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Social = Collective Society. Important Facts. What percentage of your paycheck is taken to pay for Social Security? 7.65% What % of Children under 18 live in poverty? 17.8% What is the name for federal insurance program for the elderly? Medicare. Important Facts.

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social collective society
Social = Collective Society

Dhrubodhi Mukherjee

important facts
Important Facts
  • What percentage of your paycheck is taken to pay for Social Security?
  • 7.65%
  • What % of Children under 18 live in poverty?
  • 17.8%
  • What is the name for federal insurance program for the elderly?
  • Medicare

Dhrubodhi Mukherjee

important facts3
Important Facts
  • What is the name of federal medical assistant program for the poor?
  • Medicaid
  • What is the federal/state cash assistance program that has been designed to aid poor children?
  • Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF)
  • How many members of Congress are there?
  • HOR – 434
  • Senate - 100

Dhrubodhi Mukherjee

social welfare system
Social Welfare System
  • Social Issues/Problems
  • Policy Goals - Debate
  • Legislation and Regulation
  • Social Welfare Programs

Dhrubodhi Mukherjee

important questions to study social welfare systems
Important Questions to Study Social Welfare Systems
  • Who gets services? (Eligibility)
  • Why do they get services? (Program Goals)
  • What do they receive? (Benefits)
  • How do they receive services? (Service Delivery system)
  • What does it cost? (Cost Analysis)
  • Who pays for it? (Financing)

Dhrubodhi Mukherjee

world war ii the postwar era
World War II, The postwar era.
  • New Deal was dismantled during World War II.
  • All the programs for Social Security survived the war.
  • Post-war economic boom
  • Conservative pressure
  • Marshall plan
  • Increase in Military spending: Korean War 1950-53.

Dhrubodhi Mukherjee

welfare vs military industrial complex
Welfare Vs. Military-Industrial Complex
  • Eisenhower: “Every dollar spent on guns is a dollar not spent on humanitarian programs.
  • Development of missile and costly aircraft.
  • Protection of Eastern Europe.
  • Proliferation of Communism.
  • Racial matters left to states.

Dhrubodhi Mukherjee

issues
Issues
  • Terms: Constituency
  • “War on poverty” …..President Johnson (the golden era of welfare policy)
  • Reagan Era: Introduction of Block Grants
  • “ending welfare as we know it” ….President Clinton ( a shift in attitude towards welfare policy)
  • Does public opinion translates into public policy?

Dhrubodhi Mukherjee

evolution of social welfare system
Evolution of social welfare system
  • Industrialization and social welfare system
  • Social values and cycles of history
    • Work vs Leisure
    • Individualism vs Collectivism
    • Competition vs. Cooperation
  • Social control
  • Elite power

Dhrubodhi Mukherjee

competing ideologies and social welfare system
Competing ideologies and social welfare system
  • Worthy and unworthy poor
  • Blaming the victim
  • The culture of poverty
  • The Biological Determinism
  • Social Welfare as a right

Dhrubodhi Mukherjee

questions
Questions?
  • In ancient societies we did not have any welfare, why do we need it now?
  • Do you think social welfare is a human right?
  • Do you think, people who do not benefit from welfare but do pay for it should have a say in the continuation of welfare system?
  • How long should a person in need be served by welfare?
  • Do you think people who are at a disadvantage should share at least some blame for their plight?
  • Is welfare more important than defense?

Dhrubodhi Mukherjee

questions12
Questions?
  • Do you think historically our welfare system have improved the life of people?
  • Do you think welfare serves more of immediate problem instead of addressing the root issues?
  • Do you think foreign nationals and temporary residents should also receive welfare benefits?
  • How much ones needs to be socially responsible and how much one needs to be self-reliant?
  • Do you think your values are reflected in the social welfare decision making?

Dhrubodhi Mukherjee

three issues that the president had raised that concerned welfare
Three issues that the president had raised that concerned welfare
  • Comprehensive Immigration Reform
  • Healthcare Reform
  • Global Warming
  • Public School

Dhrubodhi Mukherjee

should government involvement and spending in social welfare be reduced
Should government involvement and spending in social welfare be reduced?
  • Do you favor or oppose it?
  • What is your justification?
  • What are the advantages of a government funded social welfare system?
  • What are the disadvantages of a government funded social welfare system?
  • What does the history say?
  • Do we have enough consensuses?

Dhrubodhi Mukherjee

should government involvement and spending in social welfare be reduced15
Should government involvement and spending in social welfare be reduced?
  • What are the alternatives to a government funded social welfare system?
  • Is money a problem?
  • How many people do need welfare?
  • What does evaluation reports say?
  • Does it discourage entrepreneurship motivation?

