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Memory. How does memory work?. The Modal Model. Basic info-processing model of memory Atkinson-Shiffrin 1968 The modal model. Sensory Registry. Short-Term Memory. Long-Term Memory. Attention. Rehearsal. Sensory Memory. Recall Sperling

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Memory l.jpg

Memory

How does memory work?


The modal model l.jpg
The Modal Model

  • Basic info-processing model of memory

    • Atkinson-Shiffrin 1968

    • The modal model

Sensory Registry

Short-Term

Memory

Long-Term

Memory

Attention

Rehearsal


Sensory memory l.jpg
Sensory Memory

  • Recall Sperling

  • Participants view a briefly presented array of letters.

  • Tone cued participants to recall items.

    • Change the duration between presentation of array and the recall tone

  • Partial report suggested sensory memory is rather large but has a short duration


Short term memory l.jpg
Short-term memory

  • The theory of STM was brought about during the cognitive revolution and is a product of the information processing perspective

  • It proposed that attended information went into an intermediate short-term memory where it had to be rehearsed (processed) before it could go into a relatively permanent long-term memory.

  • STM is biased toward keeping recent information available and has a limited capacity to do so.

    • Memory span - the number of elements one can immediately repeat back


Short term memory5 l.jpg
Short-term memory

  • In a study of memory span, participants might rehearse digits by saying them over and over again to themselves

  • With each rehearsal of an item, it was assumed there was a probability that the information would be transferred to a relatively permanent long-term memory

  • If the item left short-term memory before a permanent long-term memory representation was developed, however, it would be lost forever

  • One could not keep information in short-term memory indefinitely because new information would always be coming in and pushing out old information from the limited short-term memory


Short term memory6 l.jpg
Short-term memory

  • One of the questions with STM regarded its duration

  • What determines the duration of STM?

    • Decay?

      • Gradual loss of memory “strength” over time.

    • Interference?

      • Access to information is blocked by the retrieval of other information

    • Overwriting?

      • Original memory trace is altered


Decay l.jpg
Decay

  • Brown-Peterson Paradigm

    • “You will not be shocked during this experiment”

    • Study unrelated information

      • ‘T’ ‘K’ ‘B’

      • “wood” “dog” “candy”

    • Count backward by 3’s

      • Prevent rehearsal

    • Vary duration of counting

    • Recall studied items


Brown peterson l.jpg
Brown-Peterson

100

  • Decay

    • (on average) memory information is accessible up to 18 seconds.

Proportion of correct recalls

0

1

18

Interval of counting (sec.)


Decay9 l.jpg
Decay

  • Reconcilable with sensory memory

    • Use it or lose it.

  • Once memory is established, decay is constant

  • What constitutes “established”?

    • Is it always ~18sec.?


Very rapid forgetting l.jpg
Very Rapid Forgetting

  • Sebrechts, Marsh, & Seamon (1989) based on Muter (1980)

  • Used a modified Brown-Peterson paradigm with false trials.

    • B-P task

      • Acoustic (shallow)

        • Long E sound?

      • Semantic

        • Is it animate?

      • Reading

        • say the stimuli aloud

    • Exp 1 regular B-P experiment

    • Exp 2 “Surprise” memory test


Sebrechts marsh seamon l.jpg

Ss presented words sequentially and made a yes/no decision for each word presented or just read aloud depending on condition

Countdown followed

Sebrechts, Marsh, Seamon

Brown-Peterson trial

WOOD KEY TIME

382

Recall


Sebrechts marsh seamon12 l.jpg

Proportion of words recalled* for each word presented or just read aloud depending on condition

LOP

Expect

Non-Exp

Reading

.73

.52

Semantic

.55

.35

Acoustic

.44

.27

Sebrechts, Marsh, & Seamon

  • Forgetting within 6 seconds

  • Expectation of retrieval is necessary to maintain information in memory, but also elaboration can have an effect

  • So again the idea of decay doesn’t provide for the whole story

100

B-P

Proportion Recalled

Surprise Trials

0

1

18

Interval of counting (sec.)

*They looked also at the strict scoring i.e. remembering the whole trigram,

the pattern was the same but with poorer performance overall


Interference l.jpg
Interference for each word presented or just read aloud depending on condition

  • Memory is more active

  • Newly encountered information (if used) limits the access to previous information.

