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World Englishes PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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World Englishes. Nov 5, 2008. Activity 1. Listen to the following speakers and rate them on the characteristics provided on the handout. What does “World Englishes” mean?. The Expanding Circle China, Egypt, Indonesia, Israel, Japan, Korea, Nepal, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan, Russia,

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World englishes l.jpg

World Englishes

Nov 5, 2008


Activity 1 l.jpg

Activity 1

Listen to the following speakers and rate them on the characteristics provided on the handout


What does world englishes mean l.jpg

What does “World Englishes” mean?

The Expanding Circle

China, Egypt, Indonesia,

Israel, Japan, Korea,

Nepal, Saudi Arabia,

Taiwan, Russia,

Zimbabwe, South Africa,

Caribbean Islands

(EFL)

The Outer Circle

Bangladesh, India

Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria, Malaysia, Pakistan, Philippines, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Tanzania, Zambia

(ESL)

The Inner Circle

USA

UK

Canada

Australia

New Zealand

Krachu’s Three Concentric Circles


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  • how many Englishes are there?

MacArthur’s circle of English


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If we include pidgins and creoles . . .


Neo solomonic solomon islands l.jpg

Orayt, mifla i go go lang salwater, lukawtim fish, naw win i kem, naw mifla i go alebawt long kinu, naw bigfla win i kem naw, mifla go, no kachim ni ples i kwaytfla.

Very well. We kept going on the sea, hunting fish, and a wind arose; now we were going in canoes, and an immense wind arose, and we were thrown around and ran very fast (before the wind).

Neo-Solomonic (Solomon Islands)

Is this English?


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The Lord’s Prayer (from Hawaiian Pidgin Bible)

God, you our Fadda. You stay inside da sky. We like all da peopo know fo shua how you stay, An dat you stay good an spesho, An we like dem give you plenny respeck. We like you come King fo everybody now. We like everybody make jalike you like, Ova hea inside da world, Jalike da angel guys up inside da sky make jalike you like. Give us da food we need fo today an every day. Hemmo our shame, an let us go Fo all da kine bad stuff we do to you, Jalike us guys let da odda guys go awready, And we no stay huhu wit dem Fo all da kine bad stuff dey do to us. No let us get chance fo do bad kine stuff, But take us outa dea, so da Bad Guy no can hurt us. Cuz you our King. You get da real power, An you stay awesome foeva. Dass it!”


What kinds of questions do researchers ask about world englishes l.jpg

what kinds of questions do researchers ask about world Englishes?

  • how are different world Englishes (socially) perceived?

  • how recognizable are different world Englishes? what factors influence this recognition?

  • how is English used in the world? how should it be used? (in part, code-switching and language policy)

  • how do world Englishes differ from each other or how are they similar (pidgins and creoles)?


1 how are different world englishes socially perceived l.jpg

1. how are different world Englishes (socially) perceived?

a. Matched Guise Test

Lambert, et al. (1960): Asked native English and French speakers to listen to people speaking French and English and to judge the people on various personality characteristics:

123456

FriendlyCold

DependableLazy

StupidIntelligent

In reality the exact same speaker spoke in English and French

Findings? Both English and French speakers gave more positive characteristics to English than French speakers

b. Real world applications


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Listener response survey

Looked at British listeners’ perceptions of 3 British (RP, West Yorkshire, Birmingham) and 3 American (Network, Alabama, NYC) varieties in terms of status and solidarity characteristics


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Hiraga (2005)

Looked at British listeners’ perceptions of 3 British (RP, West Yorkshire, Birmingham) and 3 American (Network, Alabama, NYC) varieties in terms of status and solidarity characteristics


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British attitudes vs. American attitudes

British(Hiraga, 2005)

American

Solidarity

RP

Alabama

West Yorkshire

Birmingham

Network American

New York

Status

RP

Birmingham

Network

NYC

West Yorkshire

Alabama

Overall

RP

Network

Birmingham

West Yorkshire

New York

Alabama


2 how recognizable are different world englishes what factors influence this recognition l.jpg

2. how recognizable are different world Englishes? what factors influence this recognition?

