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VARIATIONS. A Digital Music Library System at Indiana University Jon W. Dunn Constance A. Mayer. VARIATIONS: Introduction. Digital library of music sound recordings Developed in conjunction with design of a new physical music library facility; access currently limited to that facility

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variations

VARIATIONS

A Digital Music Library System at Indiana University

Jon W. Dunn

Constance A. Mayer

ACM DL99 - August 12, 1999

variations introduction
VARIATIONS: Introduction
  • Digital library of music sound recordings
  • Developed in conjunction with design of a new physical music library facility; access currently limited to that facility
  • Used daily by large student population
    • New way of providing access to a basic music library function (listening reserves)
  • Online since 1996

ACM DL99 - August 12, 1999

outline of talk
Outline of talk
  • Background
  • Access scenarios
  • Technical implementation
  • User experiences
  • Conclusions, future work

ACM DL99 - August 12, 1999

context
Context
  • Other audio-based music library efforts
    • JUKEBOX (EC), PATRON (Surrey, UK)
    • E-Reserves: Berkeley, Wisconsin, Columbia, UCSD, Virginia, ...
  • Other music library projects
    • Sheet music: Johns Hopkins, Duke, LC, Berkeley, UNC-CH
    • Encoding: CCARH - Stanford
    • Notation search/analysis: NZDL, HUMDRUM, ...

ACM DL99 - August 12, 1999

context5
Context
  • Indiana University School of Music
    • Largest in US: 1600 students, 140 faculty
    • strong academic and performance programs
  • Cook Music Library
    • Collection in top 5 in US
      • 320,000 cataloged print items
      • 130,000 cataloged sound recordings
    • Very high usage, circulation

ACM DL99 - August 12, 1999

background
Background
  • Burroughs and Fenske, 1990
  • VARIATIONS Name
    • Theme and Variations
    • Variety of information formats for music
  • Networked access for the music student or scholar to sound recordings, scores, textual materials, video recordings

ACM DL99 - August 12, 1999

focus on audio
Focus on audio
  • High demand portion of collection
    • Circulation of over 5500/month from closed stacks
  • Fragile formats
  • Lack of previous work; uniqueness

ACM DL99 - August 12, 1999

focus on audio reserves
Focus on audio reserves
  • Half of sound recording use from reserves
  • Problems with existing practices
    • Cassette tape dubs, analog distribution systems
  • Concentrated use of a few items at any given time
  • Pilot online in April 1996, more in Fall
    • Currently: 5500 titles, 6600 hours of audio
    • Opera, songs, instrumental music, jazz, rock, world music

ACM DL99 - August 12, 1999

access scenarios
Access scenarios
  • Course reserve
  • Catalog

ACM DL99 - August 12, 1999

variations player
VARIATIONS Player

ACM DL99 - August 12, 1999

why use existing catalog
Why use existing catalog?
  • Physical items already MARC-cataloged in NOTIS online catalog system
  • Users familiar with search strategies
  • Search method independent of whether item is available physically or electronically

ACM DL99 - August 12, 1999

disadvantages of using catalog
Disadvantages of using catalog
  • Varying levels of detail in individual records; arrangement of information sometimes confusing
  • Search strategies often confusing to the novice
  • Lack of functionality in Web/Z39.50 interface in NOTIS

ACM DL99 - August 12, 1999

technical implementation
Technical implementation
  • Strategies
    • Integrate rather than develop
    • Use off-the-shelf hardware and software
    • Sustainability
    • Single technology vendor for emerging technologies (IBM)

ACM DL99 - August 12, 1999

audio capture
Audio capture
  • Performed in-house
  • Variety of source formats
    • LP, reel-to-reel, cassette, DAT, CD
  • Hardware: PC, sound card, CD-ROM drive
  • Software: Sound Forge, Disc-to-Disk
  • Format: WAV, 44.1 kHz 16-bit stereo
  • Track timings and names recorded by technician

ACM DL99 - August 12, 1999

processing
Processing
  • CD-quality WAV files compressed to MPEG-1 layer 2 (near CD-quality)
    • 1.4 Mbps  384 kbps
  • Track timing information stored in “metadata file”

ACM DL99 - August 12, 1999

information architecture
Information architecture

ACM DL99 - August 12, 1999

metadata
Metadata
  • Descriptive
    • MARC record (composer, title, performer, subject headings, …)
  • Structural
    • Metadata file (track names and timings)
  • Administrative
    • Metadata file (date digitized, file format, equipment used, copyright notice, …)

ACM DL99 - August 12, 1999

marc record
MARC Record

BM FMT M RT j BL m T/C DT 01/28/91 R/DT 10/08/98 STAT nm E/L DCF a D/S D

SRC d PLACE nyu LANG MOD T/AUD REPRO D/CODE p DT/1 1987 DT/2 1986

F/COMP mu SCORE n A/MAT ehi L/TEXT

007 GMD s SMD d O/R ? SP f SND s GRV n DIM g WID n

TAPE n TYPE m MAT l CUT n R/CH e C/ST d

024/1:1 : |a 7559791442

028/1:03: |a 79144-2 |b Elektra Nonesuch

028/2:00: |a 9 79144-2 |b Elektra Nonesuch

033/1:0 : |a 198611-- |b 4364 |c S5

035/1: : |a (OCoLC)ocm19236651

040: : |a YUU |c YUU |d CPL |d OCL |d IUL

045:1 : |b d1985 |b d1973 |b d19800103

047: : |a df |a hy

048/1: : |a oa

099/1: : |a CD |a .A214 |a Ge

100:10: |a Adams, John, |d 1947-

240:10: |a Orchestra music. |k Selections

245:14: |a The Chairman dances : |b foxtrot for orchestra ; Christian zeal and

activity ; Two fanfares for orchestra ; Common tones in simple time |h <sound

recording> / |c John Adams.

