A SAFE FOOD SUPPLY?. Is Your Food Safe to Eat? Mr. Johnson Central Heights Ag Dept. Student Objectives. Analyze the risk involved in the use of pesticides in food production. Evaluate the risk of using hormones and antibiotics on animals raised for food.
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Is Your Food Safe to Eat?
Central Heights Ag Dept.
Yield grading refers to the amount of lean retail cuts the carcass will yield.
Meat inspection guarantees that the meat will be safe, wholesome, and accurately labeled.
Meat inspection includes several phases.
Internal organs are inspected.Meat inspection cont.
Condemned carcasses go through a process called rendering.
Rendering is where the condemned are placed under enough heat to kill any organism that could cause problems.Meat inspection cont.
Each slaughter house is inspected for cleanliness and free of bacteria, ect...
In the processing line, all carcasses must be thoroughly cleaned to remove debris from the slaughter process; blood, loose tissue particles, or foreign particles.Meat inspection cont.
If meat becomes contaminated by fecal matter, ect.., that portion of the carcass are trimmed.
With best measures, meat will still contain bacteria and other microbes.
For that reason it is important that meat is thoroughly cooked before consumption.
Almost all of the sickness caused from eating meat can be attributed to improper cooking procedures.Meat inspection cont.
An area of consumer concern is the use of synthentic growth and reproductive hormones in beef and dairy animals.
The concern is that this will cause harmful effects in humans.
Growth hormones redirects energy from the production of fat to the production of lean.
More weight is gained at lower cost and is more efficient and healthier.Hormones and Antibiotic Residues
The hormone is placed under the skin in the animal’s ear and are slowly released as the animal grows.
The ear is removes at slaughter to prevent residue from accumulating in the edible meat.
Livestock and poultry industries use antibiotics to cure or prevent diseases.
The concern is that pathogens can build up an immunity to the drugs, as a result of residue of the drugs in the meat.Hormones and Antibiotics cont.
According to the National Academy of Science, no data has been found that implicates the use of antibiotics in animals used for food as a health risk to humans.
Another concern for humans in the dairy industry is using bovine somatotropin, (BST).
This natural hormone stimulates cows to produce more milk.Hormones and Antibiotics cont.
The concern is that the use of BST is a health risk, but there is no evidence to support that.
In fact, milk from cows treated with BST is almost identical as cows with out BST.
BST is a protein and can be digested and is not passed into the systems of humans.
The FDA closely monitors meat, dairy products and all food from animals for residues of pesticides, drugs, and hormones.Hormones and Antibiotics cont.
If levels are detected that go beyond safe tolerances, that product is condemned at the producer’s expense.
This gives producers incentives to adhere to the guidelines and withdrawal periods.
A withdrawal period is the time between when the substance was administered to the animal until the animal can be slaughtered or the milk used.Hormones and Antibiotics cont.
Many people are concerned over adding preservatives such as nitrates, citric acid, sodium benzonate, and phosphoric acid to foods.
The purpose of these additives is to prevent the formation of toxic substances associated with the spoilage of food.
These foods are susceptible to the growth of bacteria that can cause food poisoning.Preservatives
The likelihood of any health problems arising from chemical preservatives added to foods is insignificant compared to the food poisoning that can occur in untreated food.Preservatives cont.
Both fat and cholesterol are necessary components of human diets, but excessive amounts of either can cause problems.
Fats are divided into two broad classifications saturated fat and unsaturated fat.
Unsaturated fats are in a liquid state at room temp.
Saturated fats are in a solid state at room temp.Fat Content in Food cont.
About 90% of all processed foods must have nutritional labeling on the package.
Flavorings that contain no significant amounts of nutrients
The nutritive content of the food is expressed in terms of Daily Value (DV)
The DV refers to the percent of the nutrient in the food that is recommended based on a 2,000 calorie diet.Nutritional Labeling
Microbes - extremely small organisms. labeling on the package.
Louis Pasteur discovered the presence of microbes and brought about the process known as pasteurization (this renders the microbes in milk harmless)
Bacteria- microbes that are responsible for much of the decay and spoilage of the plant and animal tissue in foods.
Bacteria makes the food not fit to eat because of the smell and taste and can often be dangerous .Causes of Food Spoilage (But What About Bacteria?!)
Molds- microbes that also aid in the breakdown of plant and animal tissues.
Toxins from molds are called mycotoxins and may cause illness when consumed.
Molds appear as fine, hairy fillaments on the surfaces.
Yeasts- single-celled fungi.
Used extensively in the fermentation of carbohydrates.
Many yeasts are beneficial, but they may also cause food spoilage by growing on the food.Causes of Food Spoilage cont.
After fruit has been picked, washed, and cleaned, they are coated with a thin layer of paraffin to prevent damage to the skin.
In a process called controlled-atmosphere storage, the respiration of the fruit cells is controlled. They are placed in dark chambers with controlled temps.
This keeps some fruit fresh for many monthsFood Preservation in Fresh Foods
By covering meat with salts, the water in microbes passes to the salt and the microbes dry out and die.
Sugar can also be used as a preservative because the same principal applies.
The problem with salting is removing the salt from the food being preserved.
Therefore, the only foods preserved in salt today are those such as fat back and salt pork.Food Preservation by Salting