  • audio clips were taken from the speech accent archive created by Steven H. Weinberger of George Mason University.http://classweb.gmu.edu/accent/

1.

3.

2.

4.


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  • 9 tracks(Australia, England, India, Ireland, Kenya, New York, Scotland, South Africa, Southern U.S.)

  • audio clips were taken from the speech accent archive created by Steven H. Weinberger of George Mason University.http://classweb.gmu.edu/accent/

1. South Africa

3. Scotland

2. Georgia

4. Ireland


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correct dialect identification by native English speakers

92

90

75

61

59

51

41

32

8


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type of incorrect answers given

  • Southern US (11): Midwest US 3, Utah 3, West Coast US 2, Rural US 2, England.

  • England (14): Australia 3, South Africa 3, Northeastern US 2, Canada, France, Scotland, United States, Caribbean, New Zealand.

  • New York (35) : Midwest US 11, West Coast US 9, Canada 6, Northern US 5, Australia 2, Southwestern US 2.

  • Australia (54): England 17, New Zealand 8, Northeastern US 8, South Africa 6, Ireland 5, Southern US 3, Nothing 2, Canada 2, Midwest US 2, Northwestern US 2, United States 2, Wales 2, Scotland, Italy, Ukraine.

  • Scotland (58): Ireland 38, Great Britain 6, Australia 4, New Zealand 3, Wales 2, Southern US 2, Midwest US, Scandinavia, West Indies.


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  • India (68): Africa 12, Caribbean 10, South Africa 9, Singapore 3, Nothing 3, Southern US 3, Middle East 3, Saudi Arabia 2, Asia 2, Zimbabwe 2, Brazil 2, Western US 2, Spain, Australia, West Africa, Egypt, Canada, Algeria, New Zealand, South America, Nigeria, Philippines, Russia, Mexico, Fiji, Iraq, Israel, Afghanistan.

  • Ireland (82): Scotland 29, Canada 15, England 10, Eastern US 6, Australia 5, New Zealand 4, South Africa 2, United States 2, Western US 2, Nothing, Argentina, India, Mexico, Norway, Spain, Wales.

  • Africa (Kenya) (95): South Africa 21,Caribbean 13, India 9,Nothing 6, Middle East 5, Canada 4, Germany 3, East Europe 2, France 2, Western US 2, Southern US 2, New Zealand 2, Northeast US 2, Midwest US 2, Hawaii 2, Hong Kong 2, Iraq 2, Ireland 2, Mexico 2, Netherlands, Pakistan, Poland, Philippines, Russia, Sri Lanka, Spain, United States, Wales, Australia, England.

  • South Africa (129): Australia 44, Great Britain 36, New Zealand 19, Northeastern US 6, Scotland 4, Ireland 3, Wales 2, Africa 2, India 2, Nothing, Canada, China, Denmark, France, Hawaii, Jamaica, Midwest US, Northern Europe, Panama, Philippines.


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type of incorrect responses

28

30

20

16

15

9

9

6

5


Correct dialect identification by non native speakers l.jpg

correct dialect identification by non-native speakers

65

48

22

15

17

13

4

6

0


Correct dialect identification by native blue and non native light blue speakers l.jpg

correct dialect identification by native (blue) and non-native (light blue) speakers

92

90

75

65

61

59

48

51

41

32

22

17

15

13

6

8

4

0


3 how is english used in the world l.jpg

3. how is English used in the world?

