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Integrating Homeland Security into Emergency Management Courses: Some Grounding Concepts  and Some Suggested Materials and Approaches PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Integrating Homeland Security into Emergency Management Courses: Some Grounding Concepts  and Some Suggested Materials and Approaches. Paula D. Gordon, Ph.D. An Expanded Version of a Presentation Given at the FEMA Higher Education Conference, Emmitsburg, Maryland, June 5, 2008 .

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Integrating Homeland Security into Emergency Management Courses: Some Grounding Concepts  and Some Suggested Materials and Approaches

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Integrating Homeland Security into Emergency Management Courses: Some Grounding Concepts and Some Suggested Materials and Approaches

Paula D. Gordon, Ph.D.

An Expanded Version of a Presentation Given at the FEMA Higher Education Conference, Emmitsburg, Maryland, June 5, 2008


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An All-Hazards Approach

  • A case for an all-hazards approach that encompasses a full range of possible hazards and catastrophic events that face us post 9/11 and post Katrina.

  • The shift in Federal policy evident in the National Strategy for Homeland Security released October 5, 2007.


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Excerpts from the National Strategy for Homeland Securityreleased October 5, 2007

The following excerpt underscores dimensions of the challenges before us:

"While protecting the lives and livelihoods of the American people demands that we work to prevent and disrupt terrorist attacks in the Homeland, it also requires that we undertake measures to deter the threat of terrorism, mitigate the Nation's vulnerabilities, and minimize the consequences of an attack or disaster should it occur. Our efforts include, among other things, protecting our population from infectious diseases and catastrophic public health threats, as well as reducing the effects and consequences of all hazards through improved systems to notify, alert, and warn the public."


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Excerpts from the National Strategy for Homeland Securityreleased October 5, 2007 (Continued)

In the National Strategy, the need to carry out and "advance readiness activities" is also emphasized in the following way:

"There are times when we are able to anticipate impending or emergent events that will require a national response, such as an upcoming hurricane season, a potential pandemic, or a period of heightened terrorist threat."


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Some Perspectives Concerning Emergency ManagementAnd the Role of Homeland Security Concerns in Emergency Management

  • Is the focus of emergency management solely on natural hazards?

  • Does the focus on emergency management include an all-hazards approach that encompasses terrorism and homeland security threats and challenges?

  • Does the focus on emergency management encompass both an all-hazards approach and attention to catastrophic events?

  • Does the focus on emergency management encompasses a goal of helping individuals develop the knowledge base, skill sets, and capabilities needed to assume and more effectively carry out their roles of responsibility relating to an all-hazards approach to emergency management?


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Some Organizing Typologies, Concepts, and Tools

  • Todd Stewart’s Counter-Terrorism Strategic Model:

    Similarities between this depiction

    of the homeland security cycle

    and the emergency management cycle

  • A Typology of Emergencies of Differing Levels of Severity

  • The Homeland Security Impact Scale and its

    Applicability to an All-Hazards Approach to

    Emergency Management

  • The Public Safety/National Security Grid


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Todd Stewart’s Counter-Terrorism Strategic Model:

  • Todd Stewart's model is helpful in depicting a comprehensive approach to preventing as well as preparing for and responding to potential terrorist-related events.

  • A model that helps clarify key similarities and differences between the homeland security cycle and the emergency management cycle

  • A model that importantly includes mitigation.


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Todd Stewart’s Counter-Terrorism Strategic Model

Identify & Characterize

Threats

Recovery &

Reconstitution

Deterrence

Post-Event

Response

Prediction

TERRORISM

EVENT OR

CAMPAIGN

Forensics &

Attribution

Prevention

(Pre-emption)

Crisis

Management

Mitigation

(Preparation

and Protection)

Detect &

Characterize


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A Typology of Emergencies of Differing Levels of Severity

  • A typology that is pertinent to an all-hazards approach to emergency management as well as to a natural hazards approach to emergency management

  • A typology that helps clarify the differences in impacts of emergencies of differing levels of severity and the implications of those differences for the emergency management cycle


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A Typology of Emergencies


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The Homeland Security Impact Scale: Its Applicability to an All-Hazards Approach to Emergency Management

  • The Homeland Security Impact Scale provides a common frame of reference that can be useful in considering and arriving at a consensus concerning the impacts of disasters.

