Rethinking diversity
Download
1 / 48

Background - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 320 Views
  • Updated On :

Rethinking Diversity. Faculty Resource Network National Symposium San Juan, Puerto Rico November 2006. Approaches to Diversity on the College Campus (2002): Qualitative, national, interviews of 75 practitioners in research universities and 4-year colleges

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Background' - Antony


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
Rethinking diversity l.jpg
Rethinking Diversity

Faculty Resource Network

National Symposium

San Juan, Puerto Rico

November 2006


Background l.jpg

Approaches to Diversity on the College Campus (2002): Qualitative, national, interviews of 75 practitioners in research universities and 4-year colleges

Millennial Student Project (Spring 2005): Campus-based, quantitative and qualitative, student focused

Millennial Student Project (Fall 2005): Campus-based, longitudinal, quantitative and qualitative, student focused

Background


Historical approaches to diversity in higher education l.jpg

Focus on access Qualitative, national, interviews of 75 practitioners in research universities and 4-year colleges

“Hostile Climate” Model

Cultural deficit approach

Primarily for minority students

Focus on cultural adjustment & support

Historical Approaches to Diversity in Higher Education


Typical diversity programs historically l.jpg

Cultural centers Qualitative, national, interviews of 75 practitioners in research universities and 4-year colleges

Summer Bridge programs and

Freshman Orientation

Support of student organizations

Mini-University Services approach -

recruitment, financial aid, tutoring,

advising, etc. specifically for minority

students

Typical Diversity Programs, Historically


Trends impacting on student views of diversity l.jpg
Trends Impacting on Qualitative, national, interviews of 75 practitioners in research universities and 4-year collegesStudent Views of Diversity

Shifting demographics

Persistence of “isms”

Influence of popular media

Support of diversity by industry

Challenges to affirmative action


Shifting demographics l.jpg
Shifting Demographics Qualitative, national, interviews of 75 practitioners in research universities and 4-year colleges


Changes in enrollment of students ages 18 24 l.jpg

African-American ↑ 36.9% Qualitative, national, interviews of 75 practitioners in research universities and 4-year colleges

Asian-American ↑ 53.7%

Native American ↑ 35.0%

Caucasian students ↓ 4.6%

(Latino not included in ACE report)

American Council on Education “Minorities in Higher Education: Twenty-First Annual Status Report, 2005”

Changes in enrollment of students, ages 18-24


Demographic shift cont 1990 8 race categories 2000 34 race categories us census bureau l.jpg

White Qualitative, national, interviews of 75 practitioners in research universities and 4-year colleges

Black or African Am.

American Indian & Alaska Native

American Indian or Alaska Native

Both American Indian & Alaska Native

Asian Indian

Chinese or Filipino or Japanese

Korean or Vietnamese

Other Asian Category

Two or more Asian Category

Native Hawaiian or Samoan

Guamania or Chamorro

Other Pacific Islander

Two or more Native Hawaiian

Mexican or Puerto Rican or Cuban

Other Hispanic or Latino

Not Hispanic or Latino

Demographic shift cont…1990-8 race categories2000-34 race categories (US Census Bureau)


Bi and multi racial students l.jpg

Millennial Study Finding: 10% of students identified as bi- or multi-racial. That’s the 4th highest identification group after Caucasian, Latino and Asian.

ACE 2005 Report: A new category of students whose race or ethnicity is unknown accounted for 5.5% of all degrees conferred during 2003-3. National trend of Caucasian students declining to disclose.

Bi- and Multi- Racial Students


Today s student tomorrow s student l.jpg

Changing Perceptions of Race… or multi-racial. That’s the 4th highest identification group after Caucasian, Latino and Asian.

Today’s Student Tomorrow’s Student

Tiger Woods: “Cablasian”

Nigerian, Irish, African American, Native American, Russian Jewish, Polish Jewish


Slide11 l.jpg

Persistence of “isms” or multi-racial. That’s the 4th highest identification group after Caucasian, Latino and Asian.


Slide12 l.jpg

“…an altercation sparked by intolerance of their sexual orientation…” Gays frequently assaulted on 4th Ave.

