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CUBA national experience. Synergies and cooperation with other conventions 2003. Cuba and Environmental Conventions. Signed Ratified Climate change19921994 Biological diversity19921994 Desertification19941997. Cuban National Reports. Climate Change: Gas emissions

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CUBA national experience

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CUBA national experience

Synergies and cooperation with other conventions

2003


Cuba and Environmental Conventions

Signed Ratified

Climate change19921994

Biological diversity19921994

Desertification19941997


Cuban National Reports

Climate Change:

  • Gas emissions

  • Study on vulnerability and adaptation

    Biological Diversity:

  • National Communication

  • National Strategy

    Desertification:

  • Action Plan

  • Reports I and II on implementation


Cuban focal points

  • Political and technical focal points at:

    Ministry for Science, Technology and Environment.

  • National Working Groups

    Various stakeholders: Ministries, industrial sector, R&D centers, Universities, local representatives, others.

  • Committee on Environment:

    Overviews actions on international environmental agreements.


CUBAN

ARCHIPELAGO

  • Highest elevation (m) 1974

  • Longest river (km) Cauto 370

  • Relative Humidity (%) 81

  • Mean temperature (ºC) 25

  • Population (millions)11.18 inhabitants

  • Surface in km2 110 860

  • Island of Cuba 104 945

  • Island of Youth 2 200

  • keys 3 715

  • Length of the coasts km: South North

  • Island of Cuba: 3209 2537

  • Island of Youth: 229 98


Principal Environmental Problems

(National Environmental Strategy 1997)

  • Soils Degradation (erosion, bad drainage, salinity, among others)

  • Deterioration of sanitation and environmental condition in human settlements

  • Pollution of terrestrial and coastal waters

  • Deforestation

  • Loss of biodiversity


FOREST RESOURCES

21,9 % NATIONAL TERRITORY

Among the 652hydrographic basins

Forest Patrimony:

Potential forest area:

28%approximately

22%

Present area:


BIODIVERSITY

Vascular plants

6 500 species 3 409 endemic plants (52,4%)

2% extinct

Fauna

  • endemic: 93,4 % amphibians

    • 75,2% reptiles

    • 39,5% mammalians

    • 6,28% birds

16 000 species


MARINE AND COASTAL RESOURCES

  • MANGROVE: 5325 km2

  • (4,8% national territory)

  • CORAL REEF: 3 400km

  • BEACH: 600 km

  • (10% of the coast length)

COASTAL AREA: 6 200 km2

3% reefs

Affected

30% mangrove

90% with some degree of erosion


Holguín

Guantánamo

Pinar del Río

Granma

Santiago de Cuba

  • 80% of productive soils presented different grade of affectations as: erosion, salinity, drainage, among others

SOILS

1959

Affected by conditions

limiting productivity

76,8 %

Affected by one or various factors: 5 millions ha

Provinces with less productive soils:


CUBA

Drinking water and sanitation coverage

(1959) The total volume of surface water storage in reservoirs was 48 millions of cubic meters.


CUBA

Drinking water and sanitation coverage

(2000) Surface water in Cuban reservoirs: 9 600 millions of cubic meters.

Drinking water


AGUA POTABLE

Sanitation


  • National Environmental Strategy, 1997

  • Law 81 of Environment, 1997

  • Cross Sectors Strategies (OACE), 1997-98

  • Territorial Strategies,1997-98

POLICY AND ENVIRONMENTAL

MANAGEMENT


Principal Goals to Achieve

  • Integral environmental management (hydrographical basins, mountains and coastal areas)

  • Cleaner production, recycling and reuse

  • Reduction of pollution (aquatic ecosystems)

  • Enterprise management (environmental acknowledgement and economic regulations)

  • Natural resources protection and biodiversity access and management

  • Introduction of environmental education at all levels


Selected hydrographical basins contain an area of 15000 km2

40% of the Cuban population

60% Social and economic activities of the country


A sample of synergy: hydrographical basins program

  • This program integrates efforts on:

    soil degradation, deforestation, wastes and pollution, water management, biodiversity and protective areas, natural events and natural disasters, climate studies, health and education, employment and other social factors at community level.


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