Dhrubodhi Mukherjee

should government involvement and spending in social welfare be reduced16
Should government involvement and spending in social welfare be reduced?
  • Does it create a culture of dependence?
  • Does it go with the values that our founding fathers held?
  • What is the place of social welfare system in a market economy?
  • What can we learn from different experiments in other countries?

Dhrubodhi Mukherjee

our worldview influences our support on social policy making
Our worldview influences our support on social policy making
  • Positivist
  • Post-Modernist

Dhrubodhi Mukherjee

who influences social policy making
Who influences social policy making?
  • Administrators
  • Legislators
  • Judiciary
  • Executives

Dhrubodhi Mukherjee

can social policy making decrease the need for welfare in future
Can social policy making decrease the need for welfare in future?
  • Residual Policy Making
  • Institutional Policy Making

Dhrubodhi Mukherjee

residual welfare services
Residual Welfare Services
  • Residual Services
    • Eligibility based on proving a need
      • The breakdown of other systems that should be working
      • Success is measured by the decrease of numbers receiving services
      • Stigma is attached to recipients
      • Services are means tested
        • Food stamps
        • TANF
        • General Relief
        • Head Start
        • WIC Nutrition Program

Dhrubodhi Mukherjee

institutional welfare services
Institutional Welfare Services
  • Services are preventative
  • Eligibility is flexible
  • Minimal stigma
  • Benefits are universal
  • Negative outcomes are prevented
  • Services include
    • Redistribution of wealth
    • Guaranteed income
    • Negative income tax
    • Children’s allowances
    • Socialized health care

Dhrubodhi Mukherjee

who performs social policy making
Who performs social policy making?
  • Private sector
  • For profit
  • Non-profit
  • Public sector
  • Government (Federal, State, Local)
  • Can private sector policy influence public sector policies?

Dhrubodhi Mukherjee

local and subnational policy making
Local and Subnational Policy making
  • The Hierarchical Model
  • Do local governments only implements the policy made by the Federal government?
  • Does local governments enjoy an independent policy making right by the constitution?
  • According to the Constitution the Federal Government has no constitutional power to develop and implement social policy

Dhrubodhi Mukherjee

state and local governments
State and Local Governments
  • State governments gives local governments the power to rule through charters.
  • The charters specifies the responsibilities and obligations granted to local governments
  • Can state governments take away such powers from local governments?

Dhrubodhi Mukherjee

overlapping jurisdictional authority
Overlapping jurisdictional Authority
  • Local level policy analysis becomes complex because of the overlapping jurisdictional authority
  • Counties, townships, municipalities, city governments
  • School Districts, Special Districts or Authorities such as Port Authority, Airport Authority, Transportation, University,

Dhrubodhi Mukherjee

can state boss over local governments at will
Can state boss over local governments at will?
  • Article 10 of the US Constitution named “popular sovereignty” protects local governments from state, very much the same way states are protected from Federal government

Dhrubodhi Mukherjee

feds bypass state to ally with locals
Feds bypass State to ally with locals
  • Title II of Higher Education Act lets Federal government fund local schools districts directly independent of state jurisdiction
  • No-Child-Left-Behind Act
  • War on Poverty programs
  • Housing Codes

Dhrubodhi Mukherjee

the role of non profits
The role of non-profits
  • Can the county commissioners direct the local United Way to use its funds to support specific social programs the county may need?
  • However, the local United Way can be encouraged to support existing public social services

Dhrubodhi Mukherjee

non profits and public agencies
Non-Profits and Public Agencies
  • Non-profits are supposed to be more innovative in designing new social welfare program that they run
  • At times the success of non-profit exposes the faults in public social welfare systems
  • States are encouraged to be innovating and chart new direction, like the non-profits, through block grants

Dhrubodhi Mukherjee

partnerships
Partnerships
  • Council of Governments (COG)
  • Example: Older American Acts – Area Agencies on Aging (AAA)
  • Public-Private partnership--- Bank Mortgage
  • If private social welfare agencies desire contractual relationship with public agencies, then it must agree to abide by the regulations set down by the public agency

Dhrubodhi Mukherjee

operation issues
Operation issues
  • How do local governments manage this confusion with overlapping jurisdiction?
  • Informal Policy Making

Dhrubodhi Mukherjee

the effects of competing values on social systems
The effects of competing values on social systems
  • Social responsibilities for the care of the poor and those in need
  • Personal responsibilities through self-reliance?
  • Conservative Vs Liberals
  • Social Work Values
  • Impact of values on social welfare policies