Arizona Daily Wildcat, October 6, 2006

“Two weeks ago, a member of the fraternity reported to UAPD two swastikas were drawn on the interior walls sometime during a weekend social gathering. Alpha Epsilon Pi's members are predominately Jewish.” Arizona Daily Wildcat, February 8, 2005

“Students in the pictures are wearing sideways baseball caps, exposed underwear, bandanas, and other accessories. A male student in one of the pictures is holding a brown paper bag with a leaking bottle inside.” Ghetto partyChicago Maroon, October 25, 2005

“Students who wore blackface to an off-campus party sparked such an outcry on campus that officials at Whitman College canceled classes Thursday so students and faculty could attend a diversity symposium.” Fox News, November 9, 2006


Student voice is diversity important l.jpg

“Yes, I am gay and Indian and define myself as androgynous. I need diversity to survive. I stick out as a sore thumb and I need awareness. I need knowledge, sensitivity and acceptance so that I am not bashed up.”

UA Millennial Student Project, 2005

Student Voice: Is Diversity Important?


Influence of popular media l.jpg
Influence of Popular Media androgynous. I need diversity to survive. I stick out as a sore thumb and I need awareness. I need knowledge, sensitivity and acceptance so that I am not bashed up.”


Slide16 l.jpg

Lost androgynous. I need diversity to survive. I stick out as a sore thumb and I need awareness. I need knowledge, sensitivity and acceptance so that I am not bashed up.”

Everybody Hates Chris

Will & Grace


Increased diversity on television l.jpg

2006 NPR Story on Lost: androgynous. I need diversity to survive. I stick out as a sore thumb and I need awareness. I need knowledge, sensitivity and acceptance so that I am not bashed up.”

“economic sense continues to drive a commitment to diversity. All the networks are looking for younger viewers -- and to get them, new shows will have to reflect their world.”

Blind Casting: "That really opened the door for us to go to our casting director and say, 'We have all these characters, bring us people of all nationalities and ages, and we will cast the best actor…'"

Increased Diversity on Television


Support of diversity by industry l.jpg
Support of Diversity by Industry androgynous. I need diversity to survive. I stick out as a sore thumb and I need awareness. I need knowledge, sensitivity and acceptance so that I am not bashed up.”


Fortune 500 companies focus on diversity l.jpg
Fortune 500 Companies Focus on Diversity androgynous. I need diversity to survive. I stick out as a sore thumb and I need awareness. I need knowledge, sensitivity and acceptance so that I am not bashed up.”

Wal-Mart-Our Commitment to People: Diversityand Responsible Employment

Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. is the leading private employer of emerging groups in the United States. More than 160,000 African American associates and more than 105,000 Hispanic associates work for Wal-Mart Stores, SAM'S CLUBS and Wal-Mart's logistics facilities nationwide

Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. received the 2002 Ron Brown Award, the highest Presidential Award recognizing outstanding achievement in employee relations and community initiatives

The National Hispana Leadership Institute recognized Wal-Mart with the 2002 National Leadership Award for its support of leadership and development programs for Latinas

The NAACP presented Wal-Mart with the NAACP 2000 Pacesetter Award for corporate leadership

The National Action Network (NAN) presented Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. with the 2002 Community Commitment Corporate Award in recognition of community involvement and diversity practices

Wal-Mart received the Hispanic National Bar Association (HNBA) 2002 Corporate Partner of the Year Award for its consistent support and best practices in the area of diversity

The Organization of Chinese Americans (OCA) appointed Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. to its 2002 Corporate Advisory Board

Wal-Mart received the prestigious 2001 and 2002 Billion-Dollar Roundtable Award for spending more than $1 billion with women and minority-owned suppliers

The American Minority Supplier Development Council named Wal-Mart as the 2001 Minority Business Advocate of the Year

Hispanic Business Magazine named Wal-Mart one of the Top 25 Diversity Recruitment Programs in 2001 for its aggressive program to hire and promote Latinos and Latinas

Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. received a Blue Ribbon Board Award from the organization Catalyst for having two women on its board of directors. Catalyst is a nationally established organization that works with the business sector to advance women

...recognizes that managing diversity includes race and gender as well as broader dimensions like age, family status, religion, sexual orientation, level of education, physical abilities, military status, union represented/non-represented, years of service, language and many others.

