Chapter 13
Download
1 / 24

Chapter 13 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 335 Views
  • Uploaded on

Chapter 13. Language. http://www.intersolinc.com/newsletters/images/Language%20Tree.gif. Paul Broca and “Tan”. In 1861, Broca examined a patient nicknamed “Tan,” after the syllable he said most often. The area of damage in Tan’s case is now known as “Broca’s area.”.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Chapter 13' - Antony


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
Chapter 13 l.jpg

Chapter 13

Language

http://www.intersolinc.com/newsletters/images/Language%20Tree.gif


Paul broca and tan l.jpg
Paul Broca and “Tan”

  • In 1861, Broca examined a patient nicknamed “Tan,” after the syllable he said most often.

  • The area of damage in Tan’s case is now known as “Broca’s area.”


Slide3 l.jpg

Speech Production and Comprehension

  • Aphasia:

    • Difficulty in producing or comprehending speech

    • Caused by brain damage

    • Not produced by deafness of a simple motor deficit



Slide5 l.jpg

Speech Production

  • Broca’s area:

    • A region of frontal cortex, located just rostral to the base of the left primary motor cortex, that is necessary for speech production.

      http://video.google.com/videosearch?q=aphasia&ie=UTF-8&oe=utf-8&rls=org.mozilla:en-US:official&client=firefox-a&um=1&sa=N&tab=wv#


Slide6 l.jpg

Speech Production

  • Broca’s aphasia (production aphasia):

    • Speech of others understood, but …

    • Their own speech is slow, labored, non-fluent

    • Characterized by

      • difficulty in articulation

      • anomia

      • agrammatism


Slide7 l.jpg

Speech Production

  • Function word:

  • Content word:


Slide8 l.jpg

Memory of Words: Anomic aphasia

  • Anomic aphasia:

  • Circumlocution:


Slide9 l.jpg

Speech Comprehension

  • Wernicke’s area:

    • A region of auditory association cortex on the left temporal lobe of humans, which is important in the comprehension of words and the production of meaning speech.http://video.google.com/videosearch?q=aphasia&ie=UTF-8&oe=utf-8&rls=org.mozilla:en-US:official&client=firefox-a&um=1&sa=N&tab=wv#q=wernickes%20aphasia&emb=0

  • Wernicke’s aphasia:

    • A form of aphasia characterized by poor speech comprehension and fluent but meaningless speech.


Broca s and wernicke s aphasia l.jpg

Damage to Wernicke’s area.

Speech is fluent, but meaningless.

Comprehension is very poor.

Sound substitutions are common.

Repetition is poor.

Damage to Broca’s area.

Speech is not fluent.

Comprehension is affected, but good.

Repetition is very poor.

Broca’s and Wernicke’s Aphasia


Conduction aphasia l.jpg
Conduction Aphasia

  • Damage to arcuate fasciculus.

  • Speech production is good.

  • Comprehension is good.

  • Sound substitutions are common.

  • Repetition is poor.


Global aphasia l.jpg
Global Aphasia

  • Damage to Broca’s area, Wernicke’s area and the arcuate fasciculus.

  • Abilities to speak, comprehend and repeat are impaired.


Transcortical aphasia l.jpg
Transcortical Aphasia

  • Transcortical motor aphasia:

    • Difficulty producing speech.

    • Good comprehension and repetition.

  • Transcortical sensory aphasia:

    • Speech production and repetition are good.

    • Comprehension is poor.



Alexia l.jpg
Alexia

  • Patients with alexia are unable to read or to point to words and letters on command.

  • Patients may write, but are unable to read what was written.

  • Ability to recognize words spelled out loud is retained.

  • Most cases result from damage to the left occipital cortex and the corpus callosum.


Agraphia l.jpg
Agraphia

  • Damage to motor areas responsible for fine movements, or:

  • Inability to spell words:

    • In phonological agraphia, patients can’t sound out words.

      • can’t sound out nonsense words or new words

      • can still write familiar words using visual imagery

    • In orthographic agraphia, patients can’t form visual images of words to be spelled, but can spell phonetically.


Correlates of dyslexia l.jpg
Correlates of Dyslexia

  • Less asymmetry in planum temporale

  • Differences in the corpus callosum

  • Prenatal testosterone and lateralization

    • Dyslexia is more common among those who are left-handed or ambidextrous

    • Dyslexia is more common among males

  • Problems with phonological awareness, spatial relations, processing rapidly presented stimuli


Brain activation during reading l.jpg
Brain Activation During Reading

  • Reader with dyslexia shows less activation of Wernicke’s area and the angular gyrus and more activation of Broca’s area.


Stuttering l.jpg
Stuttering

  • 1% of the population stutters.

  • Stuttering may involve repetition or prolonging of speech sounds.

  • 75% of stuttering people are male.

  • Stuttering may be genetic.

  • People who stutter may lateralize language to the right hemisphere; they show no impairments while singing.

  • Treatments include reducing the rate of speech, reducing stress and providing auditory feedback.


Defining intelligence l.jpg
Defining Intelligence

  • Sternberg and Salter (1982): our ability to engage in “goal-directed adaptive behavior.”

  • A more cynical view: intelligence is what intelligence tests measure.


Assessment of intelligence l.jpg
Assessment of Intelligence

  • Intelligence testing arose out of compulsory education laws.

  • Binet and Simon proposed that bright children would act more like older children.

  • Terman adapted Binet and Simon’s test for Americans.

  • Current tests have abandoned the mental age concept.


General vs specific abilities l.jpg
General vs. Specific Abilities

  • Charles Spearman suggested that all intelligence arises from a single general intelligence (g) factor.

  • Howard Gardner proposed that we have multiple, independent types of intelligence.

    • Savant behaviors

    • Williams syndrome: low intelligence, but highly verbal


The role of heredity in intelligence l.jpg
The Role of Heredity in Intelligence

  • Highly debated topic.

  • 60–80% of variation in intelligence may be due to heredity.

  • Identical twins show .95 correlation in gray matter volume.

  • “Intelligence” genes have been elusive.

Thompson et al., 2001


Einstein s brain l.jpg
Einstein’s Brain

  • Zaidel (2001):

    • Left hippocampal neurons were much larger than right hippocampal neurons.

    • This asymmetry was not found in control subjects with normal intelligence.

  • Witelson et al. (1999): Einstein’s parietal lobe was about 15% larger than normal.


ad