugs” which drugs should we pursue???
  • Answer depends on …?
  • Degree of harm caused to individuals by drug use/abuse?
  • Degree of harm caused to families, communities and society by drug use/abuse?
  • Degree of dependence/addiction triggered by drug use experimentation?
  • If we used these criteria, on what drugs would we focus?
if we re going to have a war on drugs which drugs should we pursue28
If we’re going to have a “war on drugs” which drugs should we pursue???

http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140673607604644/fulltext

we might also ask law enforcement
We might also ask law enforcement …

National Drug Intelligence Center: “Which drug poses the greatest threat in your area?”

we might also ask law enforcement30
We might also ask law enforcement …

National Drug Intelligence Center: “Which drug poses the greatest threat in your area?”

activity
Activity
  • What are discrepancies in descriptions of drugs from ONDCP and the Drug Policy Alliance/Safety First???
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