Dhrubodhi Mukherjee

inter govt relations
Inter-govt relations
  • Whether Fed and State/local govt share the same objectives
  • If state/local govts receive Fed fund then they have to adhere to Fed guidelines
  • Carrot and Stick approach

Dhrubodhi Mukherjee

federal govt money
Federal Govt. Money
  • Morrill Act (1862)
  • Payments to Individuals
  • Grant-in-Aid (categorical grants)
  • Block Grant
  • Subsidies
  • Interest-free bonds
  • Tax Incentives

Dhrubodhi Mukherjee

categorical grant and block grant comparison
Categorical Grant and Block Grant; Comparison
  • BGs give state and local govts more power
  • BGs are more flexible
  • CGs have strings attached
  • CGs include matching fund from Feds
  • CGs are complicated to administer
  • CGs are more expensive to administer
  • BGs could be more effective than CGs

Dhrubodhi Mukherjee

forms of social welfare assistance
Forms of social welfare assistance
  • Cash
  • In-kind
  • Vouchers
  • Social Insurance

Dhrubodhi Mukherjee

income maintenance social insurance
Income Maintenance- Social Insurance
  • Social Security-OASDI
  • Medicare
  • Unemployment Insurance
  • Workers Compensation

Dhrubodhi Mukherjee

income maintenance public assistance
Income Maintenance: Public Assistance
  • Assistance made as unpleasant as possible to deter use
  • Recipients should be made to work regardless of job conditions or pay
  • Payments must be lower than what can be received at a job
  • Aid should only be temporary
  • Assistance should be denied to those who voluntarily quit their jobs.

Dhrubodhi Mukherjee

income maintenance public assistance39
Income Maintenance: Public Assistance
  • AFDC/TANF
  • Food Stamps
  • SSI
  • Medicaid
  • Housing Assistance

Dhrubodhi Mukherjee

private programs
Private Programs
  • Health Care
  • Private Pension Plans
  • Disability Payments
  • Life and Death Insurance

Dhrubodhi Mukherjee

social policy analysis
Social policy analysis
  • Investigation and Inquiry into the causes and consequences of public policy.
  • To provide guidance and direction to policy makers
  • Information gained through policy analysis can be used to develop policy alternative
  • To assess existing and previous policies

Dhrubodhi Mukherjee

social welfare policy analysis
Social welfare policy analysis
  • social policy arena is diverse with numerous interest groups.
  • Its both art and science
  • Social welfare policy follows a linear flow

Dhrubodhi Mukherjee

policy analysis framework
Policy Analysis Framework
  • Problem Identification
  • Locating the focus of policy decision
  • Determining Alternatives
  • Predicting Policy Impact and Unintended Effects
  • (most of the times an expected impact of a social policy differ from the real or actual impact)

Dhrubodhi Mukherjee

models of social policy analysis
Models of Social Policy Analysis
  • Define a problem
  • Devise alternatives that would resolve it
  • Gather and examine data to empirically support these alternatives
  • Carry out a cost-benefit analysis
  • Evaluate whether its achieving its intended result

Dhrubodhi Mukherjee

incrementalism
Incrementalism
  • Its not always feasible to gather all information and information of all possible choices are not readily accessible
  • Its always better to make small changes in the existing policy and as gather more information and move on eventually the existing policy will transform itself into a new one.
  • Social Security and TANF are examples of incremental policy making

Dhrubodhi Mukherjee

is policy making a rational process
Is policy making a rational process?
  • Do rational policy making exist?
  • Rational policy making (ideally) involve
    • Knowledge of the values of all segment of the society
    • All possible policy alternatives and their consequences
    • Cost and benefits analysis (which is hard to come by)
    • Do you think this is possible?

Dhrubodhi Mukherjee

in reality the making of public policy is usually messy and irrational
In reality; the making of public policy is usually messy and irrational
  • Numerous factors interfere into rationality
  • Competing values
  • Interest groups with varied resources
  • Lack of time to weigh all possibilities
  • Lack of adequate information

Dhrubodhi Mukherjee

windows of opportunity
Windows of opportunity
  • Compelling public problem
  • A Solution
  • Political support

Dhrubodhi Mukherjee

street level bureaucrats
Street Level Bureaucrats
  • Service workers
  • Implementation

Dhrubodhi Mukherjee

component 1 social issues
Component 1: Social Issues
  • What is the definition of the problem?
  • Are there competing conflicting definitions?
  • Is there a general agreement?
  • What is the extent of the problem?
  • Who is defining it at this time and why?
  • Who disagrees and why?
  • (once there is enough agreement then goals begins to emerge)

Dhrubodhi Mukherjee

component 2 goals
Component 2: Goals
  • What is the general goals?
  • Are there sub-goals?
  • Do the sub-goals conflict?

