The Nervous System
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The Nervous System. The Nervous System. Receives Information. Nervous System. A system that controls all of the activities of the body. The nervous system is made of:. The brain. The spinal cord. The nerves. The senses. Neurons.

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Nervous System

A system that controls all of the activities of the body.

The nervous system is made of:

The brain

The spinal cord

The nerves

The senses


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Neurons

  • The functional and structural unit of the nervous system

  • Specialized to conduct information from one part of the body to another

  • There are many, many different types of neurons but most have certain structural and functional characteristics in common:

  • Cell body (soma)

  • One or more specialized, slender processes (axons/dendrites)

  • An input region (dendrites/soma)

  • A conducting component (axon)

  • A secretory (output) region (axon terminal)


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The nervous system also allows you to react to a stimulus.

Stimulus

A stimulus is a change in the environment.

Example: A hot stove

Or… tripping over a rock


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Your reactions are automatic.

Automatic

Automatic means that you do not have to think about your reactions.

Example: If a bug flies by your eye,

you will blink.


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Brain

An organ that controls your emotions, your thoughts, and every movement you make.


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Central Nervous System

The Central Nervous System is made of the brain and the spinal cord.

The Central Nervous System controls everything in the body.


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Outer Nervous System

The Outer Nervous System is made of the nerves and the sense organs.

Nerves

Sense organs


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Nerve Impulse

Messages carried throughout the body by nerves.


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You have a nerve along your whole arm.

"Funny Bone"

The “funny bone” is the only place on the arm where the nerve is not protected.

The “funny bone” is on the elbow.


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The Nervous System

The Central Nervous System


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The Central Nervous System

* The Central Nervous System controls all of the body’s activities.

* The Central Nervous System is made of two main organs.

1. The brain

2. The spinal cord


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The Spinal Cord

* The spinal cord sends messages to the brain.

* The spinal cord is the part of the nervous system that connects the brain to the rest of the nervous system.


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The Brain

* The brain controls everything in the body.

* The brain is made of more than 10 billion nerves!

* The brain is divided into three parts and is protected by the skull.


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The Three Parts of the Brain

* The Brain has three main parts…

1. The Cerebrum

2. The Cerebellum

3. The Brain Stem


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The Cerebrum

* The Cerebrum is the largest part of the brain.

1. The cerebrum controls your thinking.

2. The cerebrum controls your memory.

3. The cerebrum controls your speaking.

4. The cerebrum controls your movement and identifies the information gathered by your sense organs.


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The Cerebellum

* The cerebellum is below and to the back of the cerebrum.

1. The cerebellum controls you balance.

2. The cerebellum controls your posture.


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The Brain Stem

* The Brain Stem connects the brain to the spinal cord.

* The nerves in the brain stem control your heartbeat, breathing, and blood pressure.


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The Vertebrae

* The vertebrae are the many bones that protect the nerves in the spinal cord.



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Outer Nervous System

* The outer nervous system carries messages between the central nervous system and the rest of the body.

* The Outer Nervous System’s job is to connect the Central Nervous System to the rest of the body.


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Outer Nervous System

* The outer nervous system is made of the nerves and the sense organs.

Nerves

Eye

Skin

Ear

Tongue


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Reflex

* An automatic reaction that happens without thinking about it.

* A reflex happens quickly in less than a second.


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Automatic Nervous System

* The outer nervous system controls the body’s activities that you don’t think about.

* The outer nervous system controls activities in your small intestine, your breathing, and your heartbeat.

controls



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Sense Organs

Sense organs carry messages about the environment to the central nervous system.


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Sense Organs

The eyes, ears, nose, tongue, and skin are examples of sense organs.

The sense organs gather information (light, sound, heat, and pressure) from the environment.


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Environment

The environment is everything outside the body.

The sense organs gather information from outside the body, then send the messages to the brain.


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Vision is your ability to see.

Vision

Vision involves the eye and the brain.


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The Eye

The eye is one of your sense organs.

The eye is made of the iris and the pupil.

The eye gathers pictures and sends them to the brain.


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The Parts of the Eye

The colored part of the eye is the iris.

The black part of the eye is the pupil.

The pupil becomes larger and smaller as it controls the light coming into the eye.

Iris

Pupil


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When a sound is made, the air around the sound vibrates.

Hearing

Hearing starts when some of the sound waves go into the ear.


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Parts of the Ear

There are nine main parts of the ear.

1. Pinna

5. Anvil

2. Ear canal

6. Stirrup

3. Ear drum

7. Cochlea

4. Hammer

8. Eustachian tube

9. Auditory nerve


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Parts of the Ear

The pinna is the part of the ear that you can see.

The ear canal is the tube between the outside of the ear and the ear drum.

The ear drum is in the middle ear. It vibrates when sound waves hit it.


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Parts of the Ear

The three smallest bones in the body, the hammer, the anvil, and the stirrup, are in the middle ear.

The hammer gets the vibrations from the eardrum, then sends them to the anvil.

The anvil passes the vibrations to the stirrup.

The stirrup passes the vibrations to the inner ear.


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Parts of the Ear

The Eustachian tube controls the amount of pressure in the ear.

The inner ear is made of the cochlea and liquid.

The cochlea is in the inner ear. The cochlea looks like a shell.

The auditory nerve carries the hearing information to the brain and the brain tells us what we heard.


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The Ear and Balance

The ear works with the brain to control your balance.

All of your movements are controlled by balance and muscles.

The liquid in your inner ear is responsible for your balance.

The liquid in your ear moves when we move. The liquid movement sends information to the brain to tell it how we are moving.


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The sense of touch is located in the skin.

Touch

The nerves in the skin allow us to feel texture, pressure, heat, cold, and pain.

Texture is how something feels.


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The nose controls your sense of smell.

Smell

The nose is able to smell 80 different kinds of smells.


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Your sense of taste comes from the taste buds in the tongue.

Taste

Taste buds are the parts on the tongue that allow us to taste.

The four kinds of taste buds are sweet, sour, bitter, and salty.


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Flavors

Tastes and smells work together to make flavors.

Flavors are the tastes of food and drinks.


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