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Embodied Agents and Social Computing. Tim Bickmore A ffective C omputing G roup MIT Media Laboratory. Overview. Intellectual Framework Embodied Conversational Agents Etiquette Relational Agents. Intellectual Framework. Study human face-to-face conversation

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embodied agents and social computing

Embodied Agents andSocial Computing

Tim Bickmore

Affective Computing Group

MIT Media Laboratory

overview
Overview
  • Intellectual Framework
  • Embodied Conversational Agents
  • Etiquette
  • Relational Agents
intellectual framework
Intellectual Framework
  • Study human face-to-face conversation
    • Not just as inspiration, but as model
    • The best (only?) examples we have to draw from.
    • Human social cognition is built to work this way.
  • Relevant Disciplines
    • Linguistics/Discourse/Sociolinguistics
    • Sociology/Ethnomethodology
    • Social Psychology
    • Discourse-inspired models of collaboration
research methodology
Research Methodology
  • Study human-human interaction
  • Build computational models
  • Evaluate models
empirical studies posture shifts

Monologues (0.06/s)

Dialogues (0.07/s)

ps/s

ps/int

energy

ps/s

ps/int

energy

Inter-dseg

0.340

0.837

0.832

0.332

0.533

0.844

intra-dseg

0.039

0.701

0.053

0.723

Empirical Studies:Posture Shifts

Posture shifts with respect to discourse segment

embodied conversational agents

SAM

REA

BEAT

MACK

LEARNING

COMPANION

Embodied Conversational Agents
what does this have to do with etiquette
What does this have to do with Etiquette?
  • Etiquette is about upholding a tacit “social contract” in interaction
    • Following the rules governing face-to-face interaction is an important part of this contract
    • Gricean cooperativeness
    • Goffman’s “face”
    • Turn-taking, etc.
  • But, these are relatively static with respect to roles and relationships.
etiquette
Etiquette
  • How do people negotiate changing roles?
  • How do people negotiate changing relationships?
  • How can our computers do these things?
relational agents
Relational Agents
  • Computational artifacts designed to build and maintain long-term, social-emotional relationships with their users.
motivation
Motivation
  • How do people benefit from social relationships?
    • Direct benefits
      • Instrumental, emotional, social support
    • Indirect benefits
      • Persuasion (e.g., sales)
      • Education (e.g., peer collaboration)
      • Health & Well-being
      • Helping (e.g., psychotherapy, behavior change)
small talk and trust

TRUST

7.5

INTRO

7.0

6.5

6.0

EXTRO

5.5

5.0

SOCIAL

TASK

Small Talk and Trust
  • Real Estate Sales Agent ECA
  • Modeled initial buyer/agent interview
  • Hypothesis:
    • Small talk leads to increased trust in agent
working alliance and behavior change
Working Alliance andBehavior Change
  • Working alliance
    • A type of relationship
    • Measurable
    • Known mediating variable between relational activities and outcomes across a wide range of psychotherapeutic disciplines
  • Subscales:
      • Bond, Task, Goal
application
Application
  • Exercise Behavior Change
    • Relatively simple, brief duration
    • Several proven techniques exist that could be delivered by a software agent
    • Relevant to college subject population
    • Objectively measurable, real application
    • New guidelines are for daily exercise; gives subjects opportunity for daily interactions
relational manipulations
Relational Manipulations
  • “Kitchen Sink” approach
    • Small talk
    • Empathy exchanges (following Klein)
    • Talk about the relationship
    • Humor
    • Politeness & Forms of Address
    • Reciprocal self-disclosure
    • Continuity behaviors
    • Talking about past and future (requires memory)
    • Nonverbal immediacy behaviors
nonverbal behavior

RELATIONAL

NON-RELATIONAL

+Gestures

+Facial animation

+Proximity

ALL FRAMES

+Gaze aways

CONCERN

empathy

Concern face

+Proximity

small talk, greeting,

farewell, humor,

positive feedback

HAPPY

Smile face

Smile face

+Proximity

ENCOURAGE

encouragement

Nonverbal Behavior
  • Pre-compiled through BEAT
experiment

Wear pedometer

  • Daily report of activity
  • Daily interactions with agent
  • No contact with Ss

Intake

Intervention

FollowUp

7dRecall

7dRecall

  • WAI
  • Demographics
  • Personality
  • Stage of Change
  • Self-Efficacy
  • Decisional Balance
  • System and agent
  • evaluation
  • Self-Efficacy
  • Decisional Balance
Experiment
  • Treatments: CONTROL / NON-RELATIONAL / RELATIONAL
  • One-month intervention; one-month followup
  • 100 Subjects

30 days

30 days

more info
More Info

http://www.media.mit.edu/~bickmore

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