Dhrubodhi Mukherjee

component 3 policy legislation
Component 3: Policy/Legislation
  • What is/are relevant public policies?
  • If there are no public policies, why?
  • What are the objectives of the policies?
  • Are there hidden agendas?
  • Who supports the policies?
  • Who opposes the policies?

Dhrubodhi Mukherjee

component 4 affected populations
Component 4: Affected populations
  • Who is touched by the policy and programs?
  • Are there positive effects?
  • Are there negative effects?

Dhrubodhi Mukherjee

component 5 intended results
Component 5: Intended Results
  • What was supposed to be the result?
  • Who was supposed to have been affected?
  • How was the social problem supposed to have been changed?

Dhrubodhi Mukherjee

component 6 actual impact
Component 6: Actual Impact
  • Cost and benefits?
  • Is the social problem changed?
  • If so, how?
  • Are there unintended results?

Dhrubodhi Mukherjee

policy decision making process
Policy Decision Making Process
  • Executive (President): Single action leadership
  • Legislative (Congress): Negotiation-Compromise
  • Judicial (Courts): Formal-Legal Aspects
  • Administration (Staff): who benefits-who doesn’t, policy specific data gathered.

Dhrubodhi Mukherjee

summary questions you should ask
Summary: Questions you should ask
  • Is the problem correctly conceptualized?
  • What is the extent of the problem and where is target population?
  • Does the program design fit with the objective?
  • Is there an underlying coherent rationale?
  • Are there efforts to maximize the chances of success of the provision?
  • What are the real projected costs?
  • What is the benefit, as related to the costs?

Dhrubodhi Mukherjee

summary questions you should ask59
Summary: Questions you should ask
  • Does the service reach the population targeted?
  • Is the program being delivered as it is designed?
  • Is the program reaching its goals?
  • Is something other than the program causing positive results?
  • How much the program costs and how much does it benefit the recipients?
  • Is the program the most efficient alternative?

Dhrubodhi Mukherjee

income maintenance
Income Maintenance
  • Equality
  • Equity

Dhrubodhi Mukherjee

poverty social policy perspective
Poverty: Social policy perspective
  • Defining poverty
  • Absolute measure of poverty
  • Relative measure of poverty
  • Poverty threshold
  • Poverty guidelines

Dhrubodhi Mukherjee

slide62

SOURCE: U.S. Bureau of the Census, Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2004, Report P60, n. 229, p. 45.

Dhrubodhi Mukherjee

has the poverty rate changed overtime
Has the poverty rate changed overtime?
  • 1959: 22%
  • 1969: 12.1%
  • 1975: 12.3%
  • 1983: 15.2%
  • 1991: 15.1%
  • 2000: 11.3%
  • 2004: 12.7%

Dhrubodhi Mukherjee

slide64

2006 HHS Poverty Guidelines

SOURCE:  Federal Register, Vol. 71, No. 15, January 24, 2006, pp. 3848-3849

Dhrubodhi Mukherjee

what programs use the poverty guidelines dhhs
What programs use the poverty guidelines? (DHHS)
  • Community Services Block Grant
  • Head Start
  • Low-Income Home Energy Assistance Program (LIHEAP)
  • Community Food and Nutrition Program
  • PARTS of Medicaid (28 percent of eligibles in Fiscal Year 2003)
  • Hill-Burton Uncompensated Services Program
  • AIDS Drug Assistance Program
  • State Children\'s Health Insurance Program
  • Medicare – Prescription Drug Coverage (subsidized portion only)
  • Community Health Centers
  • Migrant Health Centers Grants
  • Family Planning Services
  • Health Professions Student Loans — Loans for Disadvantaged Students
  • Health Careers Opportunity Program
  • Scholarships for Health Professions Students from Disadvantaged Backgrounds
  • Job Opportunities for Low-Income Individuals
  • Assets for Independence Demonstration Program

Dhrubodhi Mukherjee

what programs use the poverty guidelines dept of agriculture
What programs use the poverty guidelines? (Dept. of Agriculture)
  • Food Stamp Program
  • Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC)
  • National School Lunch Program (for free and reduced-price meals only)
  • School Breakfast Program (for free and reduced-price meals only)
  • Child and Adult Care Food Program (for free and reduced-price meals only)
  • Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program

Dhrubodhi Mukherjee

programs that do not use the poverty guidelines in determining eligibility
Programs that do not use the poverty guidelines in determining eligibility
  • Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) and its predecessor, Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) (in most cases)
  • Supplemental Security Income (SSI)
  • Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC)
  • State/local-funded General Assistance (in most cases)
  • Large parts of Medicaid (72 percent of eligibles in Fiscal Year 2003)
  • Section 8 low-income housing assistance
  • Low-rent public housing

Dhrubodhi Mukherjee

slide69

SOURCE: U.S. Bureau of the Census, Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2004, Report P60, n. 229, Table B-2, pp. 52-7.

