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Basic Electronic Components PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Basic Electronic Components. Crystals. Equivalent Circuit to Crystal. Crystal– Schematic Symbol. Piezoelectric Crystals. “Squeezing” the crystal produces an EMF Squeeze the x-axis and a voltage difference occurs on the y-axis

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Basic Electronic Components

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Basic Electronic Components


Crystals


Equivalent Circuit to Crystal


Crystal– Schematic Symbol


Piezoelectric Crystals

  • “Squeezing” the crystal produces an EMF

  • Squeeze the x-axis and a voltage difference occurs on the y-axis

  • Place a voltage difference on the y-axis and the x-axis contracts or expands


Switches


Relays

  • Relay

    • Consists of two parts: coil and switch

      • Current flowing through the coil will create magnetic field

      • A strong enough magnetic field will pull the switch

      • When current stops, switch moves back into original position

  • SPST– Single Post, Single Throw

  • SPDT– Single Post, Double Throw– three switch positions


Light Bulb


Tube diodes have three elements

Filament—Heats up cathode so it can donate electrons easily

Anode (positively charged plate)– emitter of electrons

Cathode (negatively charged plate)—collector of electrons

Current only flows in one direction from anode to cathode

When “reverse biased”, no current flow

Tube Diode


Effect of Diode on AC voltage source


Diode plus capacitor


Triode—Addition of another element called the “grid”

  • Grid is a metallic mesh (holes to let electrons flow through).

  • How many electrons flow through grid depends on charge

    • Negatively charged grid repels electrons

    • Positively charged grid attracts electrons

  • The ratio of the voltage into a triode to the voltage supplied by the triode is called the “gain” (gain=voltage out/ voltage in)


Old School– Cathode Ray Tube (CRT)


Structure of germanium (similar to silicon)


Ge doped with Arsenic (As)

Note the extra electron


Voltage applied to Ge(As)


Ge doped with Indium

Note missing electron


Voltage applied to Ge(In)


A PN junction

  • Ge(In) + Ge(As)

  • Note more positive charge carriers on left than right


Applying a positive voltage to the N side (called reverse biased)


A forward biased PN junction

  • Note that the behavior of a PN junction is exactly like that of a diode

  • Current can only flow one way


Schematic Diagram of Diode

  • Other diodes:

    • Light Emitting Diodes (LED)

      • Give off light as current passes through them

      • Dark when forward biased


How Transistors Work


Op-Amps– Equivalent Circuit

Transistor Symbol


Chip Layouts for Op Amps


Schematic and Necessary Inputs to Op Amps


Output voltage is negative of input voltage

Gain (G) is equal to

G=-R2/R1

Inverting, unity amplifier when R2=R1

If we replace R2 with a capacitor– circuit becomes an integrator

Since G is now a function of w, then lower frequencies are amplified with a greater than 1 gain

Called a “low pass filter”

If we replace R1 with a capacitor-then lower frequencies are attenuated

Called a “high pass filter”

Sometimes called a “differentiator”

Inverting Amplifiers


G= 1+ (R2/R1)

Non-inverting Amplifiers


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