  • The Homeland Security Impact Scale provides a common frame of reference that can be useful in considering actions that can be taken to mitigate the impacts of disasters or emergencies of differing levels of severity or to address and help reverse them once they have occurred.


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Homeland Security Impact Scale

  • 0 -- No real impact on national security, economic security, or personal security

  • 1 -- Local impact in areas directly affected

  • 2 -- Significant impact in some areas that were not directly affected

  • 3 -- Significant market adjustment (20% plus drop); some business and industries destabilized; some bankruptcies, including increasing number of personal bankruptcies and bankruptcies of small businesses, and waning of consumer confidence

  • 4 -- Economic slowdown spreads; rise in unemployment and underemployment accompanied by possible isolated disruptive incidents and acts, increase in hunger and homelessness

  • 5 -- Cascading impacts including mild recession; isolated supply problems; isolated infrastructure problems; accompanied by possible increase in disruptive incidents and acts, continuing societal impacts


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Homeland Security Impact Scale(Continued)

  • 6 -- Moderate to strong recession or increased market volatility; regional supply problems; regional infrastructure problems accompanied by possible increase in disruptive incidents and acts; worsening societal impacts

  • 7 -- Spreading supply problems and infrastructure problems accompanied by possible increase in disruptive incidents and acts, worsening societal impacts, and major challenges posed to elected and non-elected public officials

  • 8 -- Depression; increased supply problems; elements of infrastructure crippled accompanied by likely increase in disruptive incidents and acts; worsening societal impacts; and national and global markets severely impacted

  • 9 -- Widespread supply problems; infrastructure verging on collapse with both national and global consequences; worsening economic and societal impacts accompanied by likely widespread disruptions

  • 10 -- Possible unraveling of the social fabric, nationally and globally, jeopardizing the ability of governments to govern and keep the peace


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Homeland Security Impact Scale(Continued)

  • "Disruptions" and "incidents" can include demonstrations, work stoppages, strikes, organized or spontaneous vandalism, looting, and riots. Also included are sabotage and terrorist acts and attacks. (The scale and these notations have been adapted by Paula D.Gordon from the Y2K Impact Scale developed by Bruce F. Webster of WDCY2K and sent by him to the membership of WDCY2K on March 4, 1998.)

  • "Supply problems" and "infrastructure problems" may include food shortages; availability of potable water; degradation of water purity, water distribution and/or waste management; fuel/heating oil shortages, disruptions in utilities (power, gas, telecommunications), disruption in the financial sector, disruptions in transportation (airlines, trains, trucking, ports, ships); pharmaceutical shortages; disruption of health care services or emergency medical services; disruption of fire and public safety services; disruptions or inadequacies, or overwhelming of public works operations and services.


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The Public Safety/Homeland Security Grid

  • A way of seeing public safety and homeland security as being mutually inclusive

  • A balanced and integrated emphasis on

    both public safety and homeland security,

    not one over the other.


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The Public Safety/Homeland Security Grid


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Some Selected Materials

The following are materials, websites, videos, and DVD’s that can be used in the development of courses and curricula focusing on an all-hazards approach to homeland security and emergency management. Complete references for these materials can be found in the “Extensive List of References and Resources” compiled by Paula D. Gordon and posted at http://gordonhomeland.com * or see http://users.rcn.com/pgordon/homeland/resources.html#13

* GordonHomeland.com (http://gordonhomeland.com ) includes articles, reports, publications, and presentations on homeland security and emergency management and organizational, managerial, ethical, and educational issues. The website has been developed by Paula D. Gordon and is provided as a free public service.


