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Advancing the ECCD Agenda. Amman Jordan, March 22-25, 2010 Basma Faour Dhofar University, Sultanate of Oman. Mapping Early Childhood Services and Programmes in Arab Countries. Introduction to the Study. Descriptive overview

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Advancing the eccd agenda l.jpg

Advancing the ECCD Agenda

Amman Jordan, March 22-25, 2010

Basma Faour

Dhofar University, Sultanate of Oman



Introduction to the study l.jpg
Introduction to the Study Countries

  • Descriptive overview

  • Reliance of data compiled through largely Internet and desk-based research (paucity of data, secondary sources)

  • Complexity of the multifaceted and multidimensionality of the context (definition, country, stakeholders)

  • Debate over the Definition

  • Discussion of programmes


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Scope of the Study Countries

Governance

Access and Supply

Financing

Quality

Dimensions

Mapping the Programmes

SWOT Analysis

Knowledge Base

Innovative Practices

Recommendations

4


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Split system of care and education Countries

Programmes for 0-3

Programmes for 3-6?

Lead ministry???

Governance

Data for nonformal, informal and formal programmes

Governing bodies

Ministries of Health, Social Affairs and Education

National Councils on Childhood


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% higher at age 5 than at 4 (Jordan and Lebanon) Countries

  • Low access

    • Societal and cultural views

    • Maternity leave

    • Female labor participation

    • Provisions in the work place

    • High cost (low child/staff ratio)

Children 3-6?

Children 0-3

Rural and Urbanareas

Boys outnumber girls in Morocco and Yemen

Access and Supply

New Education Laws in the past decade

Public

Private

National Commitment

90% in Morocco in Koranic Kuttabs


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Financing Countries

Programmes for 0-3 require different funding than half-day or full-day preschool programs

Worldwide – programmes for under 3’s are also limited

Budget is part of the general budget allocated for education- lack of precise data on early childhood programmes


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About Quality Countries

Quality

Dimensions

  • Definition of Quality

    • Western Values and Standards

    • Quality is mutlidimensional, complex, and multi-theoretical (Moss & Dahlberg, 2008)

  • Performance Indicators in different contexts and cultures (Myers, 2004)

  • Quantity versus quality

  • Economic Benefits (Heckman, 2000, 2006)

  • Teacher Qualifications

Qualified teachers

Professional Development

Child outcomes

Short term

Long term

Relationships

Leadership

Class Size

Child-staff ratio

Physical Environment

Child-centered curriculum

Play is a child’s work



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Alternative Paths Leading to Social Competence (Arthur J. Reynolds)

Adolescence Ages 12-

Early Childhood

Ages 3-9

Ages 5-12

Motivation

Self-efficacy

Perceived competence

Persistence in learning

Exogenous Conditions

Gender

Socio-Environmental

Risk

Neighborhood

Attributes

MA

Social Competence Behaviors

School Achievement

and Performance

Retention in Grade

Receiving Special

Education Services

Delinquency and Crime

Child Maltreatment

Participation in Social

Services

Educational Attainment

MA

Developed Abilities

Cognitive development

Literacy skills

Pre-reading/numeracy skills

CA

CA

Program

Participation

Timing

Duration

Intensity

SA

Social Adjustment

Classroom adjustment

Peer relations

Self-regulating skills

SA

FS

FS

Family Support

Parent-child interactions

Home support for learning

Participation in school

Parenting skills

SS

MA= Motivational Advantage

CA = Cognitive Advantage

SA = Social Adjustment

FS = Family Support

SS = School Support

SS

School Support

Quality of school environment

Classroom environment

School-level performance


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Key Elements of Effective Programs Reynolds)

  • Chicago study (Arthur J. Reynolds, Institute of Child Development)

  • Start early

  • Target higher risk children age 3 to 9.

  • Think of duration

  • Extend intervention to third grade and use a school delivery system.

  • Provide comprehensive services. This includes physical health and social services.

  • Offer a multi-faceted parent program.

  • Create a child-centered curriculum.

  • Small class sizes.

  • Provide regular staff development.

  • Evaluate implementation and outcome (accountability system).



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Preschool Education Project & Mother-Child Program Reynolds)(Palestinian Refugee camps in Lebanon)


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SWOT Analysis Reynolds)

Strengths

What did we really do well in our efforts to advance the field of early childhood in the Arab countries?

Weaknesses

What didn’t we do well in relation to our focus? Why?

Where do we go from here?

Opportunities

What are the potential opportunities that this study offers us to improve or continue with practices?

Challenges/Risks

What are some potential risks to the field and stakeholders?


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Strengths Reynolds)

What did we really do well in our efforts to advance the field of early childhood in the Arab countries?

National Commitment to Gender Parity and Early Childhood Education

Role of National Councils on Childhood


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Weaknesses Reynolds)

What didn’t we do well in relation to our focus? Why?

Access and Affordability

A fair start for all makes it possible to influence socio-economic and gender-related inequities (Heckman)

Split System between the traditional “education” and “care”

EFA goals have shifted from care and development and emphasis on family to a greater attention to education

Coverage and Quality

Quantity versus quality of services and staff


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Opportunities Reynolds)

What are the potential opportunities that this study offers us to improve or continue with practices?

It Takes a Village to raise a child- African Proverb

Parents Empowerment

Media and Technology

  • Other Factors

  • Universities

  • Capacity Building

NGOs


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Challenges/Risks Reynolds)

What are some potential risks to the field and stakeholders?

Transition to School

Schools ready for children OR

Children ready for school?

Value and Belief System about Childhood

Knowledge Base

One centralized data center

Tracking system of programmes across multiple years


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Funding Reynolds)

Recommendations

School Transition

Keep the “Fun” in Fundamentals

Bridge Research, Practice, & Policy

in the Field of Early Childhood Education

Areas of Research

Networking

Alternative Cost-Effective Programs


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Child-Parent Centers Reynolds)

Child-Parent Center

Preschool/Kindergarten

(Wing or Building)

Elementary School

Grades 1 to 3

Principal

Head Teacher

Curriculum Parent-Resources Teacher

Outreach

Services

Parent

Component

Curriculum

Component

Health

Services

Parent

Component

Curriculum

Component

School-Wide

Services

Reduced Class Size

Teacher Aides

Instructional Materials

Individualized instruction

Inservices

School-Community

Representative

Resource Mobilization

Home Visitation

Parent Conferences

Parent Resource Teacher

Parent Room Activities

Classroom Volunteering

School Activities

Home Support

Language Focus

Small Class Sizes

Inservice Training

Health Screening

Nursing Services

Free + Reduced-

Price meals

Parent Room Activities

Classroom Volunteering

School Activities

Home Support

Health Services

School-Community

Representative

Free + Reduced-

Price meals

Resource Mobilization

Age 3

To

Age 9

Thinking about School Transition

Arthur J. Reynolds (2004)


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Final Thoughts Reynolds)

  • The earlier you start the better, the longer the better

  • The promise of kindergarten as “garden of children” no longer holds true. Now there are thorns. Need to discard the notion that “frills steal time from drills” (Mimi Brodsky Chenfeld, kindergarten teacher for 53 years and author)


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Human beings displaying ‘active harm’ Reynolds) (Sue Gerhardt)

  • “The babies who are born now and in the years to come will be the adults who nurse us in our old age, who manage our industry, who entertain us, who live next door. What kind of adults will they be? Will they be emotionally balanced enough to contribute their talents, or will they be disabled by hidden sensitivities?”

    (Gerhardt, 2004, p 218 cited in Gammage, 2008).


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