  • Interference is often confounded with “decay”


Interference14 l.jpg
Interference for each word presented or just read aloud depending on condition

  • Waugh & Norman (1965)

  • Present a set of 16 digits at a fixed interval.

    • 1 digit per second

    • 4 digits per second

  • Last digit in the set served as a probe, and had previously been presented once

  • Report the digit that appeared after the probe digit had appeared in the list the first time (target)

  • Manipulate the number of digits that appear between target and the probe

    • Retention interval

  • If forgetting is a function of decay (time) then there should be less recall for slower rate (16 secs) vs. faster rate (4 secs)

  • If interference then should be little to no difference between the two


Waugh norman l.jpg
Waugh & Norman for each word presented or just read aloud depending on condition

100

Proportion Correct

1 Cond.

4 Cond.

0

1

13

Number of items between target & probe

More about the number of items that interfered rather than decay

over time


Interference16 l.jpg
Interference for each word presented or just read aloud depending on condition

  • So the Waugh and Norman results suggest interference from additional information can disrupt memory for particular items

  • Two types of interference

    • Retroactive Interference

      • New information interferes with previously learned information

    • Proactive Interference

      • Previously learned information interferes with the acquisition of new information


Interference17 l.jpg
Interference for each word presented or just read aloud depending on condition

  • A possible explanation for interference is that when given cue, information associated with cue interferes with other info also associated with cue

    • More items a cue is stored with the less effective it will be in retrieving any one particular item

    • Recall fan effect

  • But along with interference as another possible explanation of forgetting, the Sebrechts et al., shows other factors will have a say in how forgetting occurs

    • Expectancy

    • ‘Depth’ of encoding


The decline of stm l.jpg
The decline of STM for each word presented or just read aloud depending on condition

  • The idea of a short-term passive ‘store’ fit in with the current information processing models

    • Rapid forgetting

      • Transient nature suggests different type of store

    • Amount of rehearsal controlled the amount transferred to LTM

      • More rehearsal more remembering

      • Info had to ‘do time’ before getting to LTM


The decline of stm19 l.jpg
The decline of STM for each word presented or just read aloud depending on condition

  • Problems

  • Loss similar for better learned material (initial rapid loss followed by slower loss later)

  • Rehearsal by itself won’t determine what makes it to LTM:

    • Chunking

      • 7 + 2

      • What may be chunked and how chunking occurs can depend on a variety of factors and varies across individuals

    • Depth of processing (Craik & Lockhart, 1972)

      • The Sebrechts article was an example of how DoP had a role even if there was decay

    • Some experiences gain immediate access to LTM

      • E.g. traumatic events

  • Such findings suggested there was more to short-term memory functioning than as a passive storage device


Working memory l.jpg
Working Memory for each word presented or just read aloud depending on condition

  • Function: short-term retention and manipulation of information.

  • Active memory

  • Issues regarding working memory

    • How long?

    • How much?

    • What type?

  • Capacity

    • Forgetting curve (Brown-Peterson)

    • Miller’s 7 +/- 2


Baddeley l.jpg
Baddeley for each word presented or just read aloud depending on condition

  • Model of WM

    • Based on perceptual codes

      • Acoustic

      • Visual and Spatial

    • Information can be retained separate from its use for a short time

    • Coordinating process guides the use of retained information

    • Central Executive

    • “Slave” systems

      • “Rehearse” information for a short time

      • Perceptually based


Baddeley s model of wm l.jpg

Central Executive for each word presented or just read aloud depending on condition

Visuo-Spatial

Sketchpad

Phonological

Loop

Baddeley’s Model of WM

Coordinates the Slave Systems

Response Selection

Guides Attention

Maintains visual and

spatial information

Maintains acoustic

information


Phonological loop l.jpg
Phonological Loop for each word presented or just read aloud depending on condition

  • Two components

    • Phonological store

    • Articulatory control process

      • Subvocal articulatory rehearsal

    • Traces within the store decay over a period of about two seconds unless refreshed by rehearsal, a process akin to subvocalization and one that is dependent on the second component, the articulatory system

  • Important for long-term phonological learning

    • e.g., language learning


Some evidence for the loop l.jpg
Some evidence for the loop for each word presented or just read aloud depending on condition

  • Phonological similarity effect

    • PGTVCD vs. RHXKWY

    • Similar phono code leads to confusion

  • Irrelevant speech effect

    • Colle & Welsh (1976): even a foreign language can interfere with immediate recall of items

    • Because of the nature of the code, the language gains access to the phono store

  • Articulatory suppression

    • Operation of the loop is disturbed if overt or cover articulation takes place

    • Vocalization utilizes same system as subvocal rehearsal, and hence can lead to difficulty learning verbal information

  • Word length effect

    • Span decreases as the length of a word increases

    • Less can be rehearsed within the ~2 sec time frame


Visuo spatial sketchpad l.jpg
Visuo-spatial Sketchpad for each word presented or just read aloud depending on condition

  • Temporarily maintains and manipulates visuospatial information

  • Plays an important role in spatial orientation and in the solution of visuospatial problems

    • Both visual (imagery) and spatial component

    • Possibly two different systems


Some evidence for the sketchpad l.jpg

Baddeley & Lieberman (1980) for each word presented or just read aloud depending on condition

Visual tracking interferes with imagery mneumonic

Irrelevant picture effect

Same result even from just looking at visual stimuli

Some evidence for the sketchpad


Central executive l.jpg
Central Executive for each word presented or just read aloud depending on condition

  • Most complex and least understood component of WM

  • Model suggests CE coordinates the activity of the two slave systems

  • Other potential roles

    • Coordinating retrieval strategies

    • Selective attention

    • Suppression of habitual responses

    • Task switching

    • Temporary activation of long term memory

    • Binding of sensory and conceptual information


Assumptions and predictions l.jpg
Assumptions and Predictions for each word presented or just read aloud depending on condition

  • Slave systems are independent of each other

    • It is possible to do a both a verbal task and a spatial task at the same time

    • Extremely difficult to do two verbal (or two spatial) tasks at the same time.

    • Dual-Task Paradigm

      • Participant must perform more than one task at a time

  • Slave systems have limited capacity

    • Span

  • Slave systems can function autonomously from the Central Executive

    • Can do “Central Executive tasks” and slave system tasks at the same time

  • Central Executive coordinates information based on current goals

    • Implies intentional (conscious) control of WM

    • Coordination involves many processes.


The episodic buffer l.jpg
The Episodic Buffer for each word presented or just read aloud depending on condition

  • “A limited capacity temporary storage system that is capable of integrating information from a variety of sources”

  • Controlled by the CE

  • Feeds information into and retrieves information from LTM

  • Uses a common “multidimensional” code

  • The Episodic Buffer makes the link between Working Memory and LTM more explicit


Working memory today l.jpg
Working Memory Today for each word presented or just read aloud depending on condition


Long term memory l.jpg
Long-term memory for each word presented or just read aloud depending on condition

  • Basically includes anything retained that did not occur few moments earlier

  • Source of information that does not come from the environment


Learning l.jpg
Learning for each word presented or just read aloud depending on condition

  • Storage of information in memory as a consequence of experience

  • Process of acquiring new associations among stimuli, responses and outcomes.

  • What is Learned?

  • How is it Learned?

  • Associative theories

    • Learning

  • Cognitive theories

    • Encoding and Retrieval


Classical conditioning l.jpg
Classical Conditioning for each word presented or just read aloud depending on condition

  • Characterized by the generalization of a fixed or previously learned behavior

  • Responses are elicited from stimuli

  • Unconditioned stimulus (US)

    • Elicits a response without training

    • Shock

  • Unconditioned Response (UR)

    • Elicited without training by a (US)

    • Smacking whoever gave you the shock

  • Conditioned Stimulus (CS)

    • That which through training elicits a particular response

    • Pretty flowers

  • Conditioned Response (CR)*

    • Response to the conditioned stimulus

    • Smacking whoever gives you pretty flowers


Operant instrumental conditioning l.jpg
Operant / Instrumental Conditioning for each word presented or just read aloud depending on condition

  • Based on the principle of reinforcement

    • What is reinforced?

    • What is reinforcing?

  • Development of associations between particular responses and consequences of the response (outcomes).


Basic mechanisms of operant conditioning l.jpg
Basic Mechanisms of Operant Conditioning for each word presented or just read aloud depending on condition

  • Behaviors have consequences

  • Consequences are contingent on behaviors

  • Organisms adapt behavior to match contingencies

  • Consequences usually satisfy a “drive”

    • Biological need

    • Motivational need

    • Well-being of individual


Consequences of behavior l.jpg
Consequences of Behavior for each word presented or just read aloud depending on condition

  • Reinforcement or Punishment

    • Reinforcement

      • Consequences of behavior increase the probability of response (behavior)

    • Punishment

      • Consequences of behavior decreases the probability of response

  • Both Reinforcement and Punishment can be positive or negative

    • Positive: presentation of stimuli

    • Negative: removal of stimuli

  • The result is a table of contingencies…


Reinforcement and punishment l.jpg
Reinforcement and Punishment for each word presented or just read aloud depending on condition

Response

Increase (rein.)

Decrease (pun.)

Positive Reinforcement

(reward)

Positive Punishment

(punishment)

Apply a stimulus (+)

Stimulus

Negative Reinforcement

Negative Punishment

(omission)

Remove a stimulus(-)


Associative learning l.jpg
Associative Learning for each word presented or just read aloud depending on condition

  • Accounts for certain types of memory phenomena

    • Memory Structure

    • Highly practiced information

    • Habitual responses

    • Stimulus generalization

  • Assumes memory mechanism is the same as associative mechanism (single system)


Associative memory l.jpg
Associative Memory for each word presented or just read aloud depending on condition

  • Associative memory theory alone cannot account so well for other phenomena

    • Free Recall

      • No cue

    • Subjective organization

      • Von Restorff Effect

        • Effect of stronger memory for a salient item in a series

    • Sensory Memory

      • “Direct” memory of sensory information

      • Short-term representations

      • No Practice

    • Complexity of language acquisition/production

    • Systematic memory distortions


Beyond association l.jpg
Beyond association for each word presented or just read aloud depending on condition

  • Although simple associative mechanisms described by classical and operant conditioning may account for some aspects of learning, more was needed

  • Subtle shift from learning theories to theories of memory, which emphasized knowledge representation in an information processing system

  • Focused on encoding and retrieval processes to help explain memory performance in a variety of settings

  • Levels of Processing

  • Encoding specificity

  • Transfer appropriate processing


Basic mechanisms of memory l.jpg
Basic Mechanisms of Memory for each word presented or just read aloud depending on condition

  • Encoding

    • Acquisition of Information

    • “Learning” ?

  • Maintenance

    • Retaining information

  • Retrieval

    • Using information

  • How do the processes of Encoding and Retrieval influence what is remembered?


Levels of processing l.jpg
Levels of Processing for each word presented or just read aloud depending on condition

  • Craik & Lockhart (1972)

    • Formalized the notion of “depth” of processing and demonstrated how it affects memory.

  • There are “depths” to which information can be processed

    • Shallow: encoding information in terms of its physical or sensory characteristics

    • Deep: encoding information in terms of meaning

  • Levels (for words)

    • Structural

      • Is it all caps?

      • Shallow

    • Phonetic

      • Does it rhyme with _?

    • Semantic

      • Is it an animal?

      • Deep


Levels of processing43 l.jpg
Levels of Processing for each word presented or just read aloud depending on condition

100

Proportion correctly recognized

0

CAPS?

Rhyme?

Animal?


Levels of processing44 l.jpg
Levels of Processing for each word presented or just read aloud depending on condition

  • Such results suggests that deeper levels of processing produce more permanent retention than shallow levels of processing.

  • Distinctiveness and elaboration may be responsible for the effectiveness of deep levels of processing

  • Other results

    • Intention to learn does not change LOP pattern of results (Hyde & Jenkins, 1973)

    • Generation effect (Slamecka and Graf, 1978)

    • Self-reference task encourages especially deep levels of processing (Rogers, Kuiper, & Kirker 1977

  • Problem: What is “deep” and what is “shallow?”

    • Circular logic

    • If processing is deep then retention will be better.

    • If retention was better, then processing must have been deeper.

    • There is no precise way to measure ‘depth’


Encoding specificity principle l.jpg
Encoding-Specificity Principle for each word presented or just read aloud depending on condition

  • Information is available to the extent to which retrieval cue matches encoding

    • Tulving and Thomson, (1973)


Morris bransford franks 1977 l.jpg
Morris, Bransford, & Franks (1977) for each word presented or just read aloud depending on condition

  • Had people make one of two judgments at presentation

    • Shallow: Rhyming (Does it rhyme with hat?)

    • Deep: Semantic (Does it have a tail?)

  • Two test conditions

    • Recognition

    • Rhyming

      • “Hat”

      • “Did you see a word that rhymes with X?”

  • Test Condition either matched or mismatched original encoding


Morris bransford franks l.jpg

TEST for each word presented or just read aloud depending on condition

Rhyme

Recognition

-

+

Rhyme

PRESENTATION

-

+

Semantic

Morris, Bransford, & Franks


Morris bransford franks48 l.jpg
Morris, Bransford, & Franks for each word presented or just read aloud depending on condition

  • LOP effect for standard test.

  • But opposite for rhyming test

  • Deep processing does not always enhance memory


Transfer appropriate processing l.jpg
Transfer Appropriate Processing for each word presented or just read aloud depending on condition

  • Memory performance depends on the extent to which processes used at the time of learning are the same as those used when memory is tested

  • LOP approach assumed that semantic processing was always superior to non-semantic processing

  • The transfer appropriate processing approach demonstrates that a form of encoding which is “shallow” for one purpose might be “deep” for another.

  • Conclusion

    • Memory not just a function of depth of processing

    • Depends also on the match between encoding processes and type of test


Interaction of encoding and retrieval l.jpg
Interaction of Encoding and Retrieval for each word presented or just read aloud depending on condition

  • Context Congruency

  • Godden & Baddeley

    • Divers memorized a list of words

    • Half learned the words on dry land

    • Half learned words underwater

    • Tested either on dry land or underwater


Recap l.jpg
Recap for each word presented or just read aloud depending on condition

LEVELS OF PROCESSING

  • emphasizes operations at encoding

  • semantic/elaborative processing better for LTM

    ENCODING SPECIFICITY

  • emphasizes that information about retrieval cue must be encoded at study for cue to be effective

    TRANSFER APPROPRIATE PROCESSING

  • memory best when processes at test match processes used at study

*For another view, see Nairne, 2002


Different methods of retrieval l.jpg
Different Methods of Retrieval for each word presented or just read aloud depending on condition

  • What is your name?

    • Automatic

  • What is the Capital of Australia?

    • Generate & recognize

  • What are you doing next Tuesday at 1200?

    • Schema + Search

  • What is the layout of your house?

    • Spatial

  • Is “FLORB” a word?

    • Direct access

  • What was Beethoven’s telephone number?

    • General knowledge search


Basic mechanisms l.jpg
Basic Mechanisms for each word presented or just read aloud depending on condition

  • General Principles of Memory

  • Strength

    • Background

    • Contextual

  • Congruity

    • Between encoding and retrieval

  • Organization

  • Distinctiveness

    • Segregate item in memory

  • Spacing

    • Massed vs. Distributed

  • Recency and Primacy


Spacing l.jpg
Spacing for each word presented or just read aloud depending on condition

  • Old rule: Spacing learning enhances recall

  • Bahrick family and foreign language learning 


Spacing55 l.jpg
Spacing for each word presented or just read aloud depending on condition

  • Why does it work?

  • Varying encodings may lead to more associations

  • Reminds of earlier presentation, so may reinforce earlier learning (perhaps increasing baseline activation)


Recency and primacy l.jpg

100 for each word presented or just read aloud depending on condition

Proportion Recalled

0

Beg.

Mid.

End

Position in List

Recency and Primacy

  • Demonstrated in the serial-position curve

  • Learn a list of items in order…

  • ..and reproduce the list in order


Recency and primacy57 l.jpg
Recency and Primacy for each word presented or just read aloud depending on condition

  • Primacy

    • Memory advantage for items initially encountered.

    • Rehearsal?

    • Distinctiveness?

  • Recency

    • Memory advantage for items recently encountered.

    • Working memory?


Retrieval l.jpg

Differ… for each word presented or just read aloud depending on condition

What and how information is retrieved.

Memory trace

Reconstruction

Share…

Emphasis on information available at retrieval

Cues

Contextual information

Something guides retrieval

Memory as a Decision

Many different theories about how retrieval takes place.

Information Processing Theories

Modal Model, LOP, TAP

Associative Theories

ACT-R, TODAM

Search Models

SAM, REM

Trace Theories

Perturbation Model

Connectionist Models

PDP, EPIC

Biological-Based Theories

HERA, CARA

Retrieval


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