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SCIENCE 10 LIFE SCIENCE: GENETICS.  Genome British Columbia, 2004 www.genomicseducation.ca. I. How does the genetic code relate to the assembly of different proteins?. I. How does the genetic code relate to the assembly of different proteins?

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SCIENCE 10

LIFE SCIENCE:

GENETICS

Genome British Columbia, 2004 www.genomicseducation.ca



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I. How does the genetic code relate to the assembly of different proteins?

·   Recall from the unit on the cell that all of its activities are controlled by a nucleus.


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I. How does the genetic code relate to the assembly of different proteins?

·   Recall from the unit on the cell that all of its activities are controlled by a nucleus. This nucleus contains DNA, deoxyribonucleic acid, which contains the information necessary to make a variety of proteins.


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I. How does the genetic code relate to the assembly of different proteins? (cont.)

· Proteins perform many functions in your body, such as those found in your muscles that allow you to move or those in your mouth that breakdown the starch in bread.


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I. How does the genetic code relate to the assembly of different proteins? (cont.)

· Proteins perform many functions in your body, such as those found in your muscles that allow you to move or those in your mouth that breakdown the starch in bread. These proteins also perform and control many functions within the cell, but are only made when needed.


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I. How does the genetic code relate to the assembly of different proteins? (cont.)

· The instructions to make these proteins are contained in the genetic code.


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I. How does the genetic code relate to the assembly of different proteins? (cont.)

· The instructions to make these proteins are contained in the genetic code. This code consists of four different molecules known as bases that are grouped into triplets.


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I. How does the genetic code relate to the assembly of different proteins? (cont.)

· The instructions to make these proteins are contained in the genetic code. This code consists of four different molecules known as bases that are grouped into triplets. Each triplet codes for one of twenty amino acids, the building blocks used to build these proteins.


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I. How does the genetic code relate to the assembly of different proteins? (cont.)

Each triplet codes for one of twenty amino acids, the building blocks used to build these proteins. The DNA determines what amino acids, how many of each amino acid, and the order of these amino acids to use for each protein.


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I. How does the genetic code relate to the assembly of different proteins? (cont.)

Each triplet codes for one of twenty amino acids, the building blocks used to build these proteins. The DNA determines what amino acids, how many of each amino acid, and the order of these amino acids to use for each protein. It’s like writing sentences with three letter words from a four letter alphabet.


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I. How does the genetic code relate to the assembly of different proteins? (cont.)

· A gene is a section of DNA that contains the genetic code for a specific protein, so it can determine how an organism appears and functions.


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II. How are the principles that govern the inheritance of traits used to solve problems involving simple Mendelian genetics?


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II. How are the principles that govern the inheritance of traits used to solve problems involving simple Mendelian genetics?

What is inheritance?


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  • II. How are the principles that govern the inheritance of traits used to solve problems involving simple Mendelian genetics?

  • What is inheritance?

  • Inheritance is the transfer of characteristics from parents to their offspring, such as hair, eye, and skin colour. This explains why your traits resemble your parents and brother/sister.


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II. How are the principles that govern the inheritance of traits used to solve problems involving simple Mendelian genetics? (cont.)

Who was Mendel?


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  • II. How are the principles that govern the inheritance of traits used to solve problems involving simple Mendelian genetics? (cont.)

  • Who was Mendel?

  • Gregor Mendel (1822 – 1868) was an Austrian monk who experimented with pea plants to determine how seven different, easily observed traits are inherited:


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  • II. How are the principles that govern the inheritance of traits used to solve problems involving simple Mendelian genetics? (cont.)

  • Who was Mendel?

  • Gregor Mendel (1822 – 1868) was an Austrian monk who experimented with pea plants to determine how seven different, easily observed traits are inherited: seed shape and colour, pod shape and colour, flower colour and location, and stem length.


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  • What did we learn from Mendel’s experiments? used to solve problems involving simple Mendelian genetics? (cont.)

  • He realized that traits are inherited in predictable phenotype ratios. The phenotype are traits of organism observed in its appearance or behaviour, which is determined by its genes.


