Biotechnology
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Biotechnology. Altering biological molecules, cells, organisms. Genetic Engineering- modification of genes: Change, delete, insert genes 1. To learn more about cellular processes 2. To better understand and develop treatments of diseases 3. For economic and commercial benefits

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Biotechnology

  • Altering biological molecules, cells, organisms


  • Genetic Engineering- modification of genes: Change, delete, insert genes

  • 1. To learn more about cellular processes

  • 2. To better understand and develop treatments of diseases

  • 3. For economic and commercial benefits

  • Recombinant DNA– recombining or rearranging genes for manipulations, in the same or different organisms

  • Transgenic – organisms that express recombinant DNA


1. Genomics

  • genome is the full genetic information of an organism

  • sequence of the entire human genome (2000)

    • More than 3 billion base pairs

    • between 20K and 30K protein-encoding genes


  • 2. DNA Fingerprinting

  • Forensics

  • Cut person’s DNA and analysis of fragment because every person has a unique DNA fragment pattern due to unique DNA sequence


  • Collect samples

  • Cut DNA with Restriction Enzymes

  • Run cut DNA through gel: Fragments move through gel

  • Separated by size

#1

#2


Larger

fragments

Smaller

fragments


3 genetic engineering medicine
3. Genetic Engineering-Medicine

  • genetic engineering has focused to improve medicine:

    • production of proteins (drugs) used to treat illness

    • creation of new vaccines to combat infection

    • replacement of defective genes (i.e., gene therapy)


  • genetic defects occur because our cells fail to make critical proteins, such as diabetes

    • diabetics cannot control their blood sugar levels because a critical protein, insulin, is not made

    • failure can be overcome by receiving insulin made through genetic engineering


Genetic engineering creates vaccines against viruses such as herpes and hepatitis
Genetic engineering creates vaccinesagainst viruses, such as herpes and hepatitis


  • Gene transfer therapy

    • involves introducing “healthy” genes into cells that lack them

    • With adenovirus was unsuccessful in humans because of immune attack


  • Human gene +

  • virus DNA: Recombinant

  • DNA

  • Put into

  • unhealthy

  • individual


4 gm food agriculture
4. GM food-Agriculture

  • made plants more resistant to disease

  • improved nutritional content and yield

  • made crops hardier and better able to resist environmental stresses


  • supertomatoes withgenes from soil bacterium produce a protein toxic to crop pests

  • “golden” rice combat iron and vit A deficiency with genes from a bean, a fungus, wild rice, and a daffodil to increase its nutritional value


5 cloning
5. Cloning

  • nuclear transplants of a nucleus from an animal cell into the an enucleated egg

  • Wilmut-Campbell: cloned a sheep using the mammary cells of an adult


6 embryonic stem cells
6. Embryonic Stem Cells

  • special cells- Totipotent:

    • ability to form any body tissue and restore damaged tissues

    • each has the capacity to develop into a healthy individual

  • form early in development



As genetic engineering advances, the

ethical questions of the technology

increases


Practice questions
Practice questions

Question 1

  • The total amount of DNA in an organism, including all of its genes and other DNA, is itsA) heredity.B) genetics.C) genome.D) genomics.

    Question 2

  • A possible reason why humans have such a small number of genes as opposed to what was anticipated by scientists is thatA) humans don't need more than 25,000 genes to function.B) the exons used to make a specific mRNA can be rearranged to form genes for new proteins.C) the sample size used to sequence the human genome was not big enough, so the number of genes estimated could be low.D) the estimate will increase as scientists find out what so-called "junk DNA" actually does.

    Question 3

  • A protein that can cut DNA at specific DNA base sequences is called aA) DNase.B) DNA ligase.C) restriction enzyme.D) DNA polymerase.

    Question 4

  • The four steps of a genetic engineering experiment are (in order)A) cleaving DNA, cloning, producing recombinant DNA, and screening.B) cleaving DNA, producing recombinant DNA, cloning, and screening.C) producing recombinant DNA, cleaving DNA, screening, and cloning.D) screening, producing recombinant DNA, cloning, and cleaving DNA.

    Question 5

  • Using drugs produced by genetically engineered bacteria allowsA) the drug to be produced in far larger amounts than in the past.B) humans to permanently correct the effects of a missing gene from their own systems.C) humans to eliminate the chances of infection from blood transfusions.D) All of these answers are correct.


Question 6

  • Some of the advantages to using genetically modified organisms in agriculture includeA) increased yield.B) unchanged nutritive value.C) the ease of transferring the gene to other organisms.D) the possibility of anaphylaxis.

    Question 7

  • Which of the following is not a concern about the use of genetically modified crops?A) possible danger to humans after consumptionB) insecticide resistance developing in pest speciesC) gene flow into natural relatives of GM cropsD) harm to the crop itself from mutations

    Question 8

  • Genomic imprinting seems to involveA) protein signals that block transcription of a gene from its DNA.B) proteins that cause deformation of RNA polymerase.C) methylation or demethylation of RNA polymerase.D) methylation or demethylation of DNA.

    Question 9

  • One of the main biological problems with replacing damaged tissue through the use of embryonic stems cells isA) immunological rejection of the tissue by the patient.B) that stem cells may not target appropriate tissue.C) the time needed to grow sufficient amounts of tissue from stem cells.D) that genetic mutation of chosen stem cells may cause future problems.

    Question 10

  • In gene therapy, healthy genes are placed into cells with defective genes by usingA) bacteria.B) micropipettes (needles).C) viruses.D) Currently, cells are not modified genetically. Instead, healthy tissue is grown and transplanted into the patient.


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