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Lecture 13. February 21, 2002 Chapter 18 The Evolution of Animal Diversity Chapter 31 Plants. Learning Objectives (1 of 2). Define Class Aves Class Mammalia List: The reptile-like characters of Archaeopteryx Recite: 2 pieces of evidence that birds evolved from reptiles

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Lecture 13

February 21, 2002

Chapter 18 The Evolution of Animal Diversity

Chapter 31 Plants


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Learning Objectives (1 of 2)

  • Define

    • Class Aves

    • Class Mammalia

  • List:

    • The reptile-like characters of Archaeopteryx

  • Recite:

    • 2 pieces of evidence that birds evolved from reptiles

    • 3 basic types of mammals


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Learning Objectives (2 of 2)

  • Recall:

    • The species of General Sherman

  • Contrast

    • Monocots and Dicots

    • Xylem and phloem


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Reptiles

  • Evolved from amphibians

  • Can live on land for entire life

  • 2 Major features:

    • Developed “amniotic land egg” to do this

      • No longer require water for reproduction

    • Water-proof skin

      • To conserve water





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Bird Evolution

  • Believed to have evolved from small, carnivorous dinosaurs

    • Dino hand bones similar to bird wing bones

    • When given certain hormones, chicken embryos will develop teeth!


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Archaeopteryx

  • A very early bird!

  • Reptilian characteristics

    • Long tail

    • Wing claws

    • Teeth

    • Scales on feet


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Class Aves

  • All birds:

    • Have feathers!

    • Are endothermic (warm-blooded)

    • Lay eggs


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Class Mammalia

  • All mammals:

    • Have fur (yes, even whales & dolphins)

    • Feed their offspring milk

    • Are endothermic


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Three Basic Kinds of Mammals

  • Monotremes:

    • They lay eggs!

    • Include platypus

  • Marsupials:

    • Carry young in pouch

    • Ex: kangaroos, opposums

  • Eutherians (placentals):

    • Longer pregnancy

    • More developed young



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Question

  • Which group evolved earliest in the history of life?

    • Fish

    • Dinosaurs

    • Mammals

    • Birds


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Another Question

  • Are birds animals?

  • Are fish animals?


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7th Inning Stretch


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World’s Biggest Plant

  • The General Sherman Tree

    • Species is Sequoiadendron gigantea

    • Central California

    • 2500 years old!!!

    • National Park Service site

    • US Geological Survey site


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Angiosperms

  • These are flowering plants

  • Two basic types:

    • Monocots

    • Dicots


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Monocots

  • Have one “seed leaf”

  • Root network very fibrous

  • Leaves have parallel veins

  • Examples: orchids, bamboos, palms, grasses (including rice, other grains)


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Dicots

  • Have two “seed leaves”

  • One main taproot plus root hairs

  • Leaves have multiply branched veins

  • Ex: trees, shrubs, carrots


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Question:

  • Where would we classify pine trees?


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Answer:

  • Trick question: they aren’t angiosperms

  • They’re gymnosperms (no flowers!)


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Conductive Tissues

  • Xylem

  • Phloem


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Xylem

  • Contains water-conducting cells

  • Carries water and nutrients toward the leaves


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Phloem

  • Contains food conducting cells

  • Transports sugars to tissues, roots


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