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The Creation of Israel. The Diaspora and Zionsim. Diaspora is the scattering of Jews from roughly 700 BC to 100 AD by Assyrians, Babylonians, and Romans In 1896 Theodor Herzl publishes “The Jewish State” which calls for Jews to return to Israel (then Turkish-controlled Palestine)

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The Creation of Israel

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The creation of israel l.jpg

The Creation of Israel


The diaspora and zionsim l.jpg

The Diaspora and Zionsim

  • Diaspora is the scattering of Jews from roughly 700 BC to 100 AD by Assyrians, Babylonians, and Romans

  • In 1896 Theodor Herzl publishes “The Jewish State” which calls for Jews to return to Israel (then Turkish-controlled Palestine)

  • Driven by persecution in Western and Eastern Europe, hundreds of thousands of Jews arrive in Palestine


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Post World War I

  • Certain colonies and territories were taken from defeated nations (i.e. Turkey) and placed under the administration of a victorious nation (i.e. Britain).

  • These were called “mandated territories”.

  • League of Nations supervised the governing countries in the administration of the territories.

  • The League expected the governing countries to improve living conditions in the territories, and to prepare the people for self-government.


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Palestine placed under administration of Britain, one of the war’s victorious nations

Britain issued “Balfour Declaration” supporting creation of a Jewish national home in Palestine but also promising to protect the rights of those people already there

Palestine:British Mandate 1946


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UN voted to partition Palestine into separate Jewish and Palestinian states.

Jerusalem remained neutral.

UN, sympathetic towards Jews, gave them 55% of area.

UN Partition Plan 1947


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Israel as a State

  • Unhappy with this decision, Arab armies of Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Iraq, Saudi Arabia and Lebanon invade Israel!

  • While Arab forces were larger than Israel’s, they lacked coordination and organization.

  • Despite small numbers, Jews were well-organized, well-disciplined and well-trained.

  • War officially ended in January 1949. Israel gained independence.


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Following Israel’s war for Independence 1949

Armistice: Warring parties agree to stop fighting and talk peace


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Compare UN Plan with War

Israel held the 5,600 square miles allotted to it by the UN partition plan plus an additional 2,500 square miles.


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1967

  • May: Egyptian, Syrian and Jordanian troops began to assemble along Israel’s borders. UN Peacekeepers withdrawn from Sinai

  • May: Egypt closes Straits of Tiran, cutting off Israel’s supply routes with Asia and much of the Middle East.

  • Israel feels threatened and restricted.


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The Six-day War (June 1967)

Israel carried out a preemptive strike.

Israel beats combined forces of Syria, Jordan, Egypt, (and some Iraqi, Saudi, Algerian troops)


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1973 – Yom Kippur War

  • Syria, Jordan, Iraq and Egypt launch a surprise attack during the Yom Kippur holiday

  • US flies roughly 20,000 tons of supplies to help Israel replace lost materials, Soviets supply Egyptians and Syrians

  • Israel recovers from early attacks and regains most of lost territory in Sinai and gains more area in Golan Heights


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The Middle East Peace Process - 1978

Anwar Sadat (Egypt), President Carter, Menachem Begin (Israel)


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Death of Egyptian leader Sadat1981


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Israeli settlers

Israeli settlers begin establishing settlements within the Gaza Strip and the West Bank with the support of the Israeli government

To protect these settlements the Israeli government builds walled compounds and roads accessible only to settlers

Illegal settlements have also emerged


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Intifada – “Uprising”


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First Intifada 1987-1993

A variety of Palestinian reactions to Israeli occupation ranging from civil disobedience (strikes, boycotts, refusal to pay taxes) to direct action against Israeli military, settler or civilian targets (stone throwing, sabotage, terrorist attacks)

Attacks on Palestinians suspected of collaborating with Israelis

1,300 Palestinians killed by Israelis, 160 Isrealis killed by Palestinians, roughly 1,000 Palestinians killed by Palestinians


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Oslo Accords: 1993

Yitzhak Rabin: Israel

Yasser Arafat: Palestinians


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Oslo accords

Creates a Palestinian government with the goal of self government,

Regular elections to determine leadership of new Palestinian government

Gradual Israeli withdrawal from Palestinian areas, continued Israeli presence in settlements – two-state solution


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Reaction to Oslo

Yitzhak Rabin is assassinated by a right-wing Israeli angered by the Oslo accords

Israeli objections – endangers settlements, promote terrorist attacks

Palestinian objections – continued Israeli settlements and presence

Jerusalem question still not settled


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Recent Developments – Oslo Accords 1990s

Black = complete Palestinian control

White = complete Israeli control

Orange = joint control


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Renewed fighting (Intifada)


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Second Intifada -2000-

Sparked by Ariel Sharon’s visit to the Temple Mount and larger frustration with peace talks that were going nowhere

Tactics again range from protests and strikes, to attacks on settlers, to suicide bombings and the firing of Qassam rockets

Israelis respond with rubber-coated bullets, attacks on militant targets and targeting Palestinian Authority structures and personnel


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Palestinians’ property burning


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Israeli construction of wall

In 2002, Israel begins construction of a wall system to separate the West Bank from Israel.

Opponents say it amounts to an effort to seize land and illegally obstruct Palestinians from reaching their crops, homes, or cities

Supporters say it is needed to protect Israel from terrorist attack


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Walls and Barriers


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Emergence of Hamas

A Palestinian militant group at odds with the more moderate Fatah party, Hamas is considered a terrorist organization by the US and the EU.

Hamas also runs a network of schools, hospitals, and other social services

Hamas wins 76 out of 132 seats in Parliamentary elections,. Sparking fighting between Fatah and Hamas

Hamas now controls Gaza, Fatah controls the West Bank


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Israeli withdrawal from Gaza

In 2005, Israel withdraws all troops and settlements from the Gaza Strip

The pace Qassam rockets and mortar shells hitting Israeli begins to rise to 940 in 2006 (from 179 the year before)

In 2007, Hamas takes control from Fatah – Israel and Egypt shut down border crossings into Gaza for all but food, fuel and medicine.

Israel is accused of trying to destroy that Gaza economy, Israel maintains it just wants to limit goods that can be turned into weapons


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Rocket attacks and Israeli raids

By 2008, the number if Qassam rocket attacks reach 1,500, initially Israel responds by bombing Hamas targets

January 2009, Israel invades Gaza (will withdraw in about three weeks

Casualties: Israeli: 13 dead (4 civilian)

Palestinian militants and police killed: 491-709

Palestinian civilians killed: 295-926

Thousands of buildings destroyed


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Issues on contention

Right of return

Jerusalem

Hamas – recognize Israel

Israeli blockade of Gaza

Israeli wall

Qassam rocket attacks


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Who is the rightful “owner” of Palestine?

Jews claim that the land was theirs 3,000 years ago when Jewish kings ruled the region from Jerusalem

Palestinians (both Muslim & Christian) claim the land belonged to them since the Jews were driven out in A.D. 135

Arabs claim the land belonged to them since their conquest of the area in the 7th Century


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