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Gregory M. Shreve. Internationalizing Digital Libraries: Towards A Standards-Based Strategy. Multilingual Modalities.

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Gregory M. Shreve

Internationalizing Digital Libraries:

Towards A Standards-Based Strategy

Shreve


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Multilingual Modalities

Digital libraries may contain resources in many languages. Accessible through the Internet, libraries may be consulted by individuals in other cultural/linguistic "locales" seeking resources in their own languages or searching across languages for resources in languages other than their own.

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Internationalization

In order to enable the efficient and effective acquisition, storage and retrieval of cross-cultural and cross-linguistic resources, a digital library has to be designed from the outset to allow for heterogeneous linguistic and cultural content. The design process is called “internationalization.” The most effective internationalization strategies are standards-based.

Internationalization: a design process intended to enable subsequent linguistic and cultural adaptation

I18N

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Internationalization Strategy

An internationalization strategy for a Digital Library involves:

(1) determining the metadata elements, attributes, value spaces and values that are culturally and linguistically dependent and are to be rendered in multiple languages. (2) creating a mechanism for internationalization that provides administrative control, cross-language tools capability, authority for keywords (terms), translations and translation equivalents. (3) providing an internationalization scheme that offers reusability and scalability and interfaces with relevant national and international standards.

Other issues are important (different writing systems and character sets of resources) and different display preferences (interface, resources), but we do not deal with these in this paper.

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Internationalization & Localization

Localization is the preparation of locale-specific versions of a digital library resource or collection and consists of the translation of textual material into the language and textual conventions of the target locale and the adaptation of non-textual materials and delivery / display mechanisms to take into account the cultural requirements of that locale.

translation

internationalization

localization

adaptation

Internationalization is an “upstream” engineering process that should precede localization. Its aim is to make subsequent localization/translation easier, more efficient, and less costly.

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creation

storing

rendering

distribution

acquisition

retrieval

Document

Processes

Internationalization & Localization

internationalization

controlled language

terminology control

content / display separation

cultural stylesheeting

exchange standards

authority management

concept-orientation

Standards-Based

Internationalization

Strategies

localization

reusability, scalability, authority, control, quality, accessibility, acceptability, accuracy

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Internationalization

Foci of Internationalization in a Digital Library:

reusability

translations

scalability

I18N solution

  • resource content

  • metadata content

  • metadata elements

  • interface elements

  • keywords (terms)

  • vocabularies

authority / quality

equivalence

accessibility

cross-language

accuracy / acceptability

target culture(s)

control

target document

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Internationalization

Loci of Internationalization in a Digital Library:

DL resource content

(new and existing translations, equivalents)

DL resource metadata & description

(element labels, content, vocabularies)

DL interface

(localized dialogs, help, messages, menus)

DL tools

(x-language: search, glossaries, taxonomies, thesauri)

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Parallel Metadata: Inline Parallel

As discussed in my ASIST 2003 presentation, there are two I18N approaches to support localizing a DL. The first approach is inline parallel and involves providing multiple local versions of, for instance, a title or keyword data element in a resource record. The data elements are flagged as “local” versions via the lang attribute. This is the most common localization method. Note that “equivalence” is assumed via adjacency and no authority is provided.

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Inline Parallel: Flawed

NO

Because this method stores local equivalents of metadata content inline with the original content in the resource record itself, it does not provide for reusability.

It is not easily scalable because multiple translations of the same or identical items will exist in different places, leading to redundancy and difficulties in maintenance and quality control.

Because there is no schema and system for documenting and managing translations, the source, authority and quality of equivalents and translations cannot be assured.

Because authority and quality cannot be assured, accessibility, accuracy and acceptability cannot be assured.

The approach does not provide control.

reusability

scalability

authority / quality

accessibility

accuracy / acceptability

control

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Parallel Metadata: External Parallel

A more fruitful approach, provides references to standards-based external objects. The external objects can be translation memories (for translations of titles, descriptions or other textual content) or standard (e.g. ISO 12620) glossaries (for multilingual equivalents of data element names and their possible restricted vocabulary values).

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Translation Memory

Digital

Library

Resources

text segments

terms

ISO 12620 Glossary

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<tuv xml:lang=“en-US” creationdate=“20031012” creationid=“Shreve” > <seg>Thermal analysis of anisotropic bodies</seg>

</tuv>

<tuv xml:lang=“zh-CH” creationdate=“20031012” creationid=“Shreve”>

<seg> </seg> </tuv>

Parallel Metadata: External Parallel

TMX-Compliant Translation Memory

<Title lang=“en-US” hastranslation=“true”>Thermal analysis of anisotropic bodies</Title>

Optional LOM

Attribute

TMX = Translation Memory Exchange. A translation memory is a database of “aligned” text

segments that are translations of one another. It maintains linguistically “parallel” texts.

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Parallel Metadata: External Parallel

Translation memories and glossaries are the most common external localizing objects, but the growing use of statistically based corpus linguistics to create language resources will also make it possible to utilize other monolingual and multilingual resources in Digital Libraries. Standards for representing and storing some of these new language resources do not yet exist.