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Some Selected Materials (Continued)

  • Paula D. Gordon, “Improving Homeland Security & Critical Infrastructure Protection and Continuity Efforts”http://users.rcn.com/pgordon/homeland/hscipreport.pdf  or use link at http://gordonhomeland.com

  • Paula D. Gordon, “The Different Nature of Terrorism and Terrorist Threats Post 9/11and the Implications of These Differences” use link at http://gordonhomeland.com or http://users.rcn.com/pgordon/homeland/thedifferentnatureofterrorism.htm


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Some Selected Materials (Continued)

  • Walid Phares, February 27, 2007 Presentation on Radical Extremism, C-SPAN video or DVD

  • Walid Phares, “Education VS Jihad,” HS Today, November 2006

  • “Obsession: Radical Islam’s War Against the West,” a documentary, 2006. Available on DVD at http://obsessionthemovie.com .


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Some Selected Materials (Continued)

  • David A. McEntire, Introduction to Homeland Security: Understanding Terrorism with an Emergency Management Perspective, Wiley, 2009.

  • Claire B. Rubin, editor, Emergency Management: The American Experience 1900 – 2005, Public Entity Risk Institute, (http://riskinstitute.org ), 2007


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Some Selected Materials (Continued)

  • Stephen Flynn, March 27, 2007 Presentation on The Edge of Disaster, C-SPAN video or DVD. Also see CNN archives.

  • Stephen Flynn, The Edge of Disaster, Random House, 2007

  • Michael Leavitt, April 18, 2006 Presentation concerning pandemic flu preparedness planning, C-SPAN video or DVD, ID: 192090 (1-877-ONCSPAN)

  • Naval Postgraduate School Course Materials and videos on radical extremism and the resources of the Homeland Security Digital Library


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Some Selected Materials (Continued)

  • April 2003 Frontline Program: Cyberwar (PBS) (Also see archived program, transcript, and interviews online at http://www.pbs.org .) (To obtain a copy of this video, ID: FROL-2116, contact PBS Video at 1-800-424-7963)

  • Paula D. Gordon, "Infrastructure Threats and Challenges: Before and After September 11, 2001". PA TIMES, Vol. 24, Issue 12, December 2001. Reprinted as a commentary in the Journal of Homeland Security, April 16, 2002. Also posted at http://users.rcn.com/pgordon/homeland/homeland_infra.html or see link at http://gordonhomeland.com .


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Some Selected Materials (Continued)

  • DHS Homeland Security Advisory Council Critical Infrastructure Group The 1-10-2006 Report is available at on the DHS Homeland Security Advisory Council website. (To obtain a copy of the C-SPAN video or DVD, ID: 190653, contact 1-877-ONCSPAN.)

  • Ted G. Lewis, Critical Infrastructure Protection in Homeland Security ~ Defending a Networked Nation, Wiley-Interscience, 2006


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Some Selected Materials (Continued)

  • General Russel Honore, Presentation on Hurricane Katrina, C-SPAN video or ID: 191243, February 13, 2006*

  • General Russel Honore, September 9, 2005 CNN transcript in which General Honore compares the crisis to a football game in which you cannot expect to win any ground in the first quarter*

  • Michael Brown, Presentation on Hurricane Katrina and Weather Emergency Preparedness, January 18, 2006, C-SPAN video or DVD ID 190789.*

    * For particularly significant insights into the massive challenges relating to catastrophic event planning, preparedness, mitigation, and response and the Federal approach to Hurricane Katrina


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Some Selected Materials (Continued)

  • Michael Brown, February 11, 2006, Congressional Deposition (http://katrina.hours.gov/brown/depo.doc ) (Also see Congressional Testimony)*

  • Paula D. Gordon, "Thoughts about Katrina: Responses to Two Questions about Hurricane Katrina and America's Resilience,“ December 1, 2005 (Prepared for the December 19-21, 2005 Forum on Building America's Resilience to Hazards, sponsored by The American Meteorological Society in collaboration with The Space Enterprise Council of the U.S. Chamber of Commerce.) (Posted at http://gordonhomeland.com )

    * For particularly significant insights into the massive challenges relating to catastrophic event planning, preparedness, mitigation, and response and the Federal approach to Hurricane Katrina


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Some Selected Materials (Continued)