Dhrubodhi Mukherjee

ratio of income to poverty
Ratio of Income to Poverty.
  • Family A has five members: two children, their mother, father, and great-aunt.
    • Their threshold was $23,108 dollars in 2004.
    • Suppose the members\' incomes in 2004 were:
  • Compare total family income with their family\'s threshold.
  •      Income / Threshold = $25,000 / $23,108 = 1.08

Dhrubodhi Mukherjee

two views of poverty
Two Views of Poverty
  • The poor are victims of their circumstances and do not have opportunities to advance
  • The poor are responsible for their circumstances and do not take advantage of available opportunities
  • The emphasis of antipoverty policy in the U.S. has shifted between these two views
  • The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 emphasizes the second view

Dhrubodhi Mukherjee

brief history
Brief History
  • 1601 – Elizabethan Poor Laws
  • 1935 – AFDC
  • 1980’sWelfare Reform Demonstrations
  • 1996 – PRWORA/ TANF
  • 2002 – TANF Reauthorization

Dhrubodhi Mukherjee

poverty definition
Poverty Definition
  • If a family’s total income is less than the family’s threshold, then that family and every individual in it is considered in poverty.  The official poverty thresholds do not vary geographically, but they are updated for inflation using Consumer Price Index (CPI-U).  The official poverty definition uses money income before taxes and does not include capital gains or noncash benefits (such as public housing, Medicaid, and food stamps).

Dhrubodhi Mukherjee

work and welfare
Work and Welfare
  • Family Support Act 1988
  • Job Opportunities and Basic Skills (JOBS)
  • Training Cost

Dhrubodhi Mukherjee

income maintenance programs
Income Maintenance Programs
  • Title II of Social Security Act
  • The Social Security Trust Fund
  • Pay-as-you-go program
  • Social Security is considered to be an income and it is taxed
  • Social Security income is used to determine eligibility for Supplementary Security Income (SSI)

Dhrubodhi Mukherjee

social security
Social Security
  • Social Security alone in inadequate for most households
  • Work incentives play an important role in determining Social Security Benefits
  • Gender bias and Social Security
  • Social Security Privatization
  • Unemployment Insurance

Dhrubodhi Mukherjee

overview of the aid to families with dependent children program afdc
Overview of the Aid to Families with Dependent Children Program (AFDC)
  • Established in 1935 as part of the Social Security Act
  • Shared cost program between federal government and states
  • Originally intended primarily for widows, AFDC increasingly served never-married mothers
  • States had discretion primarily over setting income eligibility limits and benefit levels
  • Activity requirements were weak and generally focused on education and training rather than work
  • States were not allowed to time limit beneficiaries
  • Beginning in early 1990s, states increasingly used waivers to try new approaches to reducing welfare dependence

Dhrubodhi Mukherjee

overview of the 1996 welfare reform law prwora
Overview of the 1996 Welfare Reform Law (PRWORA)
  • Temporary Assistance for Needy Families
  • Non-marital Births
  • Supplemental Security Income for Children
  • Child Support Enforcement
  • Child Care
  • Food Stamps

Dhrubodhi Mukherjee

five components of tanf
Five Components of TANF
  • End Cash Entitlement
  • Block Grant Funding
  • Work Requirements
  • Sanctions
  • 5-Year Time Limit

Dhrubodhi Mukherjee

purposes of tanf
Purposes of TANF
  • Provide Assistance to Needy Families with Children
  • End welfare dependence by promoting work preparation, work, and marriage
  • Prevent non-marital pregnancies
  • Encourage formation and maintenance of two-parent families

Dhrubodhi Mukherjee

slide85

Percentage of Married, Single,and Never-Married Mothers Working, 1985-2000

Dhrubodhi Mukherjee

slide87

Teen Birthrate, 1980-2000

Source: National Center for Health Statistics

Dhrubodhi Mukherjee

funding under afdc
Funding Under AFDC

State Match

Federal Match

50%-78%

22%-50%

Dhrubodhi Mukherjee

the agreement under tanf

FEDERAL

STATE

The Federal government will provide a block grant to states of the full amount of Federal funds that the State received in Federal fiscal year 1994, 1995 or the average of 1992 through 1994