General Motors' Policy on Diversity (Editor's Note: The following is borrowed from General Motors' website, pertaining to the corporation's policy on diversity)

Throughout GM, the Diversity Initiative is defined as the process of creating and maintaining an environment that naturally enables GM employees, dealers, suppliers and communities to fully contribute in pursuit of total customer enthusiasm. GM believes that diversity is the collective mixture of similarities and differences, and recognizes that managing diversity includes race and gender as well as broader dimensions like age, family status, religion, sexual orientation, level of education, physical abilities, military status, union represented/non-represented, years of service, language and many others.

Workplace Diversity

GM's greatest asset is the quality and capabilities of its diverse workforce. Managing diversity allows GM to reach the full potential of its employees and contribute to theirs and the company's success. GM seeks to create an environment that optimizes the contributions of this workforce, and recognizes that it is essential for that workforce to reflect both the marketplace and its customers. Diversity in the workplace and in GM's business relationships help enhance its effectiveness in the global marketplace.

Diversity Training.

Moving towards company-wide diversity training, a number of GM units within the U.S. have required training in their divisions. New salaried employees attend an orientation that includes a diversity segment taught by diversity professionals. All hourly and salaried employees have had sexual harassment training, and diversity training is scheduled for hourly employees throughout 2000. In 1999, GM added a narrative piece in the Talent Review Process regarding development of employees. All managers are expected to meet or exceed their diversity goals set through the Affirmative Action Program and initiatives and efforts. Executive representation goals have been set for each GM Sector and performance and targets are expected to be fully satisfied. Additional information on GM diversity management and related initiatives can be found at www.gm.com .

ExxonMobil’s-

Why Focus on Diversity?

Because it is the right thing to do for our:

Business...Achieving peak performance from all of our operational, technological and financial resources depends on realizing the full potential from all of our human resources.

People...Employees are naturally more productive working in an environment that encourages a wide range of ideas and perspectives — an environment where opportunities to grow and excel apply to everyone.

Communities...Neighbors, whether corporate or families, care for each other. We seek to assist and support those communities where we live and work.

Global Diversity Essential to Success


Challenges to affirmative action l.jpg
Challenges to Affirmative Action androgynous. I need diversity to survive. I stick out as a sore thumb and I need awareness. I need knowledge, sensitivity and acceptance so that I am not bashed up.”


Slide21 l.jpg

5-4 to uphold the University of Michigan's preferences for minorities who apply to its law school.

6-3 vote, struck down a point system used by Michigan's undergraduate program.

Affirmative Action

June 22, 2003


Slide22 l.jpg

From the issue dated March 19, 2004 minorities who apply to its law school.

http://chronicle.com/weekly/v50/i28/28a01701.htm

Not Just for Minority Students Anymore

Fearing charges of discrimination, colleges open minority scholarships and programs to students of all races

By PETER SCHMIDT


Beloit college mindset list for the class of 2008 l.jpg
BELOIT COLLEGE MINDSET LIST minorities who apply to its law school. ® FOR THE CLASS OF 2008

  • Desi Arnaz, Orson Welles, Roy Orbison, Ted Bundy, Ayatollah

  • Khomeini, and Cary Grant  have always been dead.

  • “Heeeere’s Johnny!” is a scary greeting from Jack Nicholson, not

  • a warm welcome from Ed McMahon.

  • The Energizer bunny has always been going, and going, and

  • going.

  • Photographs have always been processed in an hour or less.

  • The U.S.  has always been a Prozac nation.

  • They have always enjoyed the comfort of pleather.

  • Harry has always known Sally.


The millennial project research questions l.jpg

What are Millennial Students’ perceptions and attitudes with regard to diversity?

How do the perceptions and attitudes of the Millennial Student compare across traditional measures of diversity – race/ethnicity, gender, class, ability, and religion?

What elements do Millennial Students ascribe to diversity?

