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CUBA national experience. Synergies and cooperation with other conventions 2003. Cuba and Environmental Conventions. Signed Ratified Climate change19921994 Biological diversity19921994 Desertification19941997. Cuban National Reports. Climate Change: Gas emissions

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CUBA national experience

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CUBA national experience

Synergies and cooperation with other conventions

2003


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Cuba and Environmental Conventions

Signed Ratified

Climate change19921994

Biological diversity19921994

Desertification19941997


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Cuban National Reports

Climate Change:

  • Gas emissions

  • Study on vulnerability and adaptation

    Biological Diversity:

  • National Communication

  • National Strategy

    Desertification:

  • Action Plan

  • Reports I and II on implementation


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Cuban focal points

  • Political and technical focal points at:

    Ministry for Science, Technology and Environment.

  • National Working Groups

    Various stakeholders: Ministries, industrial sector, R&D centers, Universities, local representatives, others.

  • Committee on Environment:

    Overviews actions on international environmental agreements.


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CUBAN

ARCHIPELAGO

  • Highest elevation (m) 1974

  • Longest river (km) Cauto 370

  • Relative Humidity (%) 81

  • Mean temperature (ºC) 25

  • Population (millions)11.18 inhabitants

  • Surface in km2 110 860

  • Island of Cuba 104 945

  • Island of Youth 2 200

  • keys 3 715

  • Length of the coasts km: South North

  • Island of Cuba: 3209 2537

  • Island of Youth: 229 98


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Principal Environmental Problems

(National Environmental Strategy 1997)

  • Soils Degradation (erosion, bad drainage, salinity, among others)

  • Deterioration of sanitation and environmental condition in human settlements

  • Pollution of terrestrial and coastal waters

  • Deforestation

  • Loss of biodiversity


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FOREST RESOURCES

21,9 % NATIONAL TERRITORY

Among the 652hydrographic basins

Forest Patrimony:

Potential forest area:

28%approximately

22%

Present area:


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BIODIVERSITY

Vascular plants

6 500 species 3 409 endemic plants (52,4%)

2% extinct

Fauna

  • endemic: 93,4 % amphibians

    • 75,2% reptiles

    • 39,5% mammalians

    • 6,28% birds

16 000 species


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MARINE AND COASTAL RESOURCES

  • MANGROVE: 5325 km2

  • (4,8% national territory)

  • CORAL REEF: 3 400km

  • BEACH: 600 km

  • (10% of the coast length)

COASTAL AREA: 6 200 km2

3% reefs

Affected

30% mangrove

90% with some degree of erosion


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Holguín

Guantánamo

Pinar del Río

Granma

Santiago de Cuba

  • 80% of productive soils presented different grade of affectations as: erosion, salinity, drainage, among others

SOILS

1959

Affected by conditions

limiting productivity

76,8 %

Affected by one or various factors: 5 millions ha

Provinces with less productive soils:


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CUBA

Drinking water and sanitation coverage

(1959) The total volume of surface water storage in reservoirs was 48 millions of cubic meters.


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CUBA

Drinking water and sanitation coverage

(2000) Surface water in Cuban reservoirs: 9 600 millions of cubic meters.

Drinking water


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AGUA POTABLE

Sanitation


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  • National Environmental Strategy, 1997

  • Law 81 of Environment, 1997

  • Cross Sectors Strategies (OACE), 1997-98

  • Territorial Strategies,1997-98

POLICY AND ENVIRONMENTAL

MANAGEMENT


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Principal Goals to Achieve

  • Integral environmental management (hydrographical basins, mountains and coastal areas)

  • Cleaner production, recycling and reuse

  • Reduction of pollution (aquatic ecosystems)

  • Enterprise management (environmental acknowledgement and economic regulations)

  • Natural resources protection and biodiversity access and management

  • Introduction of environmental education at all levels


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Selected hydrographical basins contain an area of 15000 km2

40% of the Cuban population

60% Social and economic activities of the country


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A sample of synergy: hydrographical basins program

  • This program integrates efforts on:

    soil degradation, deforestation, wastes and pollution, water management, biodiversity and protective areas, natural events and natural disasters, climate studies, health and education, employment and other social factors at community level.


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