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World War I and the Red Scare. Research Assignment > Grading of the First Draft. Pass (A) - you’ve submitted a 3-page paper that analyzes images from both phographers Fail (F) - no paper, no images analyzed, or no comparison of two photographers

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World war i and the red scare l.jpg
World War I and the Red Scare


Research assignment grading of the first draft l.jpg
Research Assignment > Grading of the First Draft

  • Pass (A) - you’ve submitted a 3-page paper that analyzes images from both phographers

  • Fail (F) - no paper, no images analyzed, or no comparison of two photographers

  • Our comments with also include suggestions for revisions and a grade expressing where you are in terms of the second draft:

  • You’ll see:

  • First draft: Pass

  • Second draft so far: C (just some way to suggest how many revisions you need to make)


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Pre-War > Election of 1912

  • Four candidates:

    • William Taft - incumbent, Republican

    • Woodrow Wilson - surprise candidate, Democrat

    • Teddy Roosevelt - progressive “Bull Moose” party, best showing ever by 3rd party

    • Eugene Debs - socialist, won 6% of the vote - the most votes won by a socialist candidate in US history

  • Stood for different approaches to US politics

    • Taft - laissez-faire Gilded Age politics

    • Wilson - progressivist, pro-small business and competition

    • Roosevelt - militant anti-trust politics

    • Debs - peaceful overthrow of capitalism



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Pre-War > Reasons for US entry into World War I

  • War profits U.S. traded heavily with Britain and France but complied with a British embargo on trading with Germany

  • Anglophilia on the part of leaders like Woodrow Wilson and also among ordinary Americans (but not German or Irish immigrants)

  • Security of loans to Europe

  • The vision of a “liberal democratic world order”:

    • Wilson envisioned trade between equal national partners just as he envisioned a domestic economy made up of small businesses instead of huge trusts




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World War I > Typical Question on the IQ test

If you are lost in a forest in the daytime, what is the thing to do?

Hurry to the nearest house you know of

Look for something to eat

Use the sun or a compass for a guide

George Ade is famous as a

Baseball player

Comic artist

Actor

Author



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World War I > Some changes made because of the war with Germany

  • Hamburger renamed “liberty stake”

  • Sauerkraut renamed “liberty cabbage”

  • German measles renamed “liberty measles”

  • Wagner and Beethoven performances banned

  • German folk songs cut out of children’s books

  • Schoolbooks revised to show Germany in a bad light

  • Jane Addams denounced for her pacifist views: “The force of the majority was so overwhelming that it seemed not only impossible to hold one’s own against it, but at moments absolutely unnatural, and one secretly yearned to participate in the folly of all mankind.”


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World War I > Wartime Restriction of Civil Liberties in US History

  • 1798: Alien and Sedition Acts

  • Civil War: Suspension of Habeas Corpus

  • 1917: The Espionage Act

  • 1919-1920: The Red Scare


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World War I > Emma Goldman and Alexander Berkman, anarchists censored to two years in penitentiary and fined $10,000 each for opposing the draft, July 9, 1917


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World War I > Supreme Court Free Speech Cases censored to two years in penitentiary and fined $10,000 each for opposing the draft, July 9, 1917

  • Charles Schenk v. United States (1919)

    • convicted under the Espionage Act of 1917

    • distributed antiwar pamphlets

    • conviction upheld

    • Oliver Wendell Holmes: “man shouting in a crowded theater,” “clear and present danger”

  • Jacob Abrams v. United States (1919)

    • convicted under the antiwar pamphlets

    • conviction upheld

    • Holmes dissented: “the defendants were deprived of their rights under the constitution of the United States”

  • Benjamin Gitlow v New York (1925)

    • convicted under the New York Criminal Anarchy Law of 1902

    • called for the overthrow of U.S. government

    • the Court upheld the state law but extended the reach of the First amendment

    • Holmes dissented: “government must show the clear and immediate danger.”


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World War I > Cartoon against the Sedition Act, 1920 censored to two years in penitentiary and fined $10,000 each for opposing the draft, July 9, 1917




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Prohibition > Prohibition Cartoon, Headquaters San Francisco Chronicle, May 1919








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Strike Wave > 1919New York World Cartoon about the Railroad Strike, April 1919


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Red Scare > 1919Literary Digest on the Bombing of Palmer’s Home, June 1919



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Red Scare > 1919Chicago Tribune Cartoon on Foreign Radicals, June 1919



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Sacco and Vanzetti > The Boston, 1925Daily Worker Cartoon, 1927



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