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Therapy Approaches. Biological Treatment Surgery & Electroshock Psychotherapy The Power of Forgiveness. Biological Treatments Drugs. 1-Antipshchotic Drugs 2-Antidepressant Drugs 3-Tranquilizers 4-Lithium Carbonate. 1-Antipsychotic Drugs or Neuroleptics.

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therapy approaches
Therapy Approaches
  • Biological Treatment
  • Surgery & Electroshock
  • Psychotherapy
  • The Power of Forgiveness
biological treatments drugs
Biological TreatmentsDrugs
  • 1-Antipshchotic Drugs
  • 2-Antidepressant Drugs
  • 3-Tranquilizers
  • 4-Lithium Carbonate
1 antipsychotic drugs or neuroleptics
1-Antipsychotic Drugsor Neuroleptics

Good for treating psychosis and schizophrenia

Examople: Thorazine

Reduce receptivity to dopamine or increase serotonin

Reduce positive symptoms of schizophrenia

Do not relieve other negative symptoms

Can have dangerous side effect: tardive dyskinesia & neurolyptic malignant syndrome

antipsychotic drugs and schizophrenia
Good for reducing:




Can shorten schizophrenic episodes

Offers little relief from:

Jumbled thoughts

Difficulty concentrating

Inability to interact with others

Antipsychotic Drugsand Schizophrenia
2 antidepressant drugs
2-Antidepressant Drugs
  • Treat depression, anxiety, phobias, OCD
  • Example: Prozac, Zoloft, and Paxil
  • Non addictive but can cause side effects
  • 1-Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (elevate levels of ser. & nor. by blocking inhibitors)
  • 2-Tricyclic antidepressants (boost nor. & ser. by preventing their reabsorption)
  • 3-Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors

(work on serotonin)

3 tranquilizers
  • Prescribed for depressed mood, panic, and anxiety
  • Example: Valium
  • Increase activity of neurotransmitter GABA
  • If overused can result in tolerance and withdrawal
4 lithium carbonate
4-Lithium Carbonate
  • Prescribed for bipolar disorder
  • Can be dangerous if not given in the right doze
cautions about drugs
Cautions about Drugs
  • Placebo effect
  • Relapse and drop out rates
  • Dosage problems
  • Long-term risks
  • Overprescription
  • Sometimes they have to be with therapy
the placebo effect kirsch and sapirstein 1998
The Placebo EffectKirsch and Sapirstein (1998)
  • 7315 participants
  • 41% of those receiving antidepressants experienced reduced symptoms.
  • 31% of those given placebos also received reduced symptoms.
surgery electroshock
Surgery & Electroshock
  • Psychosurgery
  • Shock Therapy
  • Psychodynamic
  • Behavioral
  • Cognitive
  • Humanistic/Existential
  • Therapy in Social Context
psychodynamic therapy
Psychodynamic Therapy
  • Probes the past
  • Doesn’t tackle the immediate problem
  • The goal is insight
  • Takes a long time
  • Explores the unconscious
  • Methods: free association, interpretation of dreams, & transference

The analyst noting supposed dream meanings, resistances, and other significant behaviors in order to promote insight.

  • Resistance

In psychoanalysis, the blocking from consciousness of anxiety-laden material.

  • Transference

The patient’s transfer to the analyst of emotions linked with other relationships (such as love or hatred for a parent)

behavioral techniques
Behavioral Techniques



Association between

Environmental Stimuli + Response

Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning

Association Reinforcement/

Stimulus-Response Punishment

behavioral techniques15
Behavioral Techniques
  • There are no mental processes (will, mind)
  • Derived from classical and operant conditioning
  • The focus is on changing the behavior
  • Works on the immediate problem
  • Focuses on the present
classical conditioning
Classical Conditioning
  • Ivan Pavlov
  • Conditioning

Learning that involves associations between environmental stimuli and the organism’s responses

  • Stimulus-response Learning
classical conditioning in real life
Classical Conditioning in Real Life
  • Learning to like
  • Learning to fear
  • Accounting for Taste
  • Reacting to Medical Treatment
operant conditioning
Operant Conditioning
  • The behavior is more likely or less likely to occur based on its consequences.
  • B. F. Skinner modified Pavlov’s concept.
  • Skinner used reinforcement and punishment to enhance learning.
behavioral techniques21
Behavioral Techniques
  • Systematic Desensitization/Counter Conditioning
  • Aversive Conditioning
  • Exposure Treatment (Flooding)
  • Behavioral Records & Contracts
  • Skills Training
systematic desensitization
Systematic Desensitization
  • Fear of Flying
    • Read about safety
    • Look at pictures of airplanes
    • Visit an airport
    • Take a short flight
    • Take a long flight
  • Fear is extinguished
  • Counterconditioning
cognitive therapy
Cognitive Therapy
  • Albert Ellis

(Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy)

  • Aaron Beck
cognitive distortions
Cognitive Distortions
  • Labeling
  • Mind Reading
  • Exaggeration
  • Unrealistic Expectations
  • Belief in Entitlement
  • Belief in Absolute Fairness
fighting dysfunctional thought
Hot Thoughts

He is always mean to me.

I did a lousy job.

I deserve better.

It’s not fair.

That jerk!

They’re driving me crazy.

Cool Thoughts

Maybe he had a bad day.

It’ll be better next time

But people are people

Life is not fair.

It’s his problem!

Just don’t accept the ride.

Fighting Dysfunctional Thought
humanistic existential therapy
  • Works on self-fulfillment and self-actualization
  • Does not delve into the past
  • Helps the client think about the present and the future
  • Helps people feel good about themselves
  • Tackles conscious rather than unconscious thoughts
carl rogers client centered therapy person centered therapy
Carl RogersClient-Centered TherapyPerson-Centered Therapy
  • The therapist uses techniques such as active listening within a genuine, accepting, empathetic environment to facilitate clients’ growth.
carl rogers client centered therapy
Carl RogersClient-Centered Therapy
  • Offers unconditional positive regard
  • No specific techniques
  • Therapist should be warm, genuine and empathetic
  • Client adopts these views and becomes self-accepting
  • Promotes growth instead of curing illness.
active listening
Active Listening
  • Paraphrase.

Summarize the speakers words in your own words.

  • Invite Clarification.

Encourage the speaker to say more.

  • Reflect Feelings.

Reflect what you’re sensing from the speakers words and body language.

existential therapy
Existential Therapy
  • Helps client explore meaning of existence
  • Helps client choose a destiny
  • Helps client accept self-responsibility.
therapy in social context
Therapy in Social Context
  • Family Therapy
  • Family Kaleidoscope
  • Family Systems
  • Group Therapy
communication approach virginia satir
Communication ApproachVirginia Satir
  • Offered description of conjoint family therapy
  • Emphasized growth enhancing techniques to evoke feeling and clarify family communications patterns
    • (dance, massage, sensory awareness, group encounter techniques)
contextual family therapy ivan boszormenyi nagy
Contextual Family TherapyIvan Boszormenyi-Nagy
  • Effective family therapy must attend to family context especially to those dynamic and ethical connections – past, present, future – that bind families together
the structural approach salvador minuchin
The Structural ApproachSalvador Minuchin
  • The individual’s symptoms are best understood as rooted in the context of family transaction patterns.
    • The family’s hierarchical organization
    • The wholeness of the family system
    • The interdependent functioning of its subsystems
  • Enmeshment

The family boundaries are too diffuse to allow for individual autonomy

strategic approach jay haley
Strategic ApproachJay Haley
  • The therapist devices a strategy for solving the client’s present problems
  • Goals are clearly set
  • Therapy is carefully planned to achieve these goals
object relations
Object Relations
  • Introjects – the psychological representations of external objects
  • The most powerful obstacle to change is people’s attachment to their parental introjects
family systems theory multigenrational murray bowen
Family Systems TheoryMultigenrationalMurray Bowen
  • Conceptualizes the family as an emotional unit, a network of interlocking relationships, best understood when analyzed within a multi generational or historic framework
  • Genograms
when therapy helps
When Therapy Helps
  • When clients have enough sense of self
  • When clients have enough distress to motivate them to change
  • When therapists are warm and empathetic
  • When client and therapist establish a good rapport
  • Hostile, negative clients are less likely to benefit
when therapy harms
When Therapy Harms
  • Bias on the therapist’s part because of gender, religion, or race
  • Coercion by the therapist to accept his/her advice
  • Coercion by the therapist to have sexual intimacy
alternatives to psychotherapy
Alternatives to Psychotherapy
  • Community Psychologists
    • Half-way houses
    • Clubhouse model
    • Foster care
    • Family support groups
  • Rehabilitation Psychologists
    • Epilepsy, physical injury, arthiritis, chronic pain
the power of forgiveness
The Power of Forgiveness
  • Giving up grudges can reduce chronic back pain
  • Forgiveness limited the number of relapses among women battling substance abuse problems.
  • Using MRI scans to explore how just thinking about empathy and reconciliation sparks activity in the brains left middle gyrus, suggesting we all have a mental forgiveness center set to be tapped.
the power of forgiveness45
The Power of Forgiveness
  • Cortisol’s depressive effect on the immune system has been linked to serious disorders.
  • Forgiveness stops the cortisol and adrenaline from flowing.
american psychosomatic society a study
American Psychosomatic SocietyA Study
  • 36 male veterans who had coronary artery disease and who were also burdened by other war-related issues
  • Those who received forgiveness training showed greater blood flow to the heart.