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Chapter 7. Graphics, Hypermedia, and Multimedia. Topics. Focus on Computer Graphics Dynamic Media: Beyond the Printed Page Interactive Multimedia: Eye, Ear, Hand, & Mind Data Compression – How and Why.

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Chapter 7

Graphics, Hypermedia, and Multimedia


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Topics

  • Focus on Computer Graphics

  • Dynamic Media: Beyond the Printed Page

  • Interactive Multimedia: Eye, Ear, Hand, & Mind

  • Data Compression – How and Why

“If you look out in the future you can see how best to make right choices.” Doug Engelbart


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Focus on Computer Graphics

  • Computer graphics include:

    • Painting Software

    • Digital Image Processing

    • Drawing Software

    • 3-D Modeling Software

    • CAD/CAM

    • Presentation Graphics


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Painting Software

  • Paint pixels on the screen with a pointing device such as a mouse, joystick, trackball, touch pad or pen.

  • The pointer movements are translated into lines and patterns on the screen.


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Graphics Talk

  • Pixelsare tiny dots of white, black, or color that make up images on the screen.

  • Paletteof tools that mimic real-world painting tools and other tools unique to computers.

  • Bitmapped graphics(or raster graphics) are pictures that show how the pixels are mapped on the screen.

  • Color depthis the number of bits devoted to each pixel.

  • Resolutionis the density of the pixels.


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Digital Image Processing: Photographic Editing by Computer

  • Software that allows the user to manipulate photographs and other high-resolution images with tools such as Adobe Photoshop.

  • Far more powerful than traditional photo-retouching techniques.

    • Can distort and combine photos as demonstrated in the tabloids

    • Create fabricated images that show no evidence of tampering


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Building a Photo Collage

Combine it with other objects

Make a statement

Take an image


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Drawing: Object-Oriented Graphics

  • Drawing software stores a picture as a collection of lines and shapes (called object-orientedorvector graphics).

  • Memory demands on storage not as high as bit-mapped images.

  • Many drawing tools - line, shape and text tools are similar to painting tools in bitmapped programs.


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Pixels vs. Objects

  • Bit-mappedpainting(pixels) gives you these advantages:

    • More control over textures, shading and fine detail

    • Appropriate for screen displays, simulating natural paint media and embellishing photographs


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Pixels vs. Objects

  • Object-oriented drawinggives you these advantages:

    • Better for creating printed graphs, charts, and illustrations

    • Lines are cleaner and shapes are smoother


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3-D Modeling Software

  • Used to create three-dimensional objects with tools similar to those in drawing software.

  • Goal for some applications: to create an animated presentation on a computer screen or videotape.

  • Flexible: can create a 3-D model, rotate it, view it from different angles

  • Can “walk-through” a 3-D environment that exists only in the computer’s memory


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3-D Modeling Software

Images in wireframe

view; ones on right are fully rendered to add surface textures


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CAD/CAM: Turning Pictures into Products

  • Computer Aided Design (CAD) software allows engineers, designers, and architects to create designs on screen for products ranging from computer chips to public buildings.

  • Can test product prototypes

  • Cheaper, faster, and more accurate than traditional design-by-hand techniques


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CAD/CAM: Turning Pictures into Products

  • Computer-Aided Manufacturing (CAM)is the process by which data related to the product design are fed into a program that controls the manufacturing of parts.

  • Computer-Integrated Manufacturing (CIM)refers to the combination of CAD/CAM and is a major step toward a fully automated factory.


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Presentation Graphics: Bringing Lectures to Life

  • Presentationgraphicssoftwarehelps to automate the creation of visual aids for lectures, training sessions, sales demonstrations, and other presentations.

  • Create slide shows directly on computer monitors or LCD projectors, including still images, animation and video clips.

  • Slides might include:

    • photographs

    • drawings

    • charts

    • tables


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Dynamic Media: Beyond the Printed Page

  • Modern media contains dynamic information--information that changes over time or in response to user input.

    • Animation

    • Desktop Video

    • Audio


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Animation: Graphics in Time

  • Each frame of computer-based animation is a computer-drawn picture and the computer displays those frames in rapid succession.

    • Tweening-instead of drawing each frame by hand, animator can create key frames and objects and use software to help fill in the gaps

  • “Anything you can imagine can be done. If you can draw it, if you can describe it, we can do it. It’s just a matter of cost.”

  • James Cameron, Filmmaker


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Desktop Video: Computers,  Film, and TV

  • A video digitizer can convert analog video signals from a television broadcast or videotape into digital data.


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Desktop Video: Computers,  Film, and TV

  • Video editing softwaresuch as Adobe Premiere makes it easy to eliminate extraneous footage, combine clips from multiple takes, splice together scenes, create specific effects and other activities.

  • Morphs are video clips in which one image metamorphoses into another.

  • Data compressionsoftware and hardware are used to squeeze data out of movies so they can be stored in smaller spaces.


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The Synthetic Musician: Computers and Audio

  • Audio digitizer- captures sound and stores it as a data file

  • Synthesizer - electronic instrument that synthesizes sounds using mathematical formulas

  • MIDI- Musical Instrument Digital Interface is a standard interface that allows electronic instruments and computers to communicate with each other

  • Sequencing software - turns a computer into a musical composition, recording and editing machine.


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Interactive Multimedia: Eye, Ear, Hand, and Mind

  • A combination of text, graphics, animation, video, music, voice and sound effects that allows the user to take an active part in the experience.

  • Requirements: high-quality color monitors, fast processors, large memory, CD-ROM drives, speakers,and sound cards


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Multimedia Authoring: Making Mixed Media

  • Multimedia authoring software glues together media captured and created with other applications.

  • Multimedia authoring tools include prewritten behaviors attached to buttons, images or other on-screen objects


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Interactive Media: Visions of the Future

Positive aspects:

  • Users become active participants

  • People gain control over the media and use it to create a new kind of digital democracy

    Negative aspects:

  • Users become isolated and addicted to the technology

  • Media used to influence and control unwary citizens


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