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Basic Electronic Components PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Basic Electronic Components. Crystals. Equivalent Circuit to Crystal. Crystal– Schematic Symbol. Piezoelectric Crystals. “Squeezing” the crystal produces an EMF Squeeze the x-axis and a voltage difference occurs on the y-axis

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Basic Electronic Components

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Basic electronic components l.jpg

Basic Electronic Components

Crystals l.jpg


Equivalent circuit to crystal l.jpg

Equivalent Circuit to Crystal

Crystal schematic symbol l.jpg

Crystal– Schematic Symbol

Piezoelectric crystals l.jpg

Piezoelectric Crystals

  • “Squeezing” the crystal produces an EMF

  • Squeeze the x-axis and a voltage difference occurs on the y-axis

  • Place a voltage difference on the y-axis and the x-axis contracts or expands

Switches l.jpg


Relays l.jpg


  • Relay

    • Consists of two parts: coil and switch

      • Current flowing through the coil will create magnetic field

      • A strong enough magnetic field will pull the switch

      • When current stops, switch moves back into original position

  • SPST– Single Post, Single Throw

  • SPDT– Single Post, Double Throw– three switch positions

Light bulb l.jpg

Light Bulb

Tube diode l.jpg

Tube diodes have three elements

Filament—Heats up cathode so it can donate electrons easily

Anode (positively charged plate)– emitter of electrons

Cathode (negatively charged plate)—collector of electrons

Current only flows in one direction from anode to cathode

When “reverse biased”, no current flow

Tube Diode

Effect of diode on ac voltage source l.jpg

Effect of Diode on AC voltage source

Diode plus capacitor l.jpg

Diode plus capacitor

Triode addition of another element called the grid l.jpg

Triode—Addition of another element called the “grid”

  • Grid is a metallic mesh (holes to let electrons flow through).

  • How many electrons flow through grid depends on charge

    • Negatively charged grid repels electrons

    • Positively charged grid attracts electrons

  • The ratio of the voltage into a triode to the voltage supplied by the triode is called the “gain” (gain=voltage out/ voltage in)

Old school cathode ray tube crt l.jpg

Old School– Cathode Ray Tube (CRT)

Structure of germanium similar to silicon l.jpg

Structure of germanium (similar to silicon)

Ge doped with arsenic as l.jpg

Ge doped with Arsenic (As)

Note the extra electron

Voltage applied to ge as l.jpg

Voltage applied to Ge(As)

Ge doped with indium l.jpg

Ge doped with Indium

Note missing electron

Voltage applied to ge in l.jpg

Voltage applied to Ge(In)

A pn junction l.jpg

A PN junction

  • Ge(In) + Ge(As)

  • Note more positive charge carriers on left than right

Applying a positive voltage to the n side called reverse biased l.jpg

Applying a positive voltage to the N side (called reverse biased)

A forward biased pn junction l.jpg

A forward biased PN junction

  • Note that the behavior of a PN junction is exactly like that of a diode

  • Current can only flow one way

Schematic diagram of diode l.jpg

Schematic Diagram of Diode

  • Other diodes:

    • Light Emitting Diodes (LED)

      • Give off light as current passes through them

      • Dark when forward biased

How transistors work l.jpg

How Transistors Work

Op amps equivalent circuit l.jpg

Op-Amps– Equivalent Circuit

Transistor Symbol

Chip layouts for op amps l.jpg

Chip Layouts for Op Amps

Schematic and necessary inputs to op amps l.jpg

Schematic and Necessary Inputs to Op Amps

Inverting amplifiers l.jpg

Output voltage is negative of input voltage

Gain (G) is equal to


Inverting, unity amplifier when R2=R1

If we replace R2 with a capacitor– circuit becomes an integrator

Since G is now a function of w, then lower frequencies are amplified with a greater than 1 gain

Called a “low pass filter”

If we replace R1 with a capacitor-then lower frequencies are attenuated

Called a “high pass filter”

Sometimes called a “differentiator”

Inverting Amplifiers

Non inverting amplifiers l.jpg

G= 1+ (R2/R1)

Non-inverting Amplifiers

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