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  • What did we learn from Mendel’s experiments? used to solve problems involving simple Mendelian genetics? (cont.)

  • He realized that traits are inherited in predictable phenotype ratios. The phenotype are traits of organism observed in its appearance or behaviour, which is determined by its genes.

  • A trait can have different forms if there are different forms of a gene at the same position of DNA, which are known as alleles.


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  • What did we learn from Mendel’s experiments? used to solve problems involving simple Mendelian genetics? (cont.)

  • If an organism has the same allele from each parent, then it is homozygous and is called a purebred. However, if it has a different allele from each parent, then it is heterozygous and is called a hybrid.


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  • What did we learn from Mendel’s experiments? used to solve problems involving simple Mendelian genetics? (cont.)

  • When he crossed a white–flowered plant with a purple–flowered plant and then crossed two of these offspring, he observed the following results.


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  • What did we learn from Mendel’s experiments? used to solve problems involving simple Mendelian genetics? (cont.)

  • When he crossed a white–flowered plant with a purple–flowered plant and then crossed two of these offspring, he observed the following results.


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  • What did we learn from Mendel’s experiments? used to solve problems involving simple Mendelian genetics? (cont.)

  • When he crossed a white–flowered plant with a purple–flowered plant and then crossed two of these offspring, he observed the following results.

P generation


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  • What did we learn from Mendel’s experiments? used to solve problems involving simple Mendelian genetics? (cont.)

  • When he crossed a white–flowered plant with a purple–flowered plant and then crossed two of these offspring, he observed the following results.

P generation

purebred parents


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  • What did we learn from Mendel’s experiments? used to solve problems involving simple Mendelian genetics? (cont.)

  • When he crossed a white–flowered plant with a purple–flowered plant and then crossed two of these offspring, he observed the following results.

P generation

purebred parents

all purple


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  • What did we learn from Mendel’s experiments? used to solve problems involving simple Mendelian genetics? (cont.)

  • When he crossed a white–flowered plant with a purple–flowered plant and then crossed two of these offspring, he observed the following results.

P generation

purebred parents

F1 generation

(first falial)

all purple


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  • What did we learn from Mendel’s experiments? used to solve problems involving simple Mendelian genetics? (cont.)

  • When he crossed a white–flowered plant with a purple–flowered plant and then crossed two of these offspring, he observed the following results.

P generation

purebred parents

F1 generation

(first falial)

hybrid offspring

all purple


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  • What did we learn from Mendel’s experiments? used to solve problems involving simple Mendelian genetics? (cont.)

  • When he crossed two of these purple–flowered hybrid offspring from the F1 generation, he observed the following results.


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  • What did we learn from Mendel’s experiments? used to solve problems involving simple Mendelian genetics? (cont.)

  • When he crossed two of these purple–flowered hybrid offspring from the F1 generation, he observed the following results.


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  • What did we learn from Mendel’s experiments? used to solve problems involving simple Mendelian genetics? (cont.)

  • When he crossed two of these purple–flowered hybrid offspring from the F1 generation, he observed the following results.

F1 generation

hybrid offspring


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  • What did we learn from Mendel’s experiments? used to solve problems involving simple Mendelian genetics? (cont.)

  • When he crossed two of these purple–flowered hybrid offspring from the F1 generation, he observed the following results.

F1 generation

hybrid offspring

¼ white

¾ purple


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  • What did we learn from Mendel’s experiments? used to solve problems involving simple Mendelian genetics? (cont.)

  • When he crossed two of these purple–flowered hybrid offspring from the F1 generation, he observed the following results.

F1 generation

hybrid offspring

F2 generation

(second falial)

¼ white

¾ purple


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What did we learn from Mendel’s experiments? used to solve problems involving simple Mendelian genetics? (cont.)


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  • What did we learn from Mendel’s experiments? used to solve problems involving simple Mendelian genetics? (cont.)

  • These results showed that each parent passed on a single allele to the offspring, such that the seed and the pollen only carry one allele each, not both.


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  • What did we learn from Mendel’s experiments? used to solve problems involving simple Mendelian genetics? (cont.)

