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Interviewing: Any Questions?. Interviewing as a Communication Interaction October 26. Interviewing Defined. Planned, face to face encounters in which at least one of the participants has a specific objective in mind

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Interviewing: Any Questions?

Interviewing as a Communication Interaction

October 26


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Interviewing Defined

  • Planned, face to face encounters in which at least one of the participants has a specific objective in mind

  • Specialized, purposive, dyadic interaction that consists primarily of questions and answers

  • Conversation with a purpose

  • Formality, strategy, Q and A


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Types of Interviews

  • Counseling interviews

  • Employment interviews

  • Exit interviews

  • Grievance interviews

  • Performance appraisal interviews

  • Persuasive interviews

  • Group/panel interviews

  • Information gathering interviews


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Interview Phases

  • Opening Phase

    --Establishing rapport

    --Determining orientation

    --Understanding motivation

  • Question-Response Phase

  • Closing Phase

    --Post-interview followup


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Types of Interview Questions

  • Open/Hypothetical Open questions

  • Closed questions

  • Probing questions

  • Loaded questions

  • Leading questions


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Legal Issues and Interviews

  • Equal Employment Opportunity Laws

    --more than 15 employees

    --more than $50,000 in federal contracts

    --engage in interstate commerce

  • BFOQ--Bona Fide Occupational Qualifications


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Dealing With Illegal Questions

  • How badly do you want the job?

  • Ask for clarification/connection to job

  • Side step and neutralize

  • Listen for the fear behind the question

  • Is this a gross violation?---contact the company


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Preparing for Selection Interviews

  • Review your own strengths and weaknesses

  • Practice potentially difficult questions

  • Research the company

  • Research the interviewer if possible

  • Anticipate requests

    --resumes

    --drug tests


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Why Interviews Fail??

  • Style Problems--personal appearance, limp handshake, lack of eye contact

  • Attitude Problems--superiority complex, not willing to start at the bottom, no sense of humor

  • Communication Problems--inability to express oneself, nervousness, condemned past employers, couldn’t explain problems on resume


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Interviews as Rhetorical Situations

  • Interviews proceed from an exigence

  • Interviews occur within some system of constraints (the setting--legal, social, time dimensions, psychological climate, legal and ethical constraints

  • Interviews are geared toward a particular audience


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Interview Structures

  • The Funnel Sequence--broad, open-ended questions narrowing to more specific

  • The Inverted Funnel Sequence--more inductive, specific to general

  • The Tunnel Sequence--similarly structured questions suggesting that the candidate follow with responses at the same level of specificity



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Political communication as a subset of communication

  • It’s all about process

  • Three main actors—leaders, media, and the public

  • Involves the exchange and interpretation of messages

  • Broadly concerned with governance or public policy


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The Academic Study of Political Communication

  • Can use quantitative methods (measuring effects and attitudes, attempts to predict outcomes)

  • Can use qualitative (studies of presidential rhetoric, attempts to reach understanding of individual cases)

  • Underlying thesis—can’t understand politics without studying communication systems and messages


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What do PoliComm folks study?

  • The “Rhetorical Presidency”

  • Role of the media in the political process

  • Genres of presidential rhetoric

  • Campaigns and advertising

  • Debates

  • New media and its impact on the political process

  • Agenda setting—we don’t tell people what to think, we tell them what to think about!


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Classics of PoliComm: Paul Lazarsfeld

  • First comprehensive study of politics and media use, Erie NY, 1940

  • Spent six months conducting interviews and tracking individuals and their attitudes

  • Findings

    • Social factors are the best predictors of voting

    • The two-step flow theory (Interpersonal trumps mass media)

    • Opinion leaders and their influence

    • Overall, media effects are limited and constrained


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Classics of PoliComm: Joseph Klapper

  • 1960 book, The Effects of Mass Communication, student of Lazarsfeld

  • Research to this point did not support any significant, independent effects of media

  • The hypodermic needle theory is wrong, media may reinforce but not control

  • People use mechanisms to blunt media influence: selective exposure, selective attention, selective retention


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A Political Communication Quiz

Answer true or false to the following

statements:

  • Most presidents make a strong effort to keep most of their campaign promises.

  • General election presidential political ads spend more than half of their air time attacking


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Political Communication Quiz

  • When candidates make statements in speeches, they usually expect us to take them at their word and so provide little supporting evidence.

  • Most candidates ads lie most of the time.

  • The quality of presidential general election campaigns has steadily worsened over the year


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Political Communication Quiz

  • Campaign discourse in speeches and debates has become steadily more negative over the years.

  • Reporters pretty accurately represent the content and level of attack in their stories about candidate speeches.

  • Voters prefer ads that contrast the records of the candidates to ads that simply attack.


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Political Communication Quiz

  • There isn’t much useful information in campaigns; it’s all mostly hype.

  • Political advertising truns off voters and makes them stay away from the polls as a result.

  • Women know less than men about politics.


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