The State will provide 80%* of the State funding that was provided by the State in Federal fiscal year 1994

The Agreement Under TANF

*75% if participation requirements are met

Dhrubodhi Mukherjee

tanf temporary assistance for needy families
TANFTemporary Assistance for Needy Families
  • Block Grant Funding
  • No Individual Entitlement
  • Work Requirements
  • Time Limits
  • Broad State Flexibility

Dhrubodhi Mukherjee

purposes of tanf91
Purposes of TANF
  • To provide assistance to needy families so that children may be cared for in their own homes or the homes of relatives;
  • To end the dependence of needy parents on government benefits by promoting job preparation, work, and marriage;
  • To prevent and reduce the incidence of out-of-wedlock pregnancies and establish annual numerical goals for preventing and reducing the incidence of these pregnancies; and
  • To encourage the formation and maintenance of two-parent families

Dhrubodhi Mukherjee

the tanf caseload
The TANF Caseload
  • Families with an adult
    • Includes single parent and two parent families
  • Child-Only cases
    • Children with relatives
    • Parent(s) receiving SSI
    • Parent(s) ineligible (i.e. non-citizen status)

Dhrubodhi Mukherjee

status of tanf leavers 1999 and 2002
Status of TANF Leavers, 1999 and 2002

1999 2002

  • Working 49.9% 42.2%
  • Recently Worked 6.5% 7.1%
  • Spouse working 9.9% 7.5%
  • Disconnected 9.8% 13.8%
  • Return to TANF 20.4% 25.5%
  • Receiving SSI 3.5% 3.8%

Source: Loprest, Urban Institute Fewer Welfare Leavers Employed in Weak Economy

Dhrubodhi Mukherjee

the case against welfare state
The case against welfare state
  • Social problem still persist
  • Inequality growing in manifold
  • Tax increases with welfare
  • Creates a class of dependent people
  • Evaluation of welfare gets more political than performance based
  • Some welfare programs, in fact, negatively affected its target population
  • Bad for competition based market economy

Dhrubodhi Mukherjee

the case for welfare
The case for welfare
  • The problems could have been worse
  • Tax cuts not necessarily direct into constructive investment and poverty reduction
  • Factors other than welfare that contributed to social problems
  • Our perceptions on social problem make us believe its still while it has made improvement

Dhrubodhi Mukherjee

the case in favor cont
The case in favor (cont..)
  • some social problems have clearly been redressed
  • some new problems have emerged
  • in some cases the social problems have not changed but the expectations soared
  • in some cases social problems have been poorly administered
  • AMA and interest groups regulates welfare effectiveness

Dhrubodhi Mukherjee

missed opportunities
Missed opportunities
  • Funding
  • Education

Dhrubodhi Mukherjee

limitation of welfare
Limitation of welfare
  • Complex causes
  • Capitalism

Dhrubodhi Mukherjee

would conservative measures solve the problem
Would conservative measures solve the problem?
  • Reduce spending
  • Delegating policy functions to state and local government
  • Privatizing social services
  • Civil society to take over
  • Deterrent policies
  • Reliance on personal responsibility

Dhrubodhi Mukherjee

challenges to future welfare
Challenges to future welfare
  • Globalization and the emergence of flat world
  • Historic tradition of welfare in America

Dhrubodhi Mukherjee

us has the best health care system in the world
US has the best health care system in the world
  • US spends around $5000/person/year on health care: the costliest in the world
  • We have the best medical technology and prescription drugs
  • We spent around 20-25% of health care cost on administration
  • Our health care is getting privatized each passing day
  • And we sue our doctors if they don’t “treat” us well

Dhrubodhi Mukherjee

well being indicators
Well-being indicators
  • Infant mortality rate (7.2%/1000)
  • Disability Adjusted Life Expectancy (DALE)

Dhrubodhi Mukherjee

what constitute a good health care system
What constitute a good health care system
  • Cost(1st)
  • Access
  • Health and Well-being (26th)
  • Responsiveness (1st)
  • Fairness in Financing (55th)
  • Attainment and Performance (15th)

Dhrubodhi Mukherjee

health insurance
Health Insurance
  • Private
  • Public

Dhrubodhi Mukherjee

public health insurance
Public Health Insurance
  • Medicare Part A
  • Medicare Part B
  • Medicaid
  • State Children’s Health Insurance Program (SCHIP): Social Security Act Title XXI

Dhrubodhi Mukherjee

healthcare management
Healthcare Management
  • Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services
  • Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA)
  • Health Maintenance Organization (HMO)

