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Seminar Computer Animation. Arjan Egges Lecture #2: History of Animation. Introduction. Animate = “Give life to” Adding the dimension of time to graphics Animator specifies movement of objects through time and space. Two main categories. Computer-assisted animation 2D & 2 1/2 D

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seminar computer animation

Seminar Computer Animation

Arjan Egges

Lecture #2: History of Animation

introduction
Introduction
  • Animate = “Give life to”
  • Adding the dimension of time to graphics
  • Animator specifies movement of objects through time and space
two main categories
Two main categories
  • Computer-assisted animation
    • 2D & 2 1/2 D
    • Inbetweening
    • Inking, virtual camera, managing data, etc
  • Computer generated animation
    • Low level techniques
      • Precisely specifying motion
    • High level techniques
      • Describe general motion behavior
introduction4
Introduction
  • Low-level techniques
    • Shape interpolation
    • Helps the animator fill in the details of the motion given enough information
    • Animator has a fairly specific idea of target motion
  • High-level techniques
    • Generate a motion given a set of rules or constraints
    • Object motion is controlled by a model/algorithm
    • Fairly sophisticated computation, such as physically-based motion
introduction5
Introduction
  • Another way of looking at this: level of abstraction
  • Very low-level: animator colours every pixel individually in every frame
  • Very-high level: tell the computer “make a movie about a dog”
  • Challenge lies in developing tools that allow animators to animate on different levels
perception
Perception
  • Eye/brain assembles images and interprets them as continuous movement
  • Persistence of vision: sequence of still images shown at a fast enough rate to induce sensation of continuous imagery
  • Eye retains visual imprint once stimulus is removed
    • “positive afterimages”
  • Persistence of vision is not persistence of motion
perception7
Perception
  • Persistence of vision lower bound:
    • Playback rate of images
    • Critical flicker frequency
  • Persistence of motion has an upper bound:
    • Object moves too quickly
    • Motion blur
  • Two important rates:
    • Playback/refresh rate
    • Sampling/update rate
the early days
The early days
  • Persistence of vision: discovered in the 1800s.
    • Zoetrope
    • Flipbook
    • Thaumatrope
the early days9
The early days
  • End of the 19th centure introduced moving image by using a projector.
    • Magic Lantern and shadow puppets
    • Zoopraxinoscope (zoetrope + projector)
    • Kinetograph
      • First motion picture viewer
the early days10
The early days
  • Animation movie pioneers
    • J. Stuart Blackton (smoke effect, 1900)
      • First animated cartoon in 1906
      • Used a chalkboard for drawing and erasing frames
    • Emile Cohl (Fantasmogorie,

1908)

    • Winsor McCay (Little Nemo)
      • Each image redrawn on rice paper and then filmed
the early days11
The early days
  • Major technical developments by John Bray (1910):
    • compositing multiple layers of drawings into a final image (celluloid)
    • using grayscale
    • Drawing background on long sheet of paper for panning
  • Max Fleischer (Betty Boop), Walter Lantz (Woody Woodpecker)
  • Fleischer patented rotoscoping in 1915
the early days12
The early days
  • First animated character: Felix the Cat (Otto Messmer) in early 1920s.
  • Disney came around end 1920s, introducing a number of innovations
    • Storyboards
    • Pencil sketches for reviewing motion
    • Multiplane camera
    • Using sound & colour
multiplane camera
Multiplane Camera
  • Move scene layers independently of camera
  • Six directions of movement for each plane
multiplane camera14
Multiplane camera
  • Powerful tool:
    • More effective zoom
      • Move foreground image to the side
    • Parallax effect
      • Moving planes at different rates
    • Adding depth cues
      • Blur the images on more distant planes
    • Introduce motion blur by fast moving planes
the early days15
The early days
  • Sound was added for the first time in Steamboat Willie (1928)
  • Disney promoted idea that mind of the character was the driving force of the action
    • Analysis of real-life motion
other media animation
Other Media Animation
  • Computer animation is often compared to stop motion animation
    • Puppet animation
      • Willis O’Brian (King Kong)
      • Ray Harryhausen (Might joe Yong, Jason and the Argonauts)
other media animation18
Other Media Animation
  • Claymation
  • Sand animation

Physical object is manipulated, image captured, repeat

production of animation
Production of Animation
  • Preliminary story
  • Story board
  • Detailed story
  • Key Frames
  • Test shot
  • Pencil test
  • Inbetweening
  • Inking
  • Coloring

Computer Animation

basically follows this

pipeline

computer animation as animation
Computer Animation as Animation
  • Lasseter translated traditional principles of animation to computer animation
    • Lasseter is conventionally trained animator
      • Worked at Disney before going to Pixar
      • Many celebrated animations
      • Knick-knack (oscar-winning)
computer animation research
Computer Animation Research

In Research labs

  • NYIT

Still frame from Gumby animation by Hank Grebe and Dick Lundin, 1984.

computer animation research22
Computer Animation Research
  • University of Utah
    • Films on walking and talking figure
    • Animated hand and animated face (1972)
  • University of Pennsylvania
    • Human figure animation (Norm Badler)
  • MIRALab, Geneva
    • Virtual Humans (Daniel & Nadia Thalmann)
pioneering animation movies
Pioneering animation movies

Pixar

  • Luxo Jr. (1986)
    • first computer animation to be nominated for an Academy Award
  • Red\'s Dream (1987)
  • Tin Toy (1988)
    • first computer animation to win an Academy Award
  • Knick Knack (1989)
early cg in film
Early CG in film
  • Future World (1976)
  • Star Wars (1977)
  • Tron (1982, MAGI)
    • Supposed to look like a computer
  • The Last Starfighter (1984)
    • Use CG in place of models
  • Willow (1988, ILM)
    • Morphing video
    • First digital blue screen matte extraction
  • The Abyss (1989, ILM)
  • Lawnmower man (1992, Xaos, Angel Studios)
      • Hollywood’s view of VR
early cg in film25
Early CG in film
  • Jurassic Park (1993, ILM)
  • Forrest Gump (1994, Digital Domain)
    • Insert CG ping pong ball
  • Babe (1995, Rhythm & Hues)
    • Move mouths of animals & fill in background
  • Toy Story (1995, Pixar & Disney)
    • First full length fully CG 3D animation
early cg on tv
Early CG on TV
  • Reboot (1995, Limelight Ltd. BLT Productions)
    • Similar intention of “inside computer”
    • First fully 3D Sat. morning cartoon
  • Babylon 5 (1995)
    • Routinely used CG models as regular features
  • Simpsons (1995 PDI)
more recent movies with cg
More recent movies with CG
  • Final fantasy (2001)
    • Fully 3D simulated environment
  • Lord of the Rings (2001-2003)
    • One of the first movies using crowds (Massive)
  • Polar express (2004)
    • Fully motion-capture based
  • The Shrek movies (2001, 2004, 2007)
  • Avatar (2009)
resources
Resources
  • Milestones of the animation industry in the 20th Century
    • http://www.awn.com/mag/issue4.10/4.10pages/cohenmilestones6.php3
  • Brief History of NYIT Computer Graphics Lab
    • http://www.cs.cmu.edu/~ph/nyit/masson/nyit.html
  • Rick Parent
    • http://www.cse.ohio-state.edu/~parent
    • http://old.siggraph.org/education/materials/HyperGraph/animation/rick_parent/Intr.html
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