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Soil Microbiological Activities in Vegetative Buffer Strips and Their Association with Herbicide Degradation. By C.H. Lin, R.N. Lerch, R.J. Kremer, H.E. Garrett, U. Ranjith and M.F. George . Recent Studies Regarding Herbicides and Health, Ecological and Social & Economic Impacts.

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Soil Microbiological Activities in Vegetative Buffer Strips and Their Association with Herbicide Degradation

By

C.H. Lin, R.N. Lerch, R.J. Kremer, H.E. Garrett, U. Ranjith

and M.F. George


Recent studies regarding herbicides and health ecological and social economic impacts
Recent and Their Association with Herbicide DegradationStudies Regarding Herbicides and Health, Ecological and Social & Economic Impacts

  • Public Heath Impact

    The men living in the Mid Missouri, as compared to other U.S. urban areas, tend to have poorer sperm quality and lower sperm counts. (Dr. Swan et al. 2003)

    The lower sperm quality and counts strongly associated with the higher herbicides residue levels (alachlor, atrazine) in their urine samples. (Dr. Swan et al. 2003; Center for Disease Control and Prevention 2003)

    (None of the men in the study worked at or lived next to farms)

  • Ecological Impact

    Frogs exposed to atrazine in the reservoir near Midwest states developed reproductive deformity (hemaphroditic; mixtures of ovaries and testes) (Dr. Hayes et al. 2003).

  • Social & Economic Impact

    To comply drink water regulation, St. Louis County estimated the costs of compliance for their five drinking water treatment plants by the installation of granular activated carbon at a capital cost of $164 million, with operation and maintenance costs of $7 million per year.


Our mission
Our Mission and Their Association with Herbicide Degradation

  • To optimize the riparian buffer designs in agroforestry systems to reduce the herbicide transport from nearby agricultural lands before they reach the reservoirs or drinking water sources

  • To develop the recommendations (species selection and biodegradation agents) and cost-effective management plans to enhanced the degradation of trapped herbicides within buffers


Effectiveness of Grass Buffer Designs in Reducing Herbicides Transport in Surface Runoff (University of Missouri Bradford Research Center)


Atrazine transport in surface runoff
Atrazine Transport in Surface Runoff Transport in Surface Runoff


Metolachlor transport in surface runoff
Metolachlor Transport in Surface Runoff Transport in Surface Runoff


Glyphosate transport in surface runoff
Glyphosate Transport in Surface Runoff Transport in Surface Runoff


Further consideration
Further Consideration Transport in Surface Runoff

A robust buffer design needs to rapidly degrade the deposited & intercepted herbicides before they have a chance to be released to surface and subsurface flow.



Microbial Biomass C vs. Atrazine Degradation in Soils Transport in Surface Runoff

Correlation Coefficient = 0.58

p = 0.015


Contour Buffers Watershed Project Transport in Surface Runoff

Control-traditional corn-soybean rotation

Grass Contour Buffer-redtop, brome grass and birdfoot trefoil

Agroforestry Contour Buffer- pin oak, white oak, bur oak and same mixture of grasses


Objectives phase i
Objectives (Phase I) Transport in Surface Runoff

  • *To evaluate the effect of vegetation buffers and topographic factors on soil enzymatic activities and their association with herbicides degradation

  • To evaluate the effects of the contour buffers on herbicides transport and transformations in sub-surface flow.


(ATR) Transport in Surface Runoff

(DEA)

(HA)

(DIA)

(DEHA)

(DIHA)


Measured enzymatic activities
Measured Enzymatic Activities Transport in Surface Runoff

  • Fluorescein Diacetate Hydrolytic (FDA) Activity (proteases, lipases, and esterases)

  • Dehydrogenase Activity (dehalogenation, biological oxidation)

  • b-Glucosidase Activity (carbon utilization efficiency)


Contour Buffers Watershed Project Transport in Surface Runoff

Control-traditional corn-soybean rotation

E1, E2: summit

E3: shoulder slope

E4: back slope

E5: foot slope

E6: toe slope

Grass Contour Buffer-redtop, brome grass and birdfoot trefoil

Agroforestry Contour Buffer- pin oak, white oak, bur oak and same mixture of grasses


Control Transport in Surface Runoff

E1, E2: summit

E3: shoulder slope

E4: back slope

E5: foot slope

E6: toe slope

Grass Buffer

Agroforestry


Microbial Enzymatic Potential for Herbicides Degradation Transport in Surface Runoff

[Fluorescein Diacetate HydrolyticActivity (FDA; mmole g-1 h-1)]

E1, E2: summit

E3: shoulder slope

E4: back slope

E5: foot slope

E6: toe slope


Dehydrogenase Activity ( Transport in Surface Runoff mmole g-1 h-1)

E1, E2: summit

E3: shoulder slope

E4: back slope

E5: foot slope

E6: toe slope


b Transport in Surface Runoff -Glucosidase Activity (mmole g-1 h-1)

E1, E2: summit

E3: shoulder slope

E4: back slope

E5: foot slope

E6: toe slope


14 co 2 trap
14 Transport in Surface Runoff CO2 Trap


Hplc fsa
HPLC-FSA Transport in Surface Runoff


Microbial mineralization rates of atrazine vs microbial enzymatic activity
Microbial Mineralization Rates of Transport in Surface Runoff Atrazine vs. Microbial Enzymatic Activity

* correlation coefficient


Conclusions Transport in Surface Runoff

  • Contour vegetative buffer across the landscape showed significantly increased soil enzyme activities compared to cropped control treatment.

  • Soils collected from grass buffers showed the highest microbial enzymatic activities and herbicide degradation potential.

  • Topographic positions did not significantly affect soil microbial enzymes activities in this study.

  • The preliminary results from growth chamber study suggested dehydrogenase and b-Glucosidase activities showed promise as useful tools for evaluating the overall herbicide bioremediation potential of various vetetative buffer designs.


Current efforts
Current Efforts Transport in Surface Runoff


Glyphosate and its metabolite
Glyphosate and Its Metabolite Transport in Surface Runoff

Glyphosate

Aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA)


Turbo ion spray lc ms ms
Turbo-Ion Spray LC-MS/MS Transport in Surface Runoff


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