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CHAPTER 12 DNA Technology and the Human Genome. Modules 12.15 – 12.21. THE CHALLENGE OF THE HUMAN GENOME. 12.13 Most of the human genome does not consist of genes. The 23 chromosomes in the haploid human genome contain about 3 billion nucleotide pairs

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Chapter 12 dna technology and the human genome l.jpg

CHAPTER 12DNA Technology and the Human Genome

Modules 12.15 – 12.21


12 13 most of the human genome does not consist of genes l.jpg

THE CHALLENGE OF THE HUMAN GENOME

12.13 Most of the human genome does not consist of genes

  • The 23 chromosomes in the haploid human genome contain about 3 billion nucleotide pairs

    • This DNA is believed to include about 35,000 genes and a huge amount of noncoding DNA


Slide3 l.jpg

  • One example includes telomeres at the end of the chromosomes

Repeated unit

End ofDNAmolecule

NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE OF A HUMAN TELOMERE

Figure 12.13A


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Figure 12.13B, C


12 14 connection the human genome project is unlocking the secrets of our genes l.jpg
12.14 transposons can move about within a cell’s genomeConnection: The Human Genome Project is unlocking the secrets of our genes

  • The Human Genome Project involves:

    • genetic and physical mapping of chromosomes

    • DNA sequencing

    • comparison of human genes with those of other species

Figure 12.14


12 15 connection dna technology is used in courts of law l.jpg

OTHER APPLICATIONS OF DNA TECHNOLOGY transposons can move about within a cell’s genome

12.15 Connection: DNA technology is used in courts of law

  • DNA fingerprinting can help solve crimes

Defendant’sblood

Blood fromdefendant’sclothes

Victim’sblood

Figure 12.15A, B


12 16 connection recombinant cells and organisms can mass produce gene products l.jpg
12.16 transposons can move about within a cell’s genomeConnection: Recombinant cells and organisms can mass-produce gene products

  • Recombinant cells and organisms are used to manufacture useful proteins

Table 12.16


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Figure 12.16


12 17 connection dna technology is changing the pharmaceutical industry and medicine l.jpg
12.17 potential treatment for cystic fibrosisConnection: DNA technology is changing the pharmaceutical industry and medicine

  • Hormones, cancer-fighting drugs, and new vaccines are being produced using DNA technology

    • This lab equipment is used to produce a vaccine against hepatitis B

Figure 12.17


12 18 connection genetically modified organisms are transforming agriculture l.jpg
12.18 potential treatment for cystic fibrosisConnection: Genetically modified organisms are transforming agriculture

  • New genetic varieties of animals and plants are being produced

    • A plant with a new trait can be created using the Ti plasmid


Slide11 l.jpg

Agrobacterium potential treatment for cystic fibrosistumefaciens

DNA containinggene for desired trait

Plant cell

1

2

3

Tiplasmid

RecombinantTi plasmid

Insertion ofgene into plasmidusing restrictionenzyme and DNAligase

Introductioninto plantcells inculture

Regenerationof plant

T DNA

T DNAcarryingnew genewithin plantchromosome

Plant withnew trait

Restrictionsite

Figure 12.18A


Slide12 l.jpg

  • “Golden rice” has been genetically modified to contain beta-carotene

Figure 12.18B


12 19 connection gene therapy may someday help treat a variety of diseases l.jpg
12.19 potential treatment for cystic fibrosisConnection: Gene therapy may someday help treat a variety of diseases

Cloned gene (normal allele)

1

Insertnormal geneinto virus

  • Techniques for manipulating DNA have potential for treating disease by altering an afflicted individual’s genes

    • Progress is slow, however

    • There are also ethical questions related to gene therapy

Viral nucleicacid

Retrovirus

2

Infect bonemarrow cellwith virus

3

Viral DNAinserts intochromosome

Bone marrowcell from patient

Bone

marrow

4

Inject cellsinto patient

Figure 12.19


12 20 connection could gm organisms harm human health or the environment l.jpg

RISKS AND ETHICAL QUESTIONS potential treatment for cystic fibrosis

12.20 Connection: Could GM organisms harm human health or the environment?

  • Genetic engineering involves some risks

    • Possible ecological damage from pollen transfer between GM and wild crops

    • Pollen from a transgenic variety of corn that contains a pesticide may stunt or kill monarch caterpillars

Figure 12.20A, B


12 21 connection dna technology raises important ethical questions l.jpg
12.21 potential treatment for cystic fibrosisConnection: DNA technology raises important ethical questions

  • Our new genetic knowledge will affect our lives in many ways

  • The deciphering of the human genome, in particular, raises profound ethical issues

    • Many scientists have counseled that we must use the information wisely

Figure 12.21A-C


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