Corpus

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Corpus

Parallel Metadata: External Parallel

Ontologies

Thesauri

Taxonomies

For instance, multilingual ontologies, thesauri and taxonomies could be constructed from term analysis of DL document corpora.

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Internationalizing Metadata

Internationalizing a DL not only involves providing and controlling translations of the content and metadata descriptive elements.

Internationalizing a metadata schema also involves determining the elements and element attributes that could affect the scheme’s ability to be used for classification, search, retrieval, and reuse of learning objects in multicultural and multilingual contexts.

An internationalization strategy begins with specifying all metadata elements that are culturally and linguistically dependent. Ideally, internationalization is a goal during initial schema development. Unfortunately, as with IEEE-LOM, internationalization may involve existing data elements in a pre-existing schema. Additions and modifications to the elements and element set may be necessary recommended.

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Culturally Dependent Metadata

LOM element 2.3.3. Date ( is an example of a culturally dependent meta-data element. CEN (European Committee for Standardization) suggests extensions to “internationalize” Date:

<DATETIME>2003-12-25</DATETIME>

<DATETIMELOCALE>

<LOCALE>US</LOCALE>

<SOURCE>http://standards.org/us/calendarSpecs.pdf</SOURCE>

<LOCALIZEDDATETIME>12/25/03</LOCALIZEDDATETIME>

</DATETIMELOCALE>

<DATETIMELOCALE>

<LOCALE>UK</LOCALE>

<LOCALIZEDDATETIME>25/12/03</LOCALIZEDDATETIME>

</DATETIMELOCALE>

<DATETIMELOCALE>

<LOCALE>AE</LOCALE>

<SOURCE>http://standards.org/ae/calendarNumSpecs.pdf</SOURCE>

<LOCALIZEDDATETIME>1/11/1424</LOCALIZEDDATETIME>

</DATETIMELOCALE>

<DATETIMELOCALE>

<LOCALE>AE</LOCALE>

<SOURCE>http://standards.org/ae/calendarTextSpecs.pdf</SOURCE>

<LOCALIZEDDATETIME>1 Dhu’l-Qa’dah 1424</LOCALIZEDDATETIME>

</DATETIMELOCALE>

Addresses

Calendar

Currency

Date

Numbers

Telephone

Time

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Culturally Dependent Metadata Values

Some “universal” metadata elements have values that may be very culturally dependent. For instance, LOM 5.6 Educational. Contexthas a value space [school, higher education, training, other]that is not only extremely limited, but derives from a single cultural context. Different countries have different educational systems. The LOM values are often not applicable or do not have a real correspondence.1

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Culturally Dependent Metadata Values

Although CEN has suggested simply “enlarging” the value space for such elements, true internationalization of these “system” dependent elements would involve providing a locale specification for the element so that a specific vocabulary could be retrieved.

Kindergarten

Elementary School

Middle School

High School

<education locale=‘en-US’>

<context>

value space </context>

</education>

The ISO 639 language codes and the ISO 3166

country codes do not

allow for even more “local” localization.

In Germany, for instance, the Bavarian school system differs from the German “norm.”

Kindergarten

Grundschule

Hauptschule

Realschule

Gesamtschule

Gymnasium

<education locale=‘de-DE’>

<context>

value space

</context>

</education>

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Metadata: Translation?

Creating locale-specific value spaces for more “universal” data elements is a complex task. Localized value spaces cannot be achieved by simply translating the existing or default values.

Kindergarten

Elementary School

Middle School

High School

en-US

Kindergarten

Grundschule

Hauptschule

Realschule

Gesamtschule

Gymnasium

de-DE

Some values may have one-to-one equivalence. Others do not. Middle school (junior high) may include one or more of Hauptschule / Realschule / Gymnasium / Gesamtschule. The values imply different age ranges, different educational objectives and values and different social structures.

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Restricted Vocabularies

Multilingual / multicultural restricted vocabularies must be developed as standards by in-country domain experts. Equivalence should be contolled, standardized and authoritative.

LOM 5.2 Learning Resource Type

element value space

exercise

simulation

questionnaire

diagram

figure

graph

index

slide

table

narrative text

exam

experiment

problem statement

self assessment

lecture

European Treasury Browser

Controlled Vocabulary

authoritative

equivalence

Lecture

Vorlesung

Conferencia

Conferenza

Föreläsningar

Foredrag

διάλεξη

validated mapping

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Restricted Vocabularies

Multilingual / multicultural restricted vocabularies should be concept-based. For two vocabulary items to be equivalent they should represent the same concept. The concepts should be documented in authoritative multilingual glossaries such as those specified in ISO 12620. Such glossaries provide one of the bases for external parallel metadata methods.

concept

ISO 12620 Glossary

label

lecture

Vorlesung

Conferencia

Conferenza

Föreläsningar

διάλεξη

Foredrag

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Concept Object

Concept objects are the core of terminology glossaries. They organize both monolingual and multilingual data. Organized into terminology glossary databases for computer-assisted translation, they are indispensable in today’s language industry.

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KOS, Glossary and Concept

When concepts are documented in authoritative multilingual glossaries they can also provide the basis for KOS (knowledge organization systems) of use in concept-mediated monolingual and multilingual browsing and searching in DLs.

