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1. Siegal & Welsh, Juvenile Justice: The Core, 2007 (Wadsworth) 1 Chapter 8 Peers and Delinquency: Juvenile Gangs and Groups

2. 2 Siegal & Welsh, Juvenile Justice: The Core, 2007 (Wadsworth)

3. 3 Siegal & Welsh, Juvenile Justice: The Core, 2007 (Wadsworth) Peer Relations and Delinquency Peer group relationships are closely tied to delinquent behaviors. Co-offending is a process in which delinquent acts tend to be committed in small groups rather than along. Boys who develop early are more likely to develop strong attachment to delinquent peers. The early these delinquent relations are formed and the closer these relations, the more likely it is that the youth will engage in delinquency.

4. 4 Siegal & Welsh, Juvenile Justice: The Core, 2007 (Wadsworth) Impact of Peer Relations Which occurs first antisocial behavior or delinquent relationships? Four argues: Delinquents are as detached from their peers as they are from other elements of society. Delinquent friends cause law-abiding youth to “get in trouble.” Antisocial youth join up with like-minded friends; deviant peer sustain and amplify delinquent careers. Troubled kids choose delinquent peers out of necessity rather than desire.

5. 5 Siegal & Welsh, Juvenile Justice: The Core, 2007 (Wadsworth) Youth Gangs When the peer group provides the social and emotional basis for antisocial activity the clique is transformed into a gang. Defining what constitutes a gang has been inconsistent. The core elements in the concept of the gang are that it is an interstitial group that fills a crack in the social fabric and maintains standard group practices, such as recruitment, setting goals, and developing status.

6. 6 Siegal & Welsh, Juvenile Justice: The Core, 2007 (Wadsworth) How Did Gangs Develop 1600s – London: Hectors, Bugles, Dead Boys 1780s America saw Philadelphia gangs 1820s New York and Boston also had known gangs 1950s saw an increased awareness of gangs and their crimes. 1960s saw a seemingly disappearance of the gang problem 1970s saw a reemergence of gangs in major cities.

7. 7 Siegal & Welsh, Juvenile Justice: The Core, 2007 (Wadsworth) Contemporary Gangs Extent: National Youth Gang Survey found: Most urban areas report gang presence Gangs exist at all level of social stratus Gang activity has decreased over that past decade 760,000 gang members and 24,000 active gangs Location Large, structured gang clusters are likely to exist in transitional and disorganized neighborhoods

8. 8 Siegal & Welsh, Juvenile Justice: The Core, 2007 (Wadsworth) Contemporary Gangs Migration Community redevelopment has led to gang relocation or migration though most member are “home grown.” Many gangs are formed by immigrants from other countries. MS-13 started by Salvadoran immigrants forming to protect themselves from pre-existing Mexican gangs.

9. 9 Siegal & Welsh, Juvenile Justice: The Core, 2007 (Wadsworth) Contemporary Gangs Types Social gangs are involved in few delinquent acts and are more interested in social activities. Party gangs concentrate on drug use and sales. Serious delinquent gangs engage in serious delinquent behavior while avoiding drug dealing and usage. Organized gangs are heavily involved in criminality.

10. 10 Siegal & Welsh, Juvenile Justice: The Core, 2007 (Wadsworth) Contemporary Gangs Cohesion The standard definition of a gang implies that it is a cohesive group. However, some experts refer to gangs as near-groups. Age Ages range from eight to fifty-five, though most members tend to be only a few years apart. Leaders tend to be a little older than the group. The decreased opportunities for unskilled labor has resulted in gang members maintaining membership.

11. 11 Siegal & Welsh, Juvenile Justice: The Core, 2007 (Wadsworth) Contemporary Gangs Gender Traditionally, gangs have been male dominant. Girls have been involved as auxiliaries, part of sexually mixed gangs or autonomous gangs. National data indicate that girls represent less than 10% of all gang members Why do girls join gangs?

12. 12 Siegal & Welsh, Juvenile Justice: The Core, 2007 (Wadsworth) Contemporary Gangs Formation Gang formation involves a sense of territoriality. Gangs grow when youth who admire the older gang members “apply” and are accepted for membership. Leadership Leaders earn their position by demonstrating fighting prowess, verbal quickness, or athletic distinction. The more organized the gang the clearer the chain of command.

13. 13 Siegal & Welsh, Juvenile Justice: The Core, 2007 (Wadsworth) Contemporary Gangs Communications Image and reputation depend on the ability to communicate to the rest of the world. Graffiti Secret vocabulary Symbols Style of dress

14. 14 Siegal & Welsh, Juvenile Justice: The Core, 2007 (Wadsworth) Contemporary Gangs Ethnic and Racial Composition Hispanic and African American youth make up the majority of gang members. Early African American gangs started as criminal groups since they did not have rivals. Hispanic gangs have a strong sense of turf and a great deal of violence is directed at warding off any threat to their control. Asian gangs tend to victimize members of their own ethnic group, are more organized, and are far more secretive than African American or Hispanic groups. Today’s Anglo gangs are often middle-class youths.

15. 15 Siegal & Welsh, Juvenile Justice: The Core, 2007 (Wadsworth) Criminality and Violence The association between gang membership and delinquency is unquestioned. Selection hypothesis Facilitation hypothesis Enhancement hypothesis Gang members are more violent than nonmembers. Revenge, honor, courage, and prestige.

16. 16 Siegal & Welsh, Juvenile Justice: The Core, 2007 (Wadsworth) Why Do Youth Join Gangs? Anthropological View Gangs appeal to kids’ tribal instincts. Sociocultural View Gangs form because of destructive sociocultural forces in disorganized inner-city areas. Anomie/Alienation View Alienated kids join gangs. Anomic, social, and economic conditions encourage gang activity.

17. 17 Siegal & Welsh, Juvenile Justice: The Core, 2007 (Wadsworth) Why Do Youth Join Gangs? Psychological View Kids with personality problems form gangs and become leaders. Rational Choice View Kids join gangs for protection, fun, and survival.

18. 18 Siegal & Welsh, Juvenile Justice: The Core, 2007 (Wadsworth) Controlling Gang Activity Law Enforcement Efforts Youth services programs Gang details Gang units Community Control Efforts Detached street worker Community mobilization

19. 19 Siegal & Welsh, Juvenile Justice: The Core, 2007 (Wadsworth) Why Gang Control is Difficult Police tactics may be overzealous and may alienate the community. Social and economic conditions must change.

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