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Psychology. Jeopardy !. Click on Chapter 1 to begin game. Chapter 1 : Psychology Questions compiled by Sue Boland, LHU of PA Program developed by Dan Hosey, Bucknell U. Old time Psychology. Modern Psychology. Initial Degrees. Psychology is. Think like a scientist. 100 200 300 400

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Psychology

Jeopardy !

Click on Chapter 1 to begin game.

  • Chapter 1: Psychology

  • Questions compiled by Sue Boland, LHU of PAProgram developed by Dan Hosey, Bucknell U.


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Old time Psychology

ModernPsychology

Initial

Degrees

Psychology is

Think like a scientist

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To Round Two!


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Psychology is concerned with behavior and these processes.

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Pseudosciences like astrology, and numerology make predictions about human behavior. Their predictions, however, are usually also “pseudo”- meaning this.

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Evidence gathered by careful observation and measurement.

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Although psychology sometimes confirms this, it also sometimes contradicts it. Hence, psychology is not just a fancy name for it.

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Two of the three factors that psychologists study that can affect an organism (e.g. person).

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The man usually credited with being the “father” of modern psychology.

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Structuralists used this technique to carefully analyze their own experiences in order to break behavior into its basic elements.

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The name of Freud’s theory based on the idea that people’s problems originated in forgotten events from early childhood.

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An adherent of this early psychological approach would ask how a human behavior developed as an adaptation to the environment.

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An early attempt to describe a person’s personality by examining the bumps on his or her head. (A pseudoscience)

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Current psychological perspective that focuses on the connection between the body and behavior, thoughts and feelings.

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These psychologists focus on how we learn from experience, but they don’t talk about what we think or feel about it.

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This isn’t brain surgery. These psychologists try to get inside your head by studying what you remember, how you solve problems, and how you use language.

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The perspective of a psychologist who is interested in the following phenomenon:

In Japan, when student fail and exam, they are more likely to say they didn’t study hard enough and exam. In the US, students are more likely to say the exam was too difficult.

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Psychologists adopting this perspective see themselves as “archeologists” of the mind, but many other psychologists think this approach belongs in philosophy or literature departments.

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I have a Ph.D. and diagnose, treat and study mental illness

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My Ph.D. enables me to help people cope with everyday problems.

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Because I have a M.D., I can prescribe drugs to treat mental illness.

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I also help people, but I don’t need any special initials behind my name to call myself one of these.

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The first three initials of my degree, MFCC reveal my specialty.

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For example, a statement like this: “I predict that student who attend class earn higher grades.”

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Principle that a true test of a theory or hypothesis might expose the theory or hypothesis as being wrong.

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Specification of exactly how a variable will be measured or manipulated.

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An proposed explanation of a phenomenon

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When other researchers verify or repeat the findings of a scientist.

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DAILY

DOUBLE

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Do you see what I see?

Pass the test

Can you relate?

Experiment

Answer this

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To Final Jeopardy!

To Round One


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The broad category of research method that these fit: case studies, observational studies, tests, surveys.

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An in-depth examination of an individual.

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Watching students in a library and recording their behaviors (e.g., reading, talking, staring into space), is an example of this type of study.

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After inviting a college student into a small room, I drop my pen to see if the student will pick it up. I might be conducting one of these studies.

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Researchers have more control over the situation in this type of watchful study.

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Procedures used to measure and evaluate factors like personality traits, abilities, preferences, and values.

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A test that gives the same result at different times is this.

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If everyone has the same amount of time to take the test, takes the test in a similar setting, and is given the same instructions. The test has been this.

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Standards of test performance.

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If scores on a test of math ability rely heavily on reading ability, then the test lacks this.

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When one goes up, the other goes up, in this form of correlation.

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If there is a correlation of +.90 betweensmoking and yellowing of teeth, I could accurately estimate how yellow you teeth would be based on how much you smoke. This shows that one strength of correlation is this ability.

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For adults, the more they weigh, the less they exercise. This is an example of this type of correlation.

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Bald men commit fewer crimes than men with full heads of hair. I would NOT recommend that we shave all criminals heads as a crime reduction strategy however, because I know this is a major disadvantage of correlational research.

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The type of correlation illustrated in this graph.

Weight in pounds

Height in inches

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An experimenter manipulates this.

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To determine if doing homework using a computer affects children’s cognitive skills, one should not only study computer users, but also non-computer users. The name of this second group in an experiment.

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In an experiment on “brain freeze”, Dr. Breyer has one group of subjects quickly drink a frosty drink, while another group slowly sips the frosty drink. Every minute, Dr. Breyer has each participant rate their headache pain on a scale of 1 (no pain) to 10 (severe brain freeze). The rating of headache pain is this.

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To be sure that similar groups of participants are compared in an experiment, researchers are careful about how they put into experimental and control groups.They use this technique based on chance.

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Procedure to reduce bias that keeps both participants and experimenter in the dark.

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Seeking direct answers to direct questions is this descriptive research technique

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This problem plagues surveys published in popular magazines. Only readers of that magazine, and only certain readers at that, will return the survey.

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I simply can’t ask everybody these questions, so I’ll just ask this subset of people instead.

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A group of people recruited from a population which matches the characteristics of the population.

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This survey item “When did you stop beating your spouse?” illustrates this potential problem.