Dhrubodhi Mukherjee

noninsured healthcare
Noninsured Healthcare
  • Maternal and Child Health Program (MCH)
  • Special Supplemental Food Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC)
  • US Public Health Services (PHS)
    • Center for Disease Control (CDC)
    • Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
    • National Institute of Health (NIH)
    • Health Resources and Services Administration

Dhrubodhi Mukherjee

what s driving medical costs
What\'s driving medical costs?
  • Medical technology: New medical devices and the latest pharmaceuticals are pushing prices up fast.
  • Litigation: The rising cost of malpractice insurance is also increasing the practice of defensive medicine.
  • Uninsured: The growing number of uninsured is an increasing burden on the medical establishment.
  • Administrative costs: Health bureaucracy consumes money that does not go directly to patient care.

Dhrubodhi Mukherjee

access to health
Access to Health
  • All are not allowed
  • Private insurance coverage based on employment
  • Public insurance for the
    • elderly (Medicare)
    • Military veterans
    • Poor and the disabled (Medicaid)

Dhrubodhi Mukherjee

percent of population covered by public health care
Percent of population covered by public health care
  • More focus on cure than prevention
  • Factors outside the hospital are more important than the ones inside it
  • De-rgulation of healthcare or More govt. involvement?

Dhrubodhi Mukherjee

what is the ownership society
What is the “Ownership Society”?

“An ownership societyvalues responsibility, liberty, and property. Individuals are empowered by freeing them from dependence on government handouts and making them owners instead, in control of their own lives and destinies. In the ownership society, patients control their own health care, parents control their own children\'s education, and workers control their retirement savings.” - CATO Institute

"Ownership brings security and dignity and independence. In all these proposals, we seek to provide not just a government program, but a path — a path to greater opportunity, more freedom and more control over your own life.“ - President Bush, August 2004

Dhrubodhi Mukherjee

ownership society policies
Ownership Society Policies
  • Structured through individual or “personal” savings accounts
  • Main proposals would privatize Social Security (“Social Security Choice”) and reduce taxes on saving for retirement, health care, upgrading skills, and education
  • Would also encourage more business ownership and homeownership

Dhrubodhi Mukherjee

who owns america
Who Owns America?

QuintileIncomeWealth

Bottom 40% 10% 1%

Bottom 60% 23% 4.5%

Top 20% 56% 83%

  • Income inequality slowing, wealth inequality rising
  • Non-whites hold 10% of the wealth of whites
  • $330 billion a year in tax breaks to support wealth accumulation, but only helps upper-half of population

Dhrubodhi Mukherjee

housing issues
Housing Issues
  • Housing Act 1937
  • US Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD)
  • Inadequacy vs. Affordability
  • Housing Standard
  • Housing Supply
  • Housing Subsidy

Dhrubodhi Mukherjee

overview
OVERVIEW

CONTEXT: EVOLUTION OF HOUSING POLICY DEBATE

HYPOTHESES: HOW COULD HOUSING AFFECT WELL-BEING?

WHAT WE KNOW: FOCUS ON PUBLIC HOUSING

NEXT STEPS: THE GOOD AND THE BAD

Dhrubodhi Mukherjee

preview
Preview
  • Two views: “making ends meet” (shelter burden) and housing-as-location
  • Some experiments to date
  • Lessons and suggestions (research, policy, and practice)

Dhrubodhi Mukherjee

making ends meet 1 getting and staying housed
Making Ends Meet (1):Getting and staying housed
  • Housing a huge component of household costs (>=food costs). See Edin & Lein, Ehrenreich
  • Most working poor are renters but some own (rural versus urban, low/high wage regions).
  • Four options: subsidized unit, unsubsidized unit, unit shared with relatives or friends, streets and shelters
  • Entry barriers for renters: first/last rent, search costs
  • Other: federal “tax” of 30 cents on each $1 earned by those in subsidized housing

Dhrubodhi Mukherjee

making ends meet 2 tough trade offs
Making Ends Meet (2):Tough trade-offs
  • Elastic, informal, ad hoc arrangements: add resiliency but huge stressors (on family and its sources of support)
  • “High cost of being poor”: captive market encourages price gouging (motels, regular landlords)
  • Choose your “ecological” threat: Difficult relative or boyfriend? High-crime neighborhood? Isolation from jobs, health care, networks?

