The role of shaka in the rise of the zulu empire
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The Role of Shaka In The Rise of the Zulu Empire. Abigail Andrews. Outline. Introduction The Bantu Migration Settling in Southern Africa Separation into Chiefdoms Shaka Takes the Throne Military Reform Creation of an Empire The Mfecane Shaka’s Legacy Fall of the Zulu Empire

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Outline

  • Introduction

  • The Bantu Migration

  • Settling in Southern Africa

  • Separation into Chiefdoms

  • Shaka Takes the Throne

  • Military Reform

  • Creation of an Empire

  • The Mfecane

  • Shaka’s Legacy

  • Fall of the Zulu Empire

  • Conclusion


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Introduction

  • Today: Largest and most influential tribe in South Africa

  • Rise to power began with Bantu Migration (first millennium CE)

  • Existed as one of many autonomous tribes in area

  • Creation of empire began with leader Shaka Zulu

  • Shaka formed military state - agricultural economy

  • Structure provided base for expansion of empire

Picture 1

Map of South Africa and Zululand


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The Bantu Migration

  • Occurred Around 300 CE

  • Small waves of Bantu speaking people

  • Slow migration from East and West Africa

  • Migrated because of overpopulation

  • Farming people

  • Introduced agricultural lifestyle and practices to southern Africa

  • Up until migration, area only occupied by hunter/gatherers and herders

Picture 2

Map of Bantu Migration Paths


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Settling in Southern Africa

  • Bantu farmers formed farming villages

  • Successful farming economies – sustainable and productive

  • Bantu farmers collided with Khoisan speaking hunter/gatherers

  • Bantu killed or incorporated Khoisan into communities

  • Farming lifestyle = rich, steady diet = stronger physiques

  • Division of labor

  • Blacksmith trade – iron weapons

  • Agricultural lifestyle = dominance over native people, healthy population, division of labor, development of culture


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Separation into Chiefdoms

  • Villages became roughly separated chiefdoms

  • Each chiefdom/tribe developed distinct government/culture

  • Bantu in eastern South Africa were called Nguni

  • Nguni separated into clan-based tribes

  • One of these tribes was the Zulu tribe

Picture 3

Daily Life in Tribe


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Shaka Takes the Throne

  • Zulu tribe small and weak at beginning of 19th century

  • Dominant tribes in area: Ndwandwe and Mthethwa

  • Shaka took throne in 1816

    • Extensive military background

    • Goal of uniting Nguni tribes

    • Creation of military kingdom

Picture 4

King Shaka Zulu


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Military Reform

  • Shaka’s empire built on military

  • Military reform, tactics, strategy, obediance

  • Created age-based regiments called impis

  • Isolation from society

  • Regimental pride, loyalty

  • Replaced long assegai spear with short, close contact version

  • Organized nation into military camp: sole purpose was war

  • Overall: Created military machine

Picture 5

Shaka in traditional warrior gear


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Creation of an Empire

  • 1818: Shaka began creating empire through conquest

  • First conquered once-powerful Mthethwa kingdom

  • Created rivalry between Zulu and Ndwandwe

  • 1818: Zulu army defeated Ndwandwe

  • Became only dominant power in area

  • Used army to continue incorporating neighboring kingdoms

  • Expansion created vast empire


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The Mfecane

  • Zulu policy of conquest

  • Destroyed conquered lands, often slaughtered people

  • Mfecane: War-torn period of chaos and migration in southern Africa in early 19th century

  • Zulu regiments wiped out entire settlements, crushed tribes

  • Mfecane expanded Zulu empire, created new tribes due to mass migration

Picture 6

Map of Mfecane Migration


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Shaka’s Legacy

  • Shaka assassinated in 1828

  • Legacy continued until late 1800’s

  • He created a stable empire controlling entire north-eastern section of South Africa

  • Successors, Dingane and Mpande, led Zulu tribe through period of peace

  • Peace despite war with Boer settlers and complicated relations with British colonies

Picture 7

Shaka in military gear


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Fall of the Zulu Empire

  • Cetshwayo took throne in 1873

  • Period of unrest and instability

  • Solidity created by Shaka and successors until 1870’s

  • Increasing tensions with British

  • 1879 – British ultimatum

  • Cetshwayo refused

  • British invaded Zululand, conquered empire, divided into thirteen provinces

  • Zulu tribe never united as one nation or empire again

Picture 8

Cetshwayo, the last Zulu king


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Conclusion

  • United Zulu kingdom stood for over fifty years

  • Result of stable farming economy and Shaka’s leadership

  • Chain of events:

    • Bantu Settlement after Migration

    • Farming economy

    • Ideal conditions for creation of Empire

    • Shaka’s reign

    • Conquest led by Shaka

    • Shaka’s Legacy

      Without Shaka’s creation of an empire through conquest, strong leadership, and long lasting legacy, Zulu empire may never have risen into power


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Picture Bibliography

  • Picture 1: “Zululand.” Zululand Safaris. 2006. 24 April 2006. http://www.e-gnu.com/images/satour/Maps/zululand.gif

  • Picture 2: “Bantu Migration.” MSN Encarta. 2005. Multimedia from Encarta. 24 April 2006. http://images.encarta.msn.com/xrefmedia/aencmed/targets/maps/mhi/000f2413.gif

  • Picture 3: “Drawing Water.” The General View and beyond: Social documentary photography, slum clearance and state social welfare programs, ca. 1934 – 1948.1937. The Bantu-Speaking Tribes of South Africa. An Ethnographical Survey. 24 April 2006. http://www.is.und.ac.za/dutoit40s/images/figure5.jpg

  • Picture 4: “Shaka.” African Dawn. 2004. Insight and Tailored Arrangements for Visitors to Southern Africa. 24 April 2006. http://www.capetown.at/africandawn/Images/shaka.JPG

  • Picture 5: “Shaka in Traditional Zulu Military Dress.” Wikipedia Free Encyclopedia. 2005. History of South Africa. 24 April 2006. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:KingShaka.jpeg

  • Picture 6: “Mfecane Migration.” MSN Encarta. 2005. Migrations of the Mfecane. 24 April 2006. http://images.encarta.msn.com/xrefmedia/aencmed/targets/maps/mhi/T304262A.gif

  • Picture 7: “Shaka Zulu.” Zar.co.za 2003. Hall of Fame Biographies. 25 April 2006. http://zar.co.za/images/bio/shakab.jpg

  • Picture 8: “Cetshwayo.” Schwartz Online. 2004. The Zulu War. 25 April 2006. http://schwartz.eng.auburn.edu/zulu/picts/cetshwayo.jpg


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Bibliography – Web Sources

“Bantus.” World History: Ancient and Medieval. 2006. ABC-CLIO. 7 Feb. 2006. http://www.ancienthistory.abce-clio.com

“Bantu Migration.” World History: Ancient and Medieval. 2006. ABC-CLIO. 7 Feb. 2006. http://www.ancienthistory.abc-clio.com

“Africa in the Nineteenth Century, 1780-1914.” Gale Student Resource Center. 10 Feb. 2006. http://galenet.galegroup.com/servlet/SRC?txba=Zulu+%28African+people%29&vrsn=3.0

“Zulu Power: From Shaka to Inkatha.” The Economist. 12-125-1999. Gale Student Resource Center. 10 Feb. 2006. http://galenet.galegroup.com/servlet/SRC?txba=Zulu+History&vrsn=3.0

“Zulu.” Worldmark Encyclopedia of Cultures and Daily Life. 4 vols. Gale Student Resource Center. 10 Feb. 2006.

“Zulu” Encyclopedia Britannica. 2006. Encyclopedia Britannica Online School Edition. 10 Feb. 2006. http://school.edb.com/eb/aricle-9078488

“Shaka.” Encyclopedia Britannica. 2006. Encyclopedia Britannica Online School Edition. 10 Feb. 2006. http://school.edb.com/eb/article-9067085

“Early Zulu History: Zulu Culture and Traditions.” 28 Jan. 2005. 10 Feb. 2006. http://www.warthog.co.za//dedt/tourism/culture/history/early.htm

“Zulu History – Shaka: Zulu Culture and Traditions.” Jan. 2005. 10 Feb. 2006. http://www.warthog.co.za//dedt/tourism/culture/history/shaka.htm

“Zulu History – Dingane: Zulu Culture and Traditions.” Jan. 2005. 10 Feb. 2006. http://www.warthog.co.za//dedt/tourism/culture/history/dingane.htm

“Zululand: The History of the Zulu Nation.” 2005. 10 Feb. 2006. http://zululand.kzn.org.za/zululand/about/46.xml


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Bibliography - Books

Thompson, Leonard. “A History of South Africa.” New Haven: Yale University Press, 1990.

Taylor, Stephen. “Shaka’s Children.” London: HarperCollinsPublishers, 1994.

Reader, John. “Africa: A Biography of the Continetn.” New York: Alfred Knopf, 1998.

Krige, E.J. “The Military Organization of the Zulus.” People and Cultures of Africa – An Anthropoligcal Reader. Ed. P. Skinner. 1973.


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