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Basic Electronic Components. Crystals. Equivalent Circuit to Crystal. Crystal– Schematic Symbol. Piezoelectric Crystals. “Squeezing” the crystal produces an EMF Squeeze the x-axis and a voltage difference occurs on the y-axis

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Piezoelectric crystals l.jpg
Piezoelectric Crystals

  • “Squeezing” the crystal produces an EMF

  • Squeeze the x-axis and a voltage difference occurs on the y-axis

  • Place a voltage difference on the y-axis and the x-axis contracts or expands



Relays l.jpg
Relays

  • Relay

    • Consists of two parts: coil and switch

      • Current flowing through the coil will create magnetic field

      • A strong enough magnetic field will pull the switch

      • When current stops, switch moves back into original position

  • SPST– Single Post, Single Throw

  • SPDT– Single Post, Double Throw– three switch positions



Tube diode l.jpg

Tube diodes have three elements

Filament—Heats up cathode so it can donate electrons easily

Anode (positively charged plate)– emitter of electrons

Cathode (negatively charged plate)—collector of electrons

Current only flows in one direction from anode to cathode

When “reverse biased”, no current flow

Tube Diode




Triode addition of another element called the grid l.jpg
Triode—Addition of another element called the “grid”

  • Grid is a metallic mesh (holes to let electrons flow through).

  • How many electrons flow through grid depends on charge

    • Negatively charged grid repels electrons

    • Positively charged grid attracts electrons

  • The ratio of the voltage into a triode to the voltage supplied by the triode is called the “gain” (gain=voltage out/ voltage in)




Ge doped with arsenic as l.jpg
Ge doped with Arsenic (As)

Note the extra electron



Ge doped with indium l.jpg
Ge doped with Indium

Note missing electron



A pn junction l.jpg
A PN junction

  • Ge(In) + Ge(As)

  • Note more positive charge carriers on left than right



A forward biased pn junction l.jpg
A forward biased PN junction biased)

  • Note that the behavior of a PN junction is exactly like that of a diode

  • Current can only flow one way


Schematic diagram of diode l.jpg
Schematic Diagram of Diode biased)

  • Other diodes:

    • Light Emitting Diodes (LED)

      • Give off light as current passes through them

      • Dark when forward biased



Op amps equivalent circuit l.jpg
Op-Amps– Equivalent Circuit biased)

Transistor Symbol




Inverting amplifiers l.jpg

Output voltage is negative of input voltage biased)

Gain (G) is equal to

G=-R2/R1

Inverting, unity amplifier when R2=R1

If we replace R2 with a capacitor– circuit becomes an integrator

Since G is now a function of w, then lower frequencies are amplified with a greater than 1 gain

Called a “low pass filter”

If we replace R1 with a capacitor-then lower frequencies are attenuated

Called a “high pass filter”

Sometimes called a “differentiator”

Inverting Amplifiers


Non inverting amplifiers l.jpg

G= 1+ (R biased)2/R1)

Non-inverting Amplifiers


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