Dhrubodhi Mukherjee

making ends meet 3 surprises and counter intuitives
Making Ends Meet (3):Surprises and Counter-intuitives
  • Household preferences and resources varied: depend on neighborhood quality of projects in particular city, local priority policies for rental subsidies if you’re homeless, expectations of co-habitants about pooling resources, experiences of abuse.
  • “The projects” stigmatized but in demand in many markets: long waiting lists, deep stigmas of public housing.

Dhrubodhi Mukherjee

housing as location 1 overview
Housing as Location (1):Overview
  • Housing as a “bundle” good: unit + location
  • Locational quality = set of neighbors (“social ecology”), economic site (in labor and land markets), political-administrative (public services, civic infrastructure)
  • Realities: locational choices made quickly, info very imperfect, difficult to calculate full costs and benefits (e.g., short/long term), limited by own preferences and those of others (including discrimination by race, class, family status)

Dhrubodhi Mukherjee

hud s financial resources
HUD’s Financial Resources
  • Community Development Block Grant/HOME
  • 202/811 Programs
  • Capital Bond Fund Financing

Dhrubodhi Mukherjee

community development block grant programs cdbg
Community Development Block Grant Programs (CDBG)
  • Community Development Block Grant Programs

-The rehabilitation of affordable housing has traditionally been the largest single use of CDBG grants.

-CDBG funds are distributed by formula around the country based on population, income levels, poverty rates and age of housing stock.

Dhrubodhi Mukherjee

202 811 programs
202/811 Programs
  • Eligible Uses for 811 Funds

-Provide interest-free capital advances to non-profit sponsors to help finance the development of independent living condominium units and small group homes for persons with disabilities.

  • Both programs provide funding assistance to project owners to subsidize operating expenses.

Dhrubodhi Mukherjee

capital fund bond financing
Capital Fund Bond Financing
  • Eligible Uses for the Funds

-Mixed finance projects and improvements to building systems such as windows, doors, deferred maintenance.

Dhrubodhi Mukherjee

important resources
Important Resources
  • http://www.policyalmanac.org/directory/Social_Welfare-Housing.shtml
  • http://www.npr.org/news/specials/housingfirst/
  • http://www.hud.gov/

Dhrubodhi Mukherjee

social policy goals in regards to child welfare
Social policy goals in regards to Child Welfare
  • What are the social problems concerning children that needs policy attention?
  • Why it is important?
  • Should the government interfere?
  • Debate over how these problems be addressed?
  • What are the institutions should be assigned to address them?
  • How much role should parents play?

Dhrubodhi Mukherjee

concerns
Concerns
  • Non-traditional family
  • The African American community
  • Uncollected Child Support Payments

Dhrubodhi Mukherjee

where policy should focus
Where policy should focus?
  • Protection?
    • Economic protection
    • Health protection
  • Parental Responsibility?
    • Traditional Families
    • Non-traditional Families
  • Residual or Institutional?
    • For only poor children
    • For all children

Dhrubodhi Mukherjee

a brief history
A Brief History
  • Children as “little adults”
  • The “child saving” movement
  • 1909 White house conference for children and youth
  • 1912 Children Bureau at Department of Labor
  • Maternity and Infancy Act 1921
  • SSA 1935 Maternal and Child Health Act

Dhrubodhi Mukherjee

mission and goals of child welfare
Mission and Goals of Child Welfare
  • Safety
  • Permanency
  • Child Well-being
  • Family Well-being

Dhrubodhi Mukherjee

policy issues
Policy Issues
  • Parental responsibility vs. Child rights
  • Protection of children vs. Liberation
  • Need-based vs. Universal Services
  • Child Poverty
  • Various forms of family life

Dhrubodhi Mukherjee

ssa child welfare policies
SSA: Child Welfare Policies
  • Title IV B: Assistance to Children
  • Title IV A: Permanency Planning
  • Title IV D: Child Support Enforcement
  • Title IV C: Research and Training
  • Title V: Maternal and Child Health
  • Title XIX: Medicaid
  • Title XX: Social Security Block Grant
  • Title XXI: State Child Health Insurance

Dhrubodhi Mukherjee

child welfare policies
Child Welfare Policies
  • 1972 Supplemental Social Security Insurance
  • 1974 Child abuse prevention and treatment act
  • 1978 Indian Child Welfare Act
  • 1980 Adoption Assistance and Child Welfare Act
  • 1993 Family and Medical Leave Act

Dhrubodhi Mukherjee

child welfare policy
Child Welfare Policy
  • 1974 Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act
  • 1975 The Education for All Handicapped Children Act
  • 1965 Head Start Act
  • 1990 Family Support Act
  • 1965 ESEA
  • 2002 No-Child Left Behind ACT
  • 1996 PRWORA

Dhrubodhi Mukherjee

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