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ISO 12620 Terminology Glossary

  • A terminology is concept-oriented.

  • A terminology is documented in a glossary, not a dictionary.

  • A terminology glossary is organized by concept, not by linguistic label.

  • A term is the word, lexical string, or linguistic label used to designate a single concept in the language / culture / subculture of a special subject field.

  • A glossary documents the multiple words or lexical strings (in a single language or in multiple languages) that designate a single concept.

  • A glossary thus organizes synonyms (monolingual) and equivalents (multilingual) of a concept.

  • The organization of a terminology system / glossary reflects the knowledge organization system of the domain it describes. It is also a Knowledge Organization System (KOS) document.

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term type

term type

ISO 12620 Data Categories I

Glossary

ISO 12620 Data Categories

<termEntry id="boundary conditions">

concept

<descrip type="subjectField">Computational Materials Science</descrip>

<descrip type="definition"> Those physical and/or mechanical conditions existing around the surfaces and limits of a structural body.</descrip>

<admin type="source"> Composite Materials Dictionary: http://composite.about.com/library/glossary/blglossary-d.htm </admin>

concept description

concept relations

<descrip type="superordinateconcept" target="boundary "> boundary </descrip>

administration

<admin type="originatingPerson">Adriana Luchian</admin>

language set

<langSet xml:lang="en-us">

term (label) description

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term type

term type

<termNote type='transferComment'>...</

ISO 12620 Data Categories II

language set

<tig>

<term>boundary conditions</term>

<date>4/12/03</date>

<descrip type="context">For solids with spatial discontinuities, such as bounded solids or those containing holes, crack, interfaces, etc., we need to satisfy some prescribed boundary conditions.</descrip>

<admin type="source">Computational Materials Science Corpus, Kent State University, March, 2003</admin>

</tig>

<langSet xml:lang="en-us">

term (label) information

equivalence

<termNote type='transferComment'>...</

<tig>

<term>conditions limites</term>

<date>4/12/03</date>

<descrip type="context">Elles ont été appliquées au cas d'un objet impénétrable " mou " (condition de Dirichlet sur son contour) par C. Rozier et objet " dur " (condition de Neumann sur son contour) par E. Bocly et moi-même immergé dans un guide d'onde dont les parois sont impénétrables (la condition limite à la surface est de Dirichlet et sur le fond de Neumann).</descrip>

<admin type="source">Computational Materials Science Corpus, Kent State University, March, 2003</admin>

</tig>

language set

term (label) information

<langSet xml:lang=“fr-fr">

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ISO TC 37 Glossaries

Thomas Baker, in his discussion of the Dublin Core in multiple languages, laments the lack of “comprehensive dictionaries” for metadata labels and vocabularies.2

Many issues in multilingual, multicultural DL development revolve around cultural variation in concept description and concept systems (KOS) and establishing linguistic authority (access to authoritative terms, documentation of authority and availability of authoritative equivalents). What we really need to support DL metadata schemas is not a “dictionary,” but standards-based external internationalization strategies such as TMX translation memories and multilingual terminology glossaries as defined by ISO TC 37’s ISO 12620 and other standards.

ISO TC 37: Standardization of principles, methods and applications

relating to terminology and other language resources.

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ISO TC 37 Glossaries and Searching

Glossary

A concept-based multilingual glossary can be implemented to support cross-language searching. A glossary can provide authority for keyword selection where multilingual equivalents are then included in “parallel” in the resource record. Alternatively, a glossary-based DL can make it unnecessary to include more than one local term in the resource record.

Keyword L2

query

Keyword L1

Keyword L3

concept-mediated multilingual search

KeywordL4

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Glossary

Data Element Names

A glossary can also be implemented to provide localized labels for data element names. In the event there are “local” versions of a schema (a Dublin Core or IEEE-LOM not in English) that need to be equated for software exchange, or data elements that need to be explained (training, help files) or used in an interface (resource submission form) a glossary can provide authoritative multi-language labels for a canonical data element name and its attributes.

token

L1 element name

canonical element name

or identifier

L2 element name

label

L3 element name

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Conclusion & References

  • Adding multilingual and multicultural metadata to a DL involves:

  • Determining the metadata elements, attributes , value spaces and values that are culturally dependent and, if the display and interface are to be localized, those metadata elements that are to be rendered in multiple languages;

  • Providing external parallel strategies for localization;

  • The external parallel system is a more robust localization approach, providing control, administrative tools, authoritative terminology, and authority for translations and equivalents.

  • The external parallel system offers reusability, scalability and leverages the strengths of international standards.

  • European Committee for Standardization. 2003. CEN Workshop Agreement 14643. Internationalisation of the IEEE Learning Object Metadata. ICS 03.180; 35.060; 35.240.99.

  • Baker, Thomas. 1997. Metadata Semantics Shared Across Languages: Dublin Core in languages other than English. http://dublincore.org/documents/multilingual-semantics/

  • European Schoolnet. Recommended data model format to be used as a standard by national systems to include national/local resources in the EU Treasury Browser. http://www.en.eun.org/etb/survey/d4.2.pdf

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