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Energy Resources. Renewable Resources Resources that are naturally replenished or regenerated over a short time span – it is renewed on a human time scale i.e. Trees, biofuels (?). Nonrenewable Resources

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renewable vs nonrenewable
Renewable Resources

Resources that are naturally replenished or regenerated over a short time span – it is renewed on a human time scale

i.e. Trees, biofuels (?)

Nonrenewable Resources

Resources that are consumed faster than they can be replenished, it is not renewed on a human time scale

i.e. fossil fuels, aluminum, etc.

Renewable vs. Nonrenewable
sources of energy1
Sources of Energy
  • Nonrenewable sources
    • Petroleum (38%)
    • Coal (22%)
    • Natural Gas (25%)
    • Nuclear (8%)
  • Renewable sources
    • Hydroelectric (4%)
    • Solar
    • Wind
    • Tidal
    • Geothermal
    • Biofuels
slide6
Coal
  • Organic materials that have escaped oxidation in the carbon cycle.
  • Plant material that is rapidly buried
coal ranking formation
Coal Ranking & Formation

Rank – amount (%) of carbon (C) in coal , heat content

  • Peat (pre coal) – soft brown mass of compressed, largely non-decomposed plant material, ~50% C
  • Lignite – decomposed peat that has been compressed, ~70% C
  • Bituminous coal – burial increases the pressure and temperature on the lignite and causes a conversion, ~80-90% C
  • Anthracite coal – complete metamorphism, >93% C
hydrocarbons
Hydrocarbons
  • Composed of hydrogen and carbon linked together in chains and rings
  • Natural Gas – simple organic molecules
  • Crude Oil – complex chains and rings
hydrocarbon formation
Hydrocarbon Formation
  • Water borne plankton escape oxidation/decomposition before burial
  • Plankton is deposited in mud (shale) – Source Rock
  • Source rock is overlain by more sediment – increasing the pressure (P) & temperature (T) on the source rock
  • Increase in P & T, breaks down organic debris
    • Oil forms at 50oC
    • Methane (natural gas) at 100oC
  • Hydrocarbons migrates upwards (lower density than water) to a reservoir rock (high porosity, high permeability rock)
  • Migration is stopped by either an impermeable rock or a structural trap
oil window
“Oil Window”
  • Generation of oil requires a specific temperature range 80 – 160 Co (If above this temperature oil will “burn away”)
  • Higher temperatures breakdown oil molecules – generate natural gas
  • Exist in the top most 15-20% of the crust
reservoir rock
Reservoir Rock
  • Porosity – amount of open (void) space in a rock, ability of a rock to store a fluid
  • Permeability – interconnectedness of the void space, ability of rock to transmit a fluid
  • Reservoir rock – high porosity, high permeability
  • Cap (seal) rock – low porosity, low permeability
structural traps
Structural Traps
  • 4 common types
    • Anticline Trap
    • Salt Dome
    • Fault Trap
    • Angular Unconformity Trap
distribution of oil and gas
Distribution of Oil and Gas
  • Found in rocks less than 500 million years old
  • 85% of oil and gas occur in less than 5% of producing fields
  • Generally, near Tectonic belts, active in the past 60-70 million years
daily assignment
Daily Assignment
  • Create a concept map that incorporates the following:

Oil Coal

Plant Material Plankton

Folds Faults

Sandstone Shale

Labels the pathways-transition between the components appropriately

Additional items may be included if you feel they help understand the concepts.

nuclear power uranium
Nuclear Power - Uranium
  • Uranium (U) – used for nuclear power
  • Has a Minimum Concentration Factor > 1000
  • Source Rock – Igneous
  • U is leached (dissolved) into groundwater
  • Deposit Types
    • Sandstones that have been enriched with U minerals (groundwater enrichment)
    • U-bearing minerals in rock fractures
    • Placer Deposits
geothermal energy
Geothermal Energy
  • Temperature increases with depth ~ 3oC/ 100 m
  • Geothermal energy concentrated where magma is near the surface
  • Circulation of groundwater allows water to heat up
  • Hot groundwater drives turbines
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