English used to make something

look more fashionable,

modern, expensive

Example:

A is for Ambrella

The very best stationery

for people who get excited

when they see English

all over everything


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Use of English between two speakers, neither of whom speak English as a native language


Examples l.jpg

Examples


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Examples


Example study advertising and world englishes l.jpg

Example study: Advertising and World Englishes


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Example study: Advertising and World Englishes


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Example study: Advertising and World Englishes


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Example study: Code-switching/mixing/nativized English

We, that is the Matsumoto family, live in a manshon, too. At this moment, I am watching beisu-booru on terebi. My wife is out shopping at a depaato, and later she will stop at a suupaa to get pooku choppu, pan, bataa, jamu, and perhaps some sooseji for breakfast. My daughter has gone to the byuuchii saron to get a paama. Oh the terehon is ringing. We cannot live a day in Japan today without these loan words.

Language purists lament the fact. The nationalists would wipe out all foreign-sounding words from our vocabulary. But where will they be without terebi, rajio, tabako, biiru, and terehon?Matsumoto, 1976

Over 10% of the words in Japanese are English borrowings


Examples of code mixing l.jpg

Examples of Code Mixing

1. Es un . . . uh. . .. factory worker

2. Conductor (shouting in Swahili):Fugueni madirisha! 'Open the windows!'

Passenger (well-dressed) :That is your job.

3. Vena aca. (child doesn’t listen) Ven aca. (child doesn’t listen) Come here now.

4. I went to Agra, to maine apne bhaiko bola ki (then I said to my brother that) if you come to Delhi you must buy some lunch.

5. A: Well, I'm glad I met you.

B: Andale pues. And do come again, mmh?

6. We've got all . . . all these kids here right now. Los que estan ya criados aqui, no los que estan recien venidos de Mexico (those that have been born here, not the ones that have just arrived from Mexico). They all understood English


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Results

Table 1. Proportion of intra-sentential and inter-sentential mixes identified in English and Spanish samples collected during years 1 and 2.


4 how do world englishes differ from each other or how are they similar pidgins and creoles l.jpg

4. how do world Englishes differ from each other or how are they similar (pidgins and creoles)?

Hawaiian Pidgin

I. Phonological

a. Spelling

b. Simplification and reduction of consonant clusters and digraphs

ailan for island.

c. Simple vowels that cover a variety of shades of phoneme

arurut for arrowroot

orait for all right

d. A preference for CVCV or CVC spelling structures

bokis for box.

e. Loss of several sounds

1. /th/  /t/ and /d/

de for there, da for the

2. /l/ /o/ mentalmento; peoplepeepo.

3. No /r/car cah; letterletta.


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II. Words in Pidgins/Creoles

a. Compound words

bigman =important person daiman =corpse

af dai (half + die) = difficult drai ai (dry + eye) = courage

krai dai (cry + die) = wake put han (put + hand) = help

b. Semantic shifts

agen'any more'; as in "Ah noh lov ahn agen" 'I don't love him any more' (H2)

vex / bexangry, the pronunciation with b- is generally found more often in rural areas, etym. 17th century English vex meaning 'to be distressed in mind, to fret' (A)

c. Archaic (to our ears) words

chinchitiny, a small amount; etym. possibly from Old English chinch 'a stingy person' (C)

wine opa vigorous dance, especially with swinging of the hips, etym. Old English wind meaning 'to turn this way and that,


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II. Semantics (cont)

d. Coinings

skylark to waste time

commess confusion/controversy

e. Reduplication

san =sun sansan =sand pis = fish pispis = to urinate

ben =bend benben= crooked

wakawaka (walk) = wander perpetually,

toktok = gossip

fain =cry fainfain= very lovely

f. Loanshifts

bush = unpolished person

dash = bribe

mobile = to own a car

Passion week = week before paycheck when you have no money


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III. Morphology/Syntax

a. Double negatives Hi neba get no buk

b. SVO word orderHi get da hawaian waif

c. No morphological/inflectional markers

looked = bin looklooking = be look

d. No copula beShi craiin

e. No possessive markerJan bukhauli hous

f. Restricted prepositions

The guy gon’ lay the vinyl bin quote me price.

The man who was going to lay the vinyl had quoted me a price.

g. Formulaic expressions

there = get here = had

h. no plural

ma pikin 'my child/children'

dat tu man pikin 'those two boys'


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