  • These results showed that each parent passed on a single allele to the offspring, such that the seed and the pollen only carry one allele each, not both.

  • It also showed that each trait is inherited separately from each other, such that one trait did not affect how another trait was inherited.


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  • What did we learn from Mendel’s experiments? used to solve problems involving simple Mendelian genetics? (cont.)

  • Finally, it showed that the dominant purple colour masked or hid the recessive white colour. For the white colour to be observed, the flower must have two alleles for the white colour, such that is must be a purebred for this trait.


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How can we predict these results? used to solve problems involving simple Mendelian genetics? (cont.)


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  • How can we predict these results? used to solve problems involving simple Mendelian genetics? (cont.)

  • We can use a Punnett square to determine determined the probability, the chances of a particular outcome.


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  • How can we predict these results? used to solve problems involving simple Mendelian genetics? (cont.)

  • To complete a Punnett square, we use a letter to represent each trait.


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  • How can we predict these results? used to solve problems involving simple Mendelian genetics? (cont.)

  • To complete a Punnett square, we use a letter to represent each trait. We represent the dominant allele with a capital letter, and the recessive allele is given the same letter but in lower case.


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  • How can we predict these results? used to solve problems involving simple Mendelian genetics? (cont.)

  • To complete a Punnett square, we use a letter to represent each trait. We represent the dominant allele with a capital letter, and the recessive allele is given the same letter but in lower case. For the pea plant flowers, the dominant purple colour = P and the recessive white colour = p.


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  • How can we predict these results? used to solve problems involving simple Mendelian genetics? (cont.)

  • To complete a Punnett square, we use a letter to represent each trait. We represent the dominant allele with a capital letter, and the recessive allele is given the same letter but in lower case. For the pea plant flowers, the dominant purple colour = P and the recessive white colour = p. If both parents are pure bred, then purple coloured parent must be PP and the white coloured parent must be pp.


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  • How can we predict these results? used to solve problems involving simple Mendelian genetics? (cont.)

  • To complete a Punnett square, we use a letter to represent each trait. We represent the dominant allele with a capital letter, and the recessive allele is given the same letter but in lower case. For the pea plant flowers, the dominant purple colour = P and the recessive white colour = p. If both parents are pure bred, then purple coloured parent must be PP and the white coloured parent must be pp. To predict the results of a cross, we insert the alleles from each parent into the Punnett square.


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  • How can we predict these results? used to solve problems involving simple Mendelian genetics? (cont.)

  • These results show that all the F1 offspring are all purple coloured hybrids.


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  • How can we predict these results? used to solve problems involving simple Mendelian genetics? (cont.)

  • We can use another Punnett square to predict the the F2 offspring.


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  • How can we predict these results? used to solve problems involving simple Mendelian genetics? (cont.)

  • We can use another Punnett square to predict the the F2 offspring.


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  • How can we predict these results? used to solve problems involving simple Mendelian genetics? (cont.)

  • We can use another Punnett square to predict the the F2 offspring.


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  • How can we predict these results? used to solve problems involving simple Mendelian genetics? (cont.)

  • We can use another Punnett square to predict the the F2 offspring.


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  • How can we predict these results? used to solve problems involving simple Mendelian genetics? (cont.)

  • We can use another Punnett square to predict the the F2 offspring.


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  • How can we predict these results? used to solve problems involving simple Mendelian genetics? (cont.)

  • We can use another Punnett square to predict the the F2 offspring.


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  • How can we predict these results? used to solve problems involving simple Mendelian genetics? (cont.)

  • We can use another Punnett square to predict the the F2 offspring.


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  • How can we predict these results? used to solve problems involving simple Mendelian genetics? (cont.)

  • The F2 offspring consist of:1 PP: purple coloured2 Pp: purple coloured1 pp


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  • How can we predict these results? used to solve problems involving simple Mendelian genetics? (cont.)

  • The F2 offspring consist of:1 PP: purple coloured2 Pp: purple coloured1 pp: white coloured


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  • How can we predict these results? used to solve problems involving simple Mendelian genetics? (cont.)