  • Susan B. Glasser and Michael Grunwald, "Department's Mission Was Undermined From Start", Washington Post, December 22, 2005 *

  • Michael Grunwald and Susan B. Glasser, "Brown's Turf Wars Sapped FEMA's Strength" Washington Post, December 23, 2005 *

    * For extraordinary insights into the background Federal homeland security efforts from after 9/11 through Hurricane Katrina


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Some Selected Materials (Continued)

  • Paula D. Gordon, Presenter, "Improving Homeland Security - Continuing Challenges and Opportunities," transcript of Emergency Information Infrastructure Partnership (EIIP) Virtual Forum, March 24, 2004. Posted at http://gordonhomeland.com.

  • Paula D. Gordon, "Transforming and Leading Organizations," (Examples from disaster management.) (Posted at http://gordonhomeland.com. Also published in Government Transformation, Winter 2004-05 issue.


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Some Selected Materials (Continued)

  • Paula D. Gordon, "Capabilities and Skills Needed by Those in New Roles of Responsibility for Homeland Security at the Federal, State, and Local Levels of Government." Posted at http://gordonhomeland.com and published in the PA TIMES, Vol. 28, Issue 3, March 2005 (a publication of the American Society for Public Administration).

  • Paula D. Gordon, "Comparative Scenario and Options Analysis: Important Tools for Agents of Change Post 9/11 and Post Hurricane Katrina," Homeland Security Review, Vol. 1 No. 2, 2006. Posted at http://gordonhomeland.com or http://users.rcn.com/pgordon/homeland/optionsAnalysis.html.


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Some Selected Materials (Continued)

  • Paula D. Gordon, "Public Administration in the Public Interest: Thoughts About Public Administration Post September 11, 2001". Posted at http://users.rcn.com/pgordon/homeland/public_administration_in_the_pub.html or see link at http://gordonhomeland.com

  • Paula D. Gordon, "The 9/11 Commission as an Incident Debriefing" May 18, 2004. Posted at http://users.rcn.com/pgordon/homeland/911debriefing.pdf or see link at http://gordonhomeland.com.


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Some Selected Materials (Continued)

  • Paula D. Gordon, “The Homeland Security Impact Scale:  An Alternative Approach toAssessing Homeland Security and Critical Infrastructure Protection Efforts and a Frame of Reference for Understanding and Addressing Current Challenges”http://users.rcn.com/pgordon/homeland/thehomelandsecurityimpactscale.htm or use link at http://gordonhomeland.com .

  • Paula D. Gordon, “Strategic Planning and Y2K Technology Challenges:Lessons and Legacies for Homeland Security”http://users.rcn.com/pgordon/homeland/homeland_strat.html or use link at http://gordonhomeland.com .

    .


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Some Selected Materials (Continued)

  • Paula D. Gordon, “Using E-Technology to Advance Homeland Security Effortshttp://users.rcn.com/pgordon/homeland/etechnology.html or use link at http://gordonhomeland.com .

  • Paula D. Gordon, “A Common Goal for Contingency Planning and Management, Emergency Management, and Homeland Security: Building a Disaster Resilient Nation” http://users.rcn.com/pgordon/homeland/CommonGoal.html or use link at http://gordonhomeland.com .


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Some Selected Materials (Continued)

  • Paula D. Gordon, "The State of Emergency Management and Homeland Security," PA TIMES, Vol. 30, Issue 8, August 2007. Also posted at http://gordonhomeland.com or see or http://users.rcn.com/pgordon/homeland/stateofEM.html .

  • Paula D. Gordon (compiler) "List of Selected Homeland Security References and Resources” (Extensive List) (http://gordonhomeland.com or http://users.rcn.com/pgordon/homeland/resources.html#13 ) This list includes seventeen categories of information, including URLs for websites and portals relevant to homeland security and emergency management.


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Contact Information & Websites

Paula D. Gordon, Ph.D.

Educator/Analyst/Writer/Consultant

E-Mail: [email protected]

Websites: http://gordonhomeland.com

http://www.jhu.edu/pgordon


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