The Millennial Project Research Questions


The video students speak about diversity l.jpg
The Video: with regard to diversity?Students Speak About Diversity


Methods l.jpg

Online Survey (ASSET, Seton Hall) & Interviews with regard to diversity?

Sampling Strategy

Stratified random sample

Over-sampled students of color

Contacted 4,500 full-time, classified undergraduates enrolled in fall 2005

Weekly emails sent to students over five weeks

Response Rate Survey: N = 487 (11%)

60 Interviews Conducted

10 Students Followed in Documentary

Limitations: small sample, self-selection, politically-charged topic

Methods


Sample characteristics l.jpg

65% Female with regard to diversity?

11% with Disabilities

8% GLBTQ

14% First Generation (neither

parent attended college)

37% STEM Majors

49% Ethnic Minorities

10% Bi-or Multi- Ethnic

Sample Characteristics


In terms of race ethnicity i identify as l.jpg

“African-American” with regard to diversity?

“Human”

“Tan”

“Native American/Egyptian”

“Euro-mutt with a dash of Native

American”

“Half Egyptian, quarter Scottish,

eighth French, eighth English”

“Jamexican-American”

In terms of race/ethnicity, I identify as:


Influences on beliefs about diversity l.jpg

Education: 22% with regard to diversity?

Friends/Peers: 8%

Parents: 7%

Media: 5%

Travel: 5%

(Most frequent answers,

multiple answers possible)

Influences on Beliefs about Diversity


Entering characteristics diverse friendships l.jpg

Percent of students reporting some or most of friends were of different:

Sexual Orientation: 33%

Racial/Ethnic Background: 79%

Gender: 94%

Disability: 21%

Religion: 86%

Entering Characteristics: Diverse Friendships


Entering characteristics expectations of diversity in college l.jpg

Percent of students expecting to encounter diversity in: of different:

University Leadership: 84%

Faculty: 87%

Staff: 86%

Student Leadership: 83%

Student Body: 88%

Residence Hall: 80%

Entering Characteristics: Expectations of Diversity in College


Support for services for targeted populations l.jpg
Support for Services for Targeted Populations of different:

Percent of students reporting support for services

  • Students with Disabilities: 79%

  • Low SES Students: 76%

  • International Students: 75%

  • Latino/as: 70%

  • Native Americans: 69%

  • First Generation Students: 69%

  • African Americans: 69%


Support for services for targeted populations33 l.jpg
Support for Services for Targeted Populations of different:

Percent of students reporting support for services

  • Multi-ethnic: 67%

  • Asian/Pacific Islanders: 67%

  • Women: 64%

  • GLBTQ: 62%

  • Men: 55%

  • Caucasians: 53%


Groups most supportive of services for targeted populations chi square l.jpg
Groups Most Supportive of Services for Targeted Populations (Chi Square)

  • Females more supportive of services than males for

  • all populations

  • Ethnic minorities more supportive of services than

  • Caucasians for some populations

  • First generation students less supportive of services

  • for Caucasians than non first generation students

  • No significant differences for students with

  • disabilities, GLBTQ, and STEM majors


Dynamic diversity paradigm model ddpm l.jpg

Depth of Knowledge (Chi Square)

Casual

Cognizant/Critical

Cognitive Dissonance

Critical Postmodern

Postmodern

Active

Engagement

Positive

Passive

Engagement

Level of Openness

Not

Engaged

Cognitive Dissonance

Cognitive Dissonance

Cognitive Dissonance

Negative

Minority Stressor/

Meritocracy

Stigmatization

Cognitive Dissonance

Dynamic Diversity Paradigm Model (DDPM)


Meritocratic perspective 3 1 l.jpg
Meritocratic Perspective: 3.1% (Chi Square)

Depth of Knowledge

Superficial

Cognizant/Critical

Cognitive Dissonance

Critical

Postmodern

Postmodern

Positive

Level of Openness

Cognitive Dissonance

Cognitive Dissonance

Negative

Minority

Stressor/

Meritocratic

Stigmatization

Cognitive Dissonance


Meritocratic perspective l.jpg
Meritocratic Perspective (Chi Square)

“I define diversity as a measure of the differences among peoples’ past life experiences. To specify, I do not consider a black person diverse from a white person if they both grew up in a wealthy suburb with loving parents and an easy overall life, despite their superficial racial differences.”

