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Child Pedestrian Accidents. The Effect of Interventions Over a 6 Year Period Thomas S. Renshaw, M.D. Professor of Orthopaedic Surgery Yale University. Pediatric trauma in the USA. Kills more children than all diseases combined Each year 22,000 deaths. Pedestrian accidents Drowning

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Child pedestrian accidents

Child Pedestrian Accidents

The Effect of Interventions

Over a 6 Year Period

Thomas S. Renshaw, M.D.

Professor of Orthopaedic Surgery

Yale University


Pediatric trauma in the usa
Pediatric trauma in the USA

  • Kills more children than all diseases combined

  • Each year

    22,000 deaths


Ten most common causes

Pedestrian accidents

Drowning

Bicycle accidents

Falls from heights

Scald burns

Flame burns

Suicides

Assaults

Choking

Smoke inhalation

Ten Most Common Causes


Why young children
Why? Young Children:

  • Think that if they can see a driver, the driver can see them.

  • They think that cars can stop instantly


Young children
Young Children:

  • They can’t tell where sounds come from

  • They can’t judge how fast traffic is moving


Young children1
Young Children:

  • They have a field of vision 1/3 that of adults

  • They don’t recognize danger or react to it

  • They think of cars as friendly, living creatures


Child pedestrian injuries
Child Pedestrian Injuries

  • The 2nd leading cause of death in ages 5-9, behind cancer

  • Account for 30-50% of all trauma hospitalizations


Child pedestrian injuries1
Child Pedestrian Injuries

  • 18,000 annual hospital admissions

  • Fatality rate is 4%



From by 61% over a 223in 1992-93

To 87 in 1998-99


Data collection new haven ct
Data Collection by 61% over a New Haven, CT

  • Two 18 month periods

  • 1992-93 and 1998-99


Data collection
Data Collection by 61% over a

  • Hospital records

  • School bus company information

  • City departments of:

    Police Traffic and Parking

    Planning Public Housing

    Economic Development School Districts


Collision mapping
Collision Mapping by 61% over a

  • 26 census districts in New Haven

  • Each collision was mapped

  • Correlated with season of year, day of week, time of day

  • Correlated with demographics


Demographics
Demographics by 61% over a

  • Population density

  • Race, gender, age

  • Income

  • Persons per household

  • Housing units per acre


Comparable for both periods
Comparable for Both Periods by 61% over a

Population Traffic volume up 3%

Speed limits Right turn on red laws

Parking status Public parks

One-way streets Cross walks

Walk signals Crossing guards


High risk factors both times
High Risk Factors Both Times by 61% over a

  • Non-white population

  • Households with >1 person per room

  • More children per acre


High risk factors both times1
High Risk Factors Both Times by 61% over a

  • Occupied units per acre

  • Families below poverty line

  • Lower median incomes


Five interventions occurred
Five Interventions Occurred by 61% over a

  • Educating the children

  • Increased school bussing

  • Educating the motorists

  • Decentralized public housing

  • Increased traffic tickets and warnings


Education for children
Education for children by 61% over a

  • Traffic safety programs in all elementary school grades twice a year (from zero/year)


Increased school bussing
Increased school bussing by 61% over a

  • From 35% of children to 73%

  • More door to door pick-ups

  • Fewer streets to cross

  • 30-45 minutes on the bus = fewer daylight hours to play outside


Educating the motorists
Educating the Motorists by 61% over a

  • Public safe driving campaign

    • Flyers in public areas

    • Billboards

    • Mailings


Decentralized public housing
Decentralized public housing by 61% over a

  • Largest complex demolished

  • Transfers to smaller projects

  • Vouchers for subsidized private housing

  • A nationwide trend to decrease crime and poverty


Increased traffic tickets and warnings by 22
Increased traffic tickets by 61% over a and warnings by 22%

  • In high risk areas

  • At high risk times



Results
Results by 61% over a

1992-93 223 injuries

1998-99 87 injuries

a61%reduction


Other intervention options for high risk areas
Other Intervention Options for High Risk Areas by 61% over a

  • Post crossing guards at high risk times


Other intervention options for high risk areas1
Other Intervention Options for High Risk Areas by 61% over a

  • Install highly visible warning signs for motorists


Other intervention options for high risk areas2
Other Intervention Options for High Risk Areas by 61% over a

  • Crosswalks should be well-lit and painted in bright colors

    • Bright yellow with zebra design

    • Embed rows of small lightsor reflectors in the asphalt

    • Install flashing signs over the middle of crosswalks

    • Self-flagging crosswalks

Not like this


Other intervention options for high risk areas3
Other Intervention Options for High Risk Areas by 61% over a

  • Sidewalks added and fenced or barrier curbed


Other intervention options for high risk areas4
Other Intervention Options for High Risk Areas by 61% over a

  • Traffic lights reset to give children more time to cross busy intersections


Other intervention options for high risk areas5
Other Intervention Options for High Risk Areas by 61% over a

  • Playgrounds should be safe and clean


Other intervention options for high risk areas6
Other Intervention Options for High Risk Areas** by 61% over a

  • One-way streets

  • One side parking bans

  • Speed bumps


Other intervention options for high risk areas7
Other Intervention Options for High Risk Areas** by 61% over a

  • Pedestrian overpasses

  • Ban cell phone use by drivers** very difficult to accomplish politically


Child pedestrian injuries and deaths can be reduced without political battles and without changing the intractable problems of poverty and overpopulation.


You can do this in your community
You can do this political battles and without changing the intractable problems of poverty and overpopulationin your community!


“Never doubt that a small group of people can change the world, in fact it’s the only thing that ever has.”

…… Margaret Mead


Thank you! world, in fact it’s the only thing that ever has.”

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