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AFRICAN PEER REVIEW MECHANISM : PROGRESS SO FAR AND LESSONS LEARNT NEPAD/ OECD ROUNDTABLE, BRAZZAVILLE, CONGO 12 DECEMBER 2006. Bernard Kouassi and Afeikhena Jerome APRM SECRETARIAT, MIDRAND. Overview of the APRM .

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AFRICAN PEER REVIEW MECHANISM: PROGRESS SO FAR AND LESSONS LEARNT

NEPAD/ OECD ROUNDTABLE, BRAZZAVILLE, CONGO

12 DECEMBER 2006

Bernard Kouassi and Afeikhena Jerome

APRM SECRETARIAT, MIDRAND


Overview of the aprm l.jpg
Overview of the APRM

The African Peer Review Mechanism (APRM) is a self-monitoring instrument voluntarily agreed to by member states of the African Union.

Its primary purpose is:

“To foster the adoption of policies, standards and practices that lead to political stability, high economic growth, sustainable development and accelerated sub-regional and continental economic integration through sharing of experiences and reinforcement of successful and best practice, including identifying deficiencies and assessing the needs of capacity building.”

It is unprecedented in scope.

Overview

Progress So Far

Lessons Learnt

Challenges


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Overview of the APRM

The APR processes entail periodic reviews of the policies and practices of participating countries to ascertain progress being made towards achieving the mutually agreed goals and compliance in the four focus areas, namely:

Democracy and Political Governance;

Economic Governance and Management;

Corporate Governance; and

Socio-Economic Development.

Details on the Standards and Codes and Objectives of each thematic area are contained in the 88- page Questionnaire

Overview

Progress So Far

Lessons Learnt

Challenges


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What does the APRM do?

Monitor compliance with agreed norms, standards and codes;

Promote policy dialogue;

Promote transparency, accountability and mutual learning: through dissemination of Information and best practice; and

Identify gaps and capacity constraints and ways of rectifying them.

Overview

Progress So Far

Lessons Learnt

Challenges


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Member Countries of the APRM

Twenty-five Countries have so far acceded to the APRM as at December 2006.

These are: Algeria, Angola, Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Congo, Egypt, Ethiopia, Gabon, Ghana, Kenya, Lesotho, Malawi, Mali, Mauritius, Mozambique, Nigeria, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, South Africa, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda, and Zambia.

Sao tome & Principe has requested for accession

Overview

Progress So Far

Lessons Learnt

Challenges


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652, 476,125 out of Africa’s total population of 885,977, 259 or 73.67%.

Membership of the APRM constitute the largest countries on the continent.

APRM Coverage

Overview

Progress So Far

Lessons Learnt

Challenges

APRM Countries


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African Countries in NEPAD’S 885,977, 259 or Committees

APR Forum

HGSIC

Benin

Burkina Faso

Malawi

Lesotho

Sierra Leone

Tanzania

Uganda

Algeria

Nigeria

Senegal

Mali

Ghana

South Africa

Congo

Mauritius

Egypt

Angola

Tunisia

Libya

Botswana

Sao-Tome & Principe

Kenya

Ethiopia

Mozambique

Gabon

Cameroon

Rwanda

To date twenty five member states of the AU have voluntarily acceded to the APRM.


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APRM Principles 885,977, 259 or

National ownershipand leadership by the participating country are essential factors underpinning the effectiveness of the APRM.

The APRM process is designed to be open and participatory. It is also guided by the principles of transparency, accountability, technical competence, credibility and it should be free from manipulation.

The APRM is not a score-card exercise, meant to exclude or punish countries. There is no conditionality attached to the mechanism.

Overview

Progress So Far

Lessons Learnt

Challenges


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Organisational Structure 885,977, 259 or of the APRM

The overall responsibility for the APRM is vested in the Committee of Participating Heads of State and Government of the Member States of the APRM [APR Forum].

The 7 – Member Panel of Eminent Persons [APR Panel] appointed by the Heads of State oversees the conduct of the APRM processes and ensures the integrity of the APRM.

The APRM Secretariat provides the secretarial, technical, coordinating and administrative support services for the implementation of the APRM.

Overview

Progress So Far

Lessons Learnt

Challenges


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Strategic partners 885,977, 259 or

The African Development Bank:

United Nations Economic Commission for Africa

United Nations Development Programme Regional Bureau for Africa

Overview

Progress So Far

Lessons Learnt

Challenges


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Structures to manage the process at country level 885,977, 259 or

A National Commission with broad stakeholder representation should ideally be in place to interact with the support mission team.

A trend seems to emerge that includes a Focal Point and Governing Councilsupported by a Secretariat as well as Technical Research Institutes.

While uniformity may not be easy to achieve based on the contexts of countries, national ownership and broad-based stakeholder representationare key features required for these institutions.

Overview

Progress So Far

Lessons Learnt

Challenges


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Country Review Processes 885,977, 259 or

Five Stages:

Stage One: Constituting National Structures and developing the country’s self-assessment Report based on the questionnaire and a preliminary Programme of Action; and the submission of these to the APR Secretariat. The APR Secretariat also prepares a Background paper on the country;

Stage Two: the Country Review Team visits the country to undertake wide consultations with stakeholders;

Overview

Progress So Far

Lessons Learnt

Challenges


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Structures to manage the process at country level 885,977, 259 or

Stage Three: the drafting of the report by the Country Review Team;

Stage Four: the submission of the Country Review Report to the APR Secretariat and the APR Panel, and to the Forum for Peer Review discussions among the Heads of State and Government;

Stage Five: the final stage of the APR process involves making public the country’s report and related actions.

Overview

Progress So Far

Lessons Learnt

Challenges


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APRM Master Questionnaire 885,977, 259 or


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APRM Master Questionnaire 885,977, 259 or


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Progress So Far 885,977, 259 or

The APRM has launched reviews in 12 countries:- Ghana, Rwanda, Mauritius, Kenya, Uganda, Nigeria, Algeria, South Africa, Benin, Tanzania, Burkina Faso and Mozambique.

3 countries have so far completed the entire process -Ghana, Rwanda and Kenya.

South African review process is nearing completion. Hopefully, to be peer reviewed in January 2007.

The Country Review Mission for Algeria has been completed.

Overview

Progress So Far

Lessons Learnt

Challenges


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Ghana Review Process 885,977, 259 or

6 Best Practices including:

An oasis of peace and tranquility in a sub-region perpetually in turmoil.

Unique processes for fostering democracy such as the Annual Governance Forum and the People’s Assembly;

Main Challenges

Low representation of women in politics; corruption; decentralisation; and chieftaincy disputes which have been quite rife in recent year. Others are – bloated cabinet - 88 ministers in all; weak internal capacity for economic policy making; weak oversight by Parliament; and heavy dependence on external aid.

Overview

Progress So Far

Lessons Learnt

Challenges


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Rwanda Review Process 885,977, 259 or

Best Practices including:

The highest proportion of Women in Parliament (49%) in the in the world; efforts in providing social services especially free education; and using ICT strategy to transform the country into a service-based economy.

Main Challenges

Aid dependence - about 90% of the capital expenditure funded externally; relations with its neighbours in the Great Lakes region which has been a source of conflict; and the issue of legitimacy and trust in the Gacaca.

Overview

Progress So Far

Lessons Learnt

Challenges


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Kenya Review Process 885,977, 259 or

9 Best Practices including:

Kenya’s role in pacifying her neighbours; considerable degree of freedom in exercising political and civil rights; promotion of decentralisation; reduction in the prevalence rate of HIV/AIDS;and firing of 29 judges to clean up the Judiciary.

Main Challenges

Delay in adopting a new constitution to replace the colonial era charter; endemic corruption; weak parliamentary oversight; poor representation of women in key positions; and high incidence of poverty.

Overview

Progress So Far

Lessons Learnt

Challenges


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The Programme of Action 885,977, 259 or

The POA is central to the APRM. It is a major output of the review process, which, in itself, brings out the value-added elements of the APRM process in a country.

The three countries are enthusiastically implementing the POA, some even before they peer review was conducted.

They will be presenting Progress Report to the Forum in January 2007.

Overview

Progress So Far

Lessons Learnt

Challenges


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Technical Support to APRM 885,977, 259 or

  • The support from the three strategic partners, together with the Development Bank of Southern Africa has been tremendous.

  • The APRM has established a pool of African experts who provide technical assistance in the implementation of the APRM Processes. The use of expertise from the diaspora has been a major strength.

  • Selection of experts for the implementation of the APRM is through a competitive process.

Overview

Progress So Far

Lessons Learnt

Challenges


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Financial Support to APRM 885,977, 259 or

The APRM Trust Fund, established by the UNDP at the request of the APR Forum is now operational.

Several African countries/ International Organisations have already contributed to the APRM Trust Fund.

Amount Contributed (US Dollars)

South Africa 6,800,000

Algeria 1,500, 000

Egypt 1,100,000

Nigeria 1,250,000

Other African Countries 3,650,000

Canada 570,000

UNDP 2,700,000

DFID (UK Government) 2,000,000

African contribution 73%

Overview

Progress So Far

Lessons Learnt

Challenges


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Consultative process 885,977, 259 or

Civil Society

…As a policy, the APRM puts strong emphasis on finding ways to involve all segments of the citizenry including civil society- religious groups, trade unions, the media, women and youth, and the private sector in the APRM at country and continental levels.

Country Review Missions are very intense and not confined to the capital. In few instances, the Mission has had to revisit some countries.

Overview

Progress So Far

Lessons Learnt

Challenges


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Lessons Learnt 885,977, 259 or

The APRM is a unique African instrument that is trial-blazing and has great potential as a tool to promote and strengthen good governance. It is African in origin, African inspired and African owned.

The experiences emerging out of the APRM implementation process are very encouraging.

The process has been empowering in ways that were not envisaged when it started. The interactive and broad inclusiveness of the process has spawned and strengthening a culture of political dialogue in the countries.

Overview

Progress So Far

Lessons Learnt

Challenges


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Lessons Learnt 885,977, 259 or

The preparedness of African governments to engage the civil society and deliberate on national challenges of governance and attempt a framework for addressing them is profoundly significant.

Likewise the willingness to let outsiders examine national findings and express a view on how a country is governed is equally a new experience that should be encouraged.

Overview

Progress So Far

Lessons Learnt

Challenges


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Lessons Learnt 885,977, 259 or

The APRM is making it possible for countries to benchmark good governance in Africa on shared African and international norms and standards as well as for citizens to participate in the evaluation of how they are governed.

Capacity is being developed and partnerships within and with external partners are being created.

It is also show-casing African innovative thinking in governance.

Overview

Progress So Far

Lessons Learnt

Challenges


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Lessons Learnt 885,977, 259 or

……Centrality of country process

Integrity and inclusiveness of processes essential;

Ownership and leadership by stakeholders;

Sustainability of funding/resource allocation;

Good preparation for technical assessments;

Harmonisation with ongoing assessments/strategies for synergy.

Overview

Progress So Far

Lessons Learnt

Challenges


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Challenges 885,977, 259 or

As is apparent in the emerging experiences in the countries implementing the APRM, along with the opportunities it presents, a number of challenges exist and these are being addressed.

The APRM is still clearly misunderstood. It is not a score-card exercise.

The Human and Institutional Capacity of the APR Secretariat.

The recommended time -frame (6-9 Months) –is proving to be quite short - yet there are complaints that the APRM is not moving fast enough.

Overview

Progress So Far

Lessons Learnt

Challenges


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Challenges 885,977, 259 or

At the national level, there are daunting challenges, including the establishment of appropriate national structures, financing the process and the organization of a participatory and all inclusive self-assessment process.

Monitoring and Evaluation tools are just being developed.

With over half a century experience, perhaps, the APRM needs to engage with the OECD with a view to promoting learning and exchange, sharing approaches and good practice in conducting peer reviews.

Overview

Progress So Far

Lessons Learnt

Challenges



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