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FINAL JEOPARDY CATEGORY

Research Methods


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The research method used in this example:

Students kept a daily record of the number of caffeinated drinks they ingested, and were also asked to rate their mood once per hour (while awake).

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What are:

Mental (processes)?

(Examples of mental processes include: thinking, perceiving, learning, feeling, remembering.)

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What is:

False

(When the claims of pseudosciences are put to the test, they are usually false.

Psychologists systematically test their predictions to see if there is evidence to support the predictions.)

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What is:

Empirical?

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What is:

Common sense?

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What are:The organism’s mental state, physical state, or external environment?

(Need two of the three for a correct answer.)

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Who is:

Wilhelm Wundt?

German, 1832-1920

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What is:

Introspection?

(This technique was later rejected because it was not objective, but it represents an early attempt by structuralists (Wundt) to use science to understand human experience.)

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What is:

Psychoanalysis?

(Psychodynamic approach is also an acceptable answer.)

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What is:

Functionalism

(For example, suppose you observe that most men marry younger women. You would ask why is would be adaptive for a man to marry someone younger than himself. What is the function or purpose of this behavior? Any guesses?)

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What is:

Phrenology?

(Unlike modern psychology, phrenology was not based on empirical evidence, nor was it tested using scientific research.)

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What is:

The biological perspective?

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Who are:

Behaviorists

(Behaviorists stick to what they can observe and measure directly. You can’t see another person’s thought.

Social-cognitive learning theorists also believe we learn from experience, but are also interested in our mental processes (what we think, feel, remember etc.).)

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Who are:

Cognitive psychologists?

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Sociocultural perspective?

(Sociocultural psychologists focus on how social contexts and cultural rules influence our behavior. That is how do other people influence our behavior, thoughts, and feelings?)

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What is:

Psychodynamic perspective or psychoanalytic perspective?

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What is a:

Clinical psychologist?

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What is a:

Counseling psychologist?

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What is a:

Psychiatrist?

(Currently, psychologists in the states of Louisiana and New Mexico can prescribe medication. Psychologists in these states have to fulfill certain education and training requirements before gaining prescription rights.)

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What is a:

Psychotherapist?

(Therapist or counselor are also acceptable answers)

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What is a:

Marriage, Family, Child Counselor?

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What is:

Hypothesis?

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What is:

The principle of falsifiability?

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What is:

An operational definition?

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What is:

A theory?

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What is:

Replication?

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What are:

Descriptive methods?

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What is:

Case study?

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What is:

Observational study?

(naturalistic)

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What is:

Observational study?

(laboratory)

Note that everyone in the study was exposed to me dropping the pen, thus they were observed under the same conditions. There was no independent variable with different levels manipulated. The lack of independent variable means this is NOT an experiment.

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Laboratory observational study?

(A researcher has more control in a laboratory setting than in a natural setting. )

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What are:

Psychological tests (or assessments)?

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What is:

Reliable?

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What is:

Standardized?

(A standardized test has uniform procedures for administration and scoring)

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What are:

Norms?

(For example, your scores on the SATs are compared to the scores of other students who also took the SAT. You can then tell whether your scores are below, at, or above average.)

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What is:

Validity?

(A valid test measures what it is designed to measure. Thus a math test that relies heavily on reading ability, may lack validity.)

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What is:

Positive correlation?

(High values on one variable or factor are related to high values on another variable)

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What is:

Prediction?

(If two variables are correlated, one can predict values on one variable from values on the other variable. The accuracy of prediction is related to the size of the correlation coefficient. The closer the number is to +1.00 or -1.00, the more accurate the prediction. Hence, a correlation of +.90 or -.90 yields a very accurate (but not perfect) prediction. The sign of the correlation (+/-_ is not related to accuracy of prediction.

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What is:

Negative correlation?

(High values on one variable – weight, are associated with low values on the other variable – exercise.)

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The inability to determine

cause and effect?

(A lack of hair may not cause a man to avoid criminal activity. Nor is it likely that committing crimes leads directly to hair growth. It is more likely that another variable, such as age, accounts for the relationship.)

What is:

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What is:

Positive correlation?

As values on the X axis (height) increase, values on the Y axis (weight) increase.

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What is:

Independent variable?

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What is:

The control group?

(The group doing homework on a computer would usually be considered the experimental group, because the effect of the computer is the researcher’s focus.)

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What is:

The dependent variable?

(The independent variable is whether the participants drink quickly or slowly.

Most people would name the “quick” group

as the experimental group – because this condition would be hypothesized to lead

to “brain freeze” – the researcher’s primary interest. The “slow” group would be the control group.)

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What is:

Random Assignment?

(Each person in experiment has an equal chance of being assigned to the experimental or control group. Results in the two groups consisting of individuals with similar characteristics. )

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What is :

Double-blind?

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What is:

Survey?

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What is:

Volunteer bias?

(Results in unrepresentative sample, because only certain types of people elect to participate.)

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What is:

A sample?

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What is:

A representative sample?

(One can generalize from a representative sample to a population.)

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What is:

Question phrasing?

(How a question is asked or framed can influence how a person answers it.)

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What is:Correlation study?

(Two variables are being measured, presumably to see if they are related. It is not an experiment because the experimenter is not manipulating a variable. Although survey methods are being used in that the student are answering direct questions, the main purpose seems to be to measure a relationship between the variables.)


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