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Basic Electronic Components PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Basic Electronic Components. Crystals. Equivalent Circuit to Crystal. Crystal– Schematic Symbol. Piezoelectric Crystals. “Squeezing” the crystal produces an EMF Squeeze the x-axis and a voltage difference occurs on the y-axis

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Basic Electronic Components

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Basic electronic components l.jpg

Basic Electronic Components


Crystals l.jpg

Crystals


Equivalent circuit to crystal l.jpg

Equivalent Circuit to Crystal


Crystal schematic symbol l.jpg

Crystal– Schematic Symbol


Piezoelectric crystals l.jpg

Piezoelectric Crystals

  • “Squeezing” the crystal produces an EMF

  • Squeeze the x-axis and a voltage difference occurs on the y-axis

  • Place a voltage difference on the y-axis and the x-axis contracts or expands


Switches l.jpg

Switches


Relays l.jpg

Relays

  • Relay

    • Consists of two parts: coil and switch

      • Current flowing through the coil will create magnetic field

      • A strong enough magnetic field will pull the switch

      • When current stops, switch moves back into original position

  • SPST– Single Post, Single Throw

  • SPDT– Single Post, Double Throw– three switch positions


Light bulb l.jpg

Light Bulb


Tube diode l.jpg

Tube diodes have three elements

Filament—Heats up cathode so it can donate electrons easily

Anode (positively charged plate)– emitter of electrons

Cathode (negatively charged plate)—collector of electrons

Current only flows in one direction from anode to cathode

When “reverse biased”, no current flow

Tube Diode


Effect of diode on ac voltage source l.jpg

Effect of Diode on AC voltage source


Diode plus capacitor l.jpg

Diode plus capacitor


Triode addition of another element called the grid l.jpg

Triode—Addition of another element called the “grid”

  • Grid is a metallic mesh (holes to let electrons flow through).

  • How many electrons flow through grid depends on charge

    • Negatively charged grid repels electrons

    • Positively charged grid attracts electrons

  • The ratio of the voltage into a triode to the voltage supplied by the triode is called the “gain” (gain=voltage out/ voltage in)


Old school cathode ray tube crt l.jpg

Old School– Cathode Ray Tube (CRT)


Structure of germanium similar to silicon l.jpg

Structure of germanium (similar to silicon)


Ge doped with arsenic as l.jpg

Ge doped with Arsenic (As)

Note the extra electron


Voltage applied to ge as l.jpg

Voltage applied to Ge(As)


Ge doped with indium l.jpg

Ge doped with Indium

Note missing electron


Voltage applied to ge in l.jpg

Voltage applied to Ge(In)


A pn junction l.jpg

A PN junction

  • Ge(In) + Ge(As)

  • Note more positive charge carriers on left than right


Applying a positive voltage to the n side called reverse biased l.jpg

Applying a positive voltage to the N side (called reverse biased)


A forward biased pn junction l.jpg

A forward biased PN junction

  • Note that the behavior of a PN junction is exactly like that of a diode

  • Current can only flow one way


Schematic diagram of diode l.jpg

Schematic Diagram of Diode

  • Other diodes:

    • Light Emitting Diodes (LED)

      • Give off light as current passes through them

      • Dark when forward biased


How transistors work l.jpg

How Transistors Work


Op amps equivalent circuit l.jpg

Op-Amps– Equivalent Circuit

Transistor Symbol


Chip layouts for op amps l.jpg

Chip Layouts for Op Amps


Schematic and necessary inputs to op amps l.jpg

Schematic and Necessary Inputs to Op Amps


Inverting amplifiers l.jpg

Output voltage is negative of input voltage

Gain (G) is equal to

G=-R2/R1

Inverting, unity amplifier when R2=R1

If we replace R2 with a capacitor– circuit becomes an integrator

Since G is now a function of w, then lower frequencies are amplified with a greater than 1 gain

Called a “low pass filter”

If we replace R1 with a capacitor-then lower frequencies are attenuated

Called a “high pass filter”

Sometimes called a “differentiator”

Inverting Amplifiers


Non inverting amplifiers l.jpg

G= 1+ (R2/R1)

Non-inverting Amplifiers


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