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Database History. 1960s Legacy Systems: Hierarchical and Network DBMS 1970s Relational DBMS 1980s Non conventional DBMS. Non conventional DBMS (OO, Object Relational, Deductive, etc.) .

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Database History

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Database History

  • 1960s Legacy Systems: Hierarchical and Network DBMS

  • 1970s Relational DBMS

  • 1980s Non conventional DBMS


Non conventional DBMS(OO, Object Relational, Deductive, etc.)

Relational Database works well to store just text and numbers as long as there are not many multi-valued attributes.


Advantages of ORDBMS,OODBMS

  • Multi-valued attributes,

  • Super/Sub-types: inheritance

  • Interfaces well with OOPL

  • Multi-media


Serve many applications

Integrity constraints

Concurrency

Security

Views

Easy query language

Permanent Objects

Classes and Objects

Properties and Methods

Events and Messages

Inheritance

Encapsulation

Multiple Inheritance and Polymorphism

DBMS + OO


Characteristics of OODBMS

  • Not as standard as Relational DBMS

  • Object ID (system unique, immutable, not visible by end-user)

  • Versions

  • Many different types of records as opposed to Relational DBMS (many instances of few different types of records)

  • Spatial Component


Common OO Applications

  • Computer-aided design (CAD)

  • Computer-aided manufacturing (CAM)

  • Geographic information systems (GIS)

  • Office Automation

  • Computer-aided publishing

  • Multimedia databases


Non Conventional DBMS

  • Object Relational (Extend the Relational Model)

  • Construct an OODBMS from scratch

  • Knowledge Base Management Systems (OODBMS).


Object Relational

  • Examples:

    Informix Universal Server (many OO features)

    Oracle(limited)

    MS-Access (very limited, picture field)


Informix Universal Server-History

  • INGRES (Relational DBMS – UC Berkeley)

  • POSTGRES (OO features added to INGRES at UC Berkeley)

  • Montage -> Miro -> Ilustra

  • Ilustra + Informix (relational DBMS that dominated market in 80s with Sybase & Oracle).


Datatypes in Informix US

  • Two dimensional data type (line circle, polygon, path)

  • Image data types: supports TIFF, GIF, JPEG, photoCD, GROUP 4 and Fax.

  • Time series data type

  • Opaque, Distinct, Row type and Collection Type


Oracle

  • Multivalued attributes using VARRAY

  • Object type

  • BLOB (Binary large object), CLOB (Characters), BFILE (Binary File), NCLOG (Intern. Characters)

  • 9i: Inheritance


OODBMS references (products)

  • O2 http://o2tech.com

  • Gemstone http://www.gemstone.com

  • Objectstore http://www.odi.com

  • ITASCAhttp://www.iprolink.ch/ibex.com


ORDBMS examples

  • Points, Lines and Circles

  • ASU: University DB Example


Knowledge Base/Deductive DB

  • Expert System + Database Technology

  • Stores rules instead of data

  • Basically Prototypes available at Universities and Research Institutions


Examples of Knowledge BaseDBMS

Datalog (combines PROLOG + Database technology).

http://goanna.cs.rmit.edu.au/~zahirt/Teaching/subj-datalog.html

XSB

http://www.cs.sunysb.edu/~kostis/Papers/xsb_ddb.html


GIS Life Expectancy


GIS Population


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