The Creation of Israel. The Diaspora and Zionsim. Diaspora is the scattering of Jews from roughly 700 BC to 100 AD by Assyrians, Babylonians, and Romans In 1896 Theodor Herzl publishes “The Jewish State” which calls for Jews to return to Israel (then Turkish-controlled Palestine)
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Palestine placed under administration of Britain, one of the war’s victorious nations
Britain issued “Balfour Declaration” supporting creation of a Jewish national home in Palestine but also promising to protect the rights of those people already there
UN voted to partition Palestine into separate Jewish and Palestinian states.
Jerusalem remained neutral.
UN, sympathetic towards Jews, gave them 55% of area.
Following Israel’s war for Independence 1949
Armistice: Warring parties agree to stop fighting and talk peace
Israel held the 5,600 square miles allotted to it by the UN partition plan plus an additional 2,500 square miles.
The Six-day War (June 1967)
Israel carried out a preemptive strike.
Israel beats combined forces of Syria, Jordan, Egypt, (and some Iraqi, Saudi, Algerian troops)
The Middle East Peace Process - 1978
Anwar Sadat (Egypt), President Carter, Menachem Begin (Israel)
Israeli settlers begin establishing settlements within the Gaza Strip and the West Bank with the support of the Israeli government
To protect these settlements the Israeli government builds walled compounds and roads accessible only to settlers
Illegal settlements have also emerged
Intifada – “Uprising”
A variety of Palestinian reactions to Israeli occupation ranging from civil disobedience (strikes, boycotts, refusal to pay taxes) to direct action against Israeli military, settler or civilian targets (stone throwing, sabotage, terrorist attacks)
Attacks on Palestinians suspected of collaborating with Israelis
1,300 Palestinians killed by Israelis, 160 Isrealis killed by Palestinians, roughly 1,000 Palestinians killed by Palestinians
Yitzhak Rabin: Israel
Yasser Arafat: Palestinians
Creates a Palestinian government with the goal of self government,
Regular elections to determine leadership of new Palestinian government
Gradual Israeli withdrawal from Palestinian areas, continued Israeli presence in settlements – two-state solution
Yitzhak Rabin is assassinated by a right-wing Israeli angered by the Oslo accords
Israeli objections – endangers settlements, promote terrorist attacks
Palestinian objections – continued Israeli settlements and presence
Jerusalem question still not settled
Black = complete Palestinian control
White = complete Israeli control
Orange = joint control
Sparked by Ariel Sharon’s visit to the Temple Mount and larger frustration with peace talks that were going nowhere
Tactics again range from protests and strikes, to attacks on settlers, to suicide bombings and the firing of Qassam rockets
Israelis respond with rubber-coated bullets, attacks on militant targets and targeting Palestinian Authority structures and personnel
In 2002, Israel begins construction of a wall system to separate the West Bank from Israel.
Opponents say it amounts to an effort to seize land and illegally obstruct Palestinians from reaching their crops, homes, or cities
Supporters say it is needed to protect Israel from terrorist attack
A Palestinian militant group at odds with the more moderate Fatah party, Hamas is considered a terrorist organization by the US and the EU.
Hamas also runs a network of schools, hospitals, and other social services
Hamas wins 76 out of 132 seats in Parliamentary elections,. Sparking fighting between Fatah and Hamas
Hamas now controls Gaza, Fatah controls the West Bank
In 2005, Israel withdraws all troops and settlements from the Gaza Strip
The pace Qassam rockets and mortar shells hitting Israeli begins to rise to 940 in 2006 (from 179 the year before)
In 2007, Hamas takes control from Fatah – Israel and Egypt shut down border crossings into Gaza for all but food, fuel and medicine.
Israel is accused of trying to destroy that Gaza economy, Israel maintains it just wants to limit goods that can be turned into weapons
By 2008, the number if Qassam rocket attacks reach 1,500, initially Israel responds by bombing Hamas targets
January 2009, Israel invades Gaza (will withdraw in about three weeks
Casualties: Israeli: 13 dead (4 civilian)
Palestinian militants and police killed: 491-709
Palestinian civilians killed: 295-926
Thousands of buildings destroyed
Right of return
Hamas – recognize Israel
Israeli blockade of Gaza
Qassam rocket attacks
Jews claim that the land was theirs 3,000 years ago when Jewish kings ruled the region from Jerusalem
Palestinians (both Muslim & Christian) claim the land belonged to them since the Jews were driven out in A.D. 135
Arabs claim the land belonged to them since their conquest of the area in the 7th Century