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Chapter 11 Notes. Section 1 - Pressure. Pressure - equal to the force exerted on a surface divided by the total area over which the force is exerted. Pressure = force/area pressure units = pascal increase surface area, decrease pressure ice skates

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Chapter 11 Notes

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Chapter 11 Notes

Section 1 - Pressure

• Pressure - equal to the force exerted on a surface divided by the total area over which the force is exerted.

• Pressure = force/area

• pressure units = pascal

• increase surface area, decrease pressure

• ice skates

• fluid - substance which can easily flow

Chapter 11

• All of the forces exerted by the individual molecules in a fluid add together to make up the pressure exerted by the fluid.

• Balanced pressure - air pressure

• pressure at a given level in a fluid is the same in all directions

• air pressure decreases as elevation increases

• water pressure increases as depth increases

Chapter 11

Section 2 - Transmitting Pressure in a Fluid

• Pascal’s principle - When force is applied to a confined fluid, an increase in pressure is transmitted equally to all parts of the fluid.

Chapter 11

Hydraulic System

• Multiplies a force by applying the force to a small surface area.

• The increase in pressure is then transmitted to another part of the confined fluid, which pushes on a larger surface area.

• Small force over small area results in a larger force exerted by a larger area at another place.

• Car brakes, repair shop lift, fire truck ladder

Chapter 11

Section 3 - Floating and Sinking

• Buoyant force - acts in an upward direction, against the force of gravity.

• Makes an object feel lighter

• Archimedes’ principle - the buoyant force on an object is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the object

• floating and sinking - pg. 362

Chapter 11

• density = mass/volume units g/mL or g/cm3

• water density = 1 g/mL pg.363

Chapter 11

Section 4 - Applying Bernoulli’s Principle

• Wright brothers

Chapter 11

Bernoulli’s principle

• The pressure exerted by a moving stream of fluid is less than the pressure of the surrounding fluid.

• Air moves at different speeds above and below objects.

• Difference in pressure causes lift or downward force

• wings pg. 367

Chapter 11

Chapter 11 - Vocabulary List

• Pressure

• Pascal’s principle

• hydraulic system

• buoyant force

• Archimedes’ principle

• Bernoulli’s principle

Chapter 11