  • The F2 offspring consist of:1 PP: purple coloured2 Pp: purple coloured1 pp: white coloured

¾ purple coloured


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  • How can we predict these results? used to solve problems involving simple Mendelian genetics? (cont.)

  • The F2 offspring consist of:1 PP: purple coloured2 Pp: purple coloured1 pp: white coloured  ¼ white coloured

¾ purple coloured


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  • How can we predict these results? used to solve problems involving simple Mendelian genetics? (cont.)

  • The F2 offspring consist of:1 PP: purple coloured2 Pp: purple coloured1 pp: white coloured  ¼ white coloured

  • The phenotype ratio for this generation is 3:1.

¾ purple coloured


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What are the other patterns of inheritance? used to solve problems involving simple Mendelian genetics? (cont.)


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  • What are the other patterns of inheritance? used to solve problems involving simple Mendelian genetics? (cont.)

  • Incomplete Dominance

  • What happens when neither allele is dominant?

  • If a parent has straight hair and the other parent has curly hair, then they may have children with wavy hair, an intermediate phenotype.


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  • What are the other patterns of inheritance? used to solve problems involving simple Mendelian genetics? (cont.)

  • Incomplete Dominance

  • What happens when neither allele is dominant?

  • If a parent has straight hair and the other parent has curly hair, then they may have children with wavy hair, an intermediate phenotype.

  • This occurs when neither allele in a hybrid is completely are not completely expressed, such that neither allele can mask the other allele.


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  • What are the other patterns of inheritance? used to solve problems involving simple Mendelian genetics? (cont.)

  • Codominance

  • What happens when both alleles are dominant?

  • Depending upon what alleles you inherited from each parent, you can have blood type:A, B, AB, or O.


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  • What are the other patterns of inheritance? used to solve problems involving simple Mendelian genetics? (cont.)

  • Codominance

  • What happens when both alleles are dominant?

  • Depending upon what alleles you inherited from each parent, you can have blood type:A, B, AB, or O.

  • If you inherited an allele for type A from one parent and an allele for type B from the other parent, then you would have type AB blood, such that you are a hybrid expressing both alleles.


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  • What are the other patterns of inheritance? used to solve problems involving simple Mendelian genetics? (cont.)

  • Sex Linkage

  • Are there any traits related to an individuals sex?

  • Of your 23 pairs of chromosomes, you have one pair of sex chromosomes.


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  • What are the other patterns of inheritance? used to solve problems involving simple Mendelian genetics? (cont.)

  • Sex Linkage

  • Are there any traits related to an individual’s sex?

  • Of your 23 pairs of chromosomes, you have one pair of sex chromosomes. Females have two X chromosomes, while males have one X and one Y chromosome.


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  • What are the other patterns of inheritance? used to solve problems involving simple Mendelian genetics? (cont.)

  • Sex Linkage

  • Are there any traits related to an individual’s sex?

  • Of your 23 pairs of chromosomes, you have one pair of sex chromosomes. Females have two X chromosomes, while males have one X and one Y chromosome.

  • Hemophilia is a disease where blood does not properly clot and caused by a recessive gene on the X chromosome.


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  • What are the other patterns of inheritance? used to solve problems involving simple Mendelian genetics? (cont.)

  • Sex Linkage (cont.)

  • If a male inherits a defective allele from his mother, then he will have hemophilia because he does not have second X chromosome with a normal allele to mask this defective allele.


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  • What are the other patterns of inheritance? used to solve problems involving simple Mendelian genetics? (cont.)

  • Sex Linkage (cont.)

  • If a male inherits a defective allele from his mother, then he will have hemophilia because he does not have second X chromosome with a normal allele to mask this defective allele.

  • Although he will pass this allele onto his daughter, she can only get this disease if she inherits a defective gene from her mother.


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III. What are factors that may cause mutation used to solve problems involving simple Mendelian genetics? (cont.)


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III. What are factors that may cause mutations? used to solve problems involving simple Mendelian genetics? (cont.)

What is a mutation?


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  • III. What are factors that may cause mutations? used to solve problems involving simple Mendelian genetics? (cont.)