- White, Catholic, Male, Sophomore, Social Sciences Major


Stigmatization perspective 1 6 l.jpg
Stigmatization Perspective: 1.6% (Chi Square)

Depth of Knowledge

Superficial

Cognizant/Critical

Cognitive Dissonance

Critical

Postmodern

Postmodern

Positive

Level of Openness

Cognitive Dissonance

Cognitive Dissonance

Negative

Minority

Stressor/

Meritocratic

Stigmatization

Cognitive Dissonance


Stigmatization perspective l.jpg
Stigmatization Perspective (Chi Square)

  • “While appreciating and recognizing cultural heritage and differences is an admirable goal, I feel that it creates more divisions [than] it breaks down. Forced ‘diversity’ inherently segments a population, and segmentation leads to resentment and bigotry.”

  • White, Agnostic, Male, Sophomore, Computer Information Sciences Major


Postmodern perspective 59 7 l.jpg
Postmodern Perspective: 59.7% (Chi Square)

Depth of Knowledge

Superficial

Cognizant/Critical

Cognitive Dissonance

Critical

Postmodern

Postmodern

Positive

Level of Openness

Cognitive Dissonance

Cognitive Dissonance

Negative

Minority

Stressor/

Meritocratic

Stigmatization

Cognitive Dissonance


Postmodern perspective l.jpg
Postmodern Perspective (Chi Square)

“I think that it is very important for co-existence and communication that we try to understand where people are coming from and how they communicate with others as well as understand how our own up-bringing has [affected] our views.”

- Latina, Catholic, Senior, Social Sciences Major


Critical postmodern perspective 9 9 l.jpg
Critical Postmodern Perspective: 9.9% (Chi Square)

Depth of Knowledge

Superficial

Cognizant/Critical

Cognitive Dissonance

Critical

Postmodern

Postmodern

Positive

Level of Openness

Cognitive Dissonance

Cognitive Dissonance

Negative

Minority

Stressor/

Meritocratic

Stigmatization

Cognitive Dissonance


Critical postmodern perspective l.jpg
Critical Postmodern Perspective (Chi Square)

  • “Diversity is a mixture of the physical and cultural characteristics that combine to distinguish individuals. Diversity is responsible for cultural differences and distinct ways [of] living. It is important that people are different to provide a constant supply of challenging ideas. Without differences, there is no basis of comparison and people are slaves to their homogenous ways of thinking. Diversity supplies unfamiliarity that causes people to stretch into [beyond] their own ways of thinking.”

  • Bi-Racial/Ethnic, Spiritual, Female, Sophomore,

  • Social Sciences Major


Conclusions about millennials l.jpg

Millennials are accustomed to diversity and expect their college environments to be diverse.

Students define diversity broadly and express multiple identities, extending well beyond the traditional focus on race and ethnicity.

Students’ desire to connect to identity-based programming may be specific to generational status and/or history of the identity group.

Conclusions About Millennials


Conclusions continued l.jpg

While they may have had a high exposure to diversity, Millennials don’t necessarily connect it to social justice issues.

Students support services for individual groups to a varying degree, but many are hesitant to impose this value on others.

Conclusions, continued


Implications for educators administrators l.jpg

Rethink our diversity paradigms, goals and programs – make sure we are meeting students where they are.

Engage faculty, staff and students in conversations about generational differences in their approaches to diversity.

Understand that students relate to multiple identities and that those are in constant flux depending on environment.

Create opportunities for students to engage in critical discourse on diversity and social justice education.

Implications for Educators/Administrators


Contact information l.jpg

Lynette Cook Francis make sure we are meeting students where they are.

Assistant Vice President Multicultural Affairs and Student Success

(520) 626-1664

[email protected]

Contact Information

Melissa D. Ousley, Ph.D.

Research Analyst

Multicultural Affairs

and Student Success

(520) 626-2885

[email protected]


Slide48 l.jpg

Project Web Site: make sure we are meeting students where they are.

http://mass.arizona.edu/millennial/


ad