260:0 : |a New York, N.Y. : |b Elektra Nonesuch, |c p1987.

300/1: : |a 1 sound disc : |b digital ; |c 4 3/4 in.

306: : |a 001227 |a 001000 |a 000411 |a 000413 |a 002037

500/1: : |a Elektra Nonesuch: 79144-2 (on container: 9 79144-2).

500/2: : |a The 2nd work based on the hymn Onward Christian soldiers.

ACM DL99 - August 12, 1999

marc record26
MARC Record

511/3:0 : |a San Francisco Symphony ; Edo de Waart, conductor.

518/4: : |a Recorded Nov. 1986, at Davies Symphony Hall, San Francisco.

500/5: : |a Compact disc.

500/6: : |a Durations: 12:27; 10:00; 4:11; 4:13; 20:37.

500/7: : |a Program notes by Michael Steinberg (<8> p.) inserted in container.

505/8:2 : |a Two fanfares for orchestra. Tromba lontana ; Short ride in a fast

machine.

650/1: 0: |a Orchestral music.

600/2:10: |a Mao, Tse-tung, |d 1893-1976 |x Songs and music.

650/3: 0: |a Fox trots.

650/4: 0: |a Hymns |x Instrumental settings.

650/5: 0: |a Fanfares.

650/6: 0: |a Dance orchestra music.

700/1:10: |a Waart, Edo de. |4 cnd

700/2:12: |a Adams, John, |d 1947- |t Chairman dances.

700/3:12: |a Adams, John, |d 1947- |t American standard. |p Christian zeal and

activity.

700/4:12: |a Adams, John, |d 1947- |t Tromba lontana.

700/5:12: |a Adams, John, |d 1947- |t Short ride in a fast machine.

710/7:20: |a San Francisco Symphony Orchestra. |4 prf

740/8:01: |a Christian zeal and activity.

740/9:01: |a Common tones in simple time.

740/10:01: |a Tromba lontana.

740/11:01: |a Short ride in a fast machine.

856/1:7 : |u http://www.music.indiana.edu/cgi-bin/var/access?ABE7278 |2 http

ACM DL99 - August 12, 1999

metadata file
Metadata file

# ABE7278A CWB 1-12-95

Author=Adams, John, 1947-

Title=<Orchestra music. Selections>

Equipment=D2D

MediaType=Audio

[Track 1]

TrackTitle=Adams, The Chairman Dances (Foxtrot for Orchestra)

Offset=0

[Track 2]

TrackTitle=Adams, Christian Zeal and Activity

Offset=750774

[Track 3]

WorkTitle=Adams, Two Fanfares for Orchestra

TrackTitle=Tromba lontana

Offset=1362601

[Track 4]

TrackTitle=Short Ride in a Fast Machine

Offset=1619040

...

ACM DL99 - August 12, 1999

content storage
Content storage
  • Two levels:
    • Archive server
      • IBM RS/6000 server, 3494 automated tape library, two 3590 drives (5 TB capacity)
      • IBM ADSM storage management software
    • Playback server
      • IBM RS/6000 server, 130GB disk
      • Multimedia Server for AIX (initially): NFS
      • IBM VideoCharger (now): RTP/RTSP streaming

ACM DL99 - August 12, 1999

slide29

Content access

Playback server

VideoCharger

Web server

Client

Player

Browser

slide30

Content access

Playback server

VideoCharger

Archive server

(ADSM)

VRS

Web server

Client

Player

Browser

performance
Performance
  • May 1, 1998 - May 1, 1999:
    • Playback server cache hit rate: 83%
    • Mean time for retrieval of file from archive: 3 minutes

ACM DL99 - August 12, 1999

client
Client
  • Hardware
    • Pentium PC, sound card (ideally a good one!)
    • ATM or Switched Ethernet
  • Software
    • Standard web browser
    • MPEG decoder (e.g. MS DirectShow)
    • VARIATIONS Player helper application
      • Visual C++, VideoCharger or QuickTime 4 API for streaming access

ACM DL99 - August 12, 1999

user reaction
User reaction
  • Usage statistics
  • Feedback via web form, informal comments by students and faculty and observations by library staff

ACM DL99 - August 12, 1999

usage statistics
Usage statistics

ACM DL99 - August 12, 1999

usage statistics35
Usage statistics

ACM DL99 - August 12, 1999

usage statistics36
Usage statistics
  • Average use per day: ~400 player launches, over 6000/day during exams

ACM DL99 - August 12, 1999

feedback
Feedback
  • Most common: problem reports on specific files or computers
  • Desire for expanded access

ACM DL99 - August 12, 1999

future work
Future work
  • Expand data formats:
    • Liner note images, score images, score notation files, MIDI files, video
    • Score image pilot currently in progress
  • Integration of content-based search tools
  • Standards for music metadata
  • Access to content by applications

ACM DL99 - August 12, 1999

future work39
Future work
  • Expand access
    • Other locations on campus
      • faculty offices, computer labs, dorm rooms, etc.
    • Off-campus
    • Other institutions - Internet2
      • Resource sharing, distributed collections, ILL

ACM DL99 - August 12, 1999

future work40
Future work
  • Intellectual property
    • Fair use and other copyright exceptions
    • Licensing
    • Complexity of music copyright
      • Multiple rights holders and collectives
    • Technical facilities for complying with exceptions or license terms

ACM DL99 - August 12, 1999

more information
More information

ACM DL99 - August 12, 1999

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