  • What is a mutation?

  • A change in a DNA sequence that occurs naturally during cell division or results from an environmental factor.


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III. What are factors that may cause mutations? used to solve problems involving simple Mendelian genetics? (cont.)

What environmental factors cause mutations?


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III. What are factors that may cause mutations? used to solve problems involving simple Mendelian genetics? (cont.)

What environmental factors cause mutations?

A. Chemical:


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III. What are factors that may cause mutations? used to solve problems involving simple Mendelian genetics? (cont.)

What environmental factors cause mutations?

A. Chemical: Some toxins, such as PCBs (polychlorinated biphenals), may react chemically with DNA and cause cancer.


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  • III. What are factors that may cause mutations? used to solve problems involving simple Mendelian genetics? (cont.)

  • What environmental factors cause mutations?

  • Chemical: Some toxins, such as PCBs (polychlorinated biphenals), may react chemically with DNA and cause cancer.

  • Biological:


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  • III. What are factors that may cause mutations? used to solve problems involving simple Mendelian genetics? (cont.)

  • What environmental factors cause mutations?

  • Chemical: Some toxins, such as PCBs (polychlorinated biphenals), may react chemically with DNA and cause cancer.

  • Biological: Some viruses, such as HIV which causes AIDS, infect host cells by inserting their DNA in the host’s DNA.


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III. What are factors that may cause mutations? used to solve problems involving simple Mendelian genetics? (cont.)

What environmental factors cause mutations?

C. Physical:


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III. What are factors that may cause mutations? used to solve problems involving simple Mendelian genetics? (cont.)

What environmental factors cause mutations?

C. Physical: Radiation, such as UV light from sunlight or X-rays from a dentist’s office, directly damages the structure of DNA.




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  • IV. What are the positive, neutral, and negative effects of various mutations?

  • Positive: If a mutation improves an organism’s ability to survive or compete in its environment, then this is a positive mutation.

  • For example, a mutation that allows a western red cedar tree to grow faster may compete better against other trees for sunlight.




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  • IV. What are the positive, neutral, and negative effects of various mutations?

  • Negative: If a mutation reduces an organism’s ability to survive or compete in its environment, then this is a negative mutation.

  • For example, a mutation that impairs a deer’s vision will make it harder to see food and prey clearly.



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IV. What are the positive, neutral, and negative effects of various mutations?

Another example is an albino, who has white skin and hair.


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IV. What are the positive, neutral, and negative effects of various mutations?

Another example is an albino, who has white skin and hair. Albinos cannot produce melanin, which is the pigment that gives colour to our skin, hair, and eyes and protects us from ultraviolet light.



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  • IV. What are the positive, neutral, and negative effects of various mutations?

  • Neutral: If a mutation does not change an organism’s ability to survive or compete in its environment, then this is a neutral mutation. Most mutations do not affect an organism because they do not significantly change the proteins that are made.


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  • IV. What are the positive, neutral, and negative effects of various mutations?

  • Neutral: If a mutation does not change an organism’s ability to survive or compete in its environment, then this is a neutral mutation. Most mutations do not affect an organism because they do not significantly change the proteins that are made.

  • For example, a mutation that turns a rose’s colour from red to pink would not affect its function.



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IV. What are the positive, neutral, and negative effects of various mutations?

The effects of a mutation are not always obvious.


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IV. What are the positive, neutral, and negative effects of various mutations?

The effects of a mutation are not always obvious. While a western red cedar that grows faster can get more sunlight, it may be more likely to suffer damage from strong winds.


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V. What are the implications of current and emerging biomedical, genetic, and reproductive technologies?


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V. What are the implications of current and emerging biomedical, genetic, and reproductive technologies?

biomedical, genetics, and reproductive technologies


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V. What are the implications of current and emerging biomedical, genetic, and reproductive technologies?

biomedical, genetics, and reproductive technologies

genetic probes


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V. What are the implications of current and emerging biomedical, genetic, and reproductive technologies?

biomedical, genetics, and reproductive technologies

genetic probes

genