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Bentley & Ziegler, TRADITIONS AND ENCOUNTERS, 2/e. Chapter Thirty-One: The Making of Industrial Society. Today’s topics. The Foundations of Industrialization Industrial Society Social consequences Political consequences Global consequences Soccer. Today’s questions.

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chapter thirty one the making of industrial society

Bentley & Ziegler, TRADITIONS AND ENCOUNTERS, 2/e

Chapter Thirty-One:

The Making of Industrial Society

today s topics
Today’s topics
  • The Foundations of Industrialization
  • Industrial Society
    • Social consequences
    • Political consequences
    • Global consequences
  • Soccer
today s questions
Today’s questions
  • Why did the industrial revolution take place?
  • What were the major consequences of the industrial revolution?
  • Why isn’t soccer the national game of the United States?
slide4

Chapter Thirty-One:The Making of Industrial Society

Foundations of Industrialization

  • The British advantage: agricultural productivity, numerous skilled artisans, navigable waterways, advanced banking and financial institutions, a supportive government
  • The backdrop was that of an increasing consumer demand in Europe – an early integration of markets
slide5

Chapter Thirty-One:The Making of Industrial Society

  • Foundations of Industrialization
    • Industrialization was fuelled by the pace of innovation – good examples are with Crompton’s ‘mule’ (1779) and Cartwright’s power loom (1785), or Watt’s steam engine (1765) and Stephenson’s steam locomotive (1815)
    • The factory system replaced the ‘putting out’ system – but it also created a new urban laboring class, and there were early revolts against industrialization by the Luddites who feared losing their livelihood and lifestyle
slide6

Chapter Thirty-One:The Making of Industrial Society

  • Foundations of Industrialization
    • Britain eventually lost it’s lead as Belgium, France and Germany began to develop.
    • By 1900, the United States, backed by plentiful labor and resources, became a major industrial power and innovator (e.g. Eli Whitney’s use of interchangeable parts and Henry Ford’s introduction of the assembly line). These innovations were backed by a set of theoretical ideas (Taylorization)
    • Corporations and monopolies became the staples of western European and North American Industrialization
slide7

Chapter Thirty-One:The Making of Industrial Society

  • Industrial Society
    • Long term effects of the industrial revolution
      • Population growth: the population of Europe grew from 105 to 390 million between 1700 and 1900, and that of the Americas from 13 to 145 million. The fertility rate declined, but the mortality rate plummeted.
      • Growth of consumerism and a ‘wage economy’
      • Emergence of major industrial cities
      • Emergence of the middle classes and a narrowing of the gap between the richest and poorest
slide8

Chapter Thirty-One:The Making of Industrial Society

  • Social Effects of Industrialization
    • The transformation of the family, with the rise of the nuclear family and the destruction of the extended familty as an economic unit.
    • Changing gender roles (but was there ever a ‘golden era’ of women’s roles?). Women became seen as a source of cheap, unskilled, often temporary, labor
    • On the positive side, slavery was eventually abolished as the plentiful supply of cheap labor rendered it economically inefficient
    • On the negative side, the condition of the proletariat was little more than slavery
slide9

Chapter Thirty-One:The Making of Industrial Society

  • Political consequences of industrialization
    • As the middle-classes became more and more prosperous, there were increasing demands for political inclusion and democracy (succeeded in Britain, failed in Germany)
    • Socialism, Communism, and Anarchism were born as ideologies that opposed the brutal conditions of the proletariat
    • Trade Unions emerged to fight for better working conditions and worker’s rights
slide10

Chapter Thirty-One:The Making of Industrial Society

  • Global Effects of Industrialization
    • Industrialization eventually spread to some places beyond western Europe and the United States, e.g. Russia and Japan
    • However, many colonies became not industrial powers but suppliers of raw materials – some later industrialized, but others remained dependent on industrialized nations
today s questions revisited
Today’s questions revisited
  • The industrial revolution was the outcome of a series of circumstantial factors – agricultural reform, technological innovation, capital formation, and political will
  • The industrial revolution truly transformed society, and created an entirely new landscape of social and gender relations; it also unleashed powerful new political ideologies
  • There is no soccer in the United States because of the historical fragmentation of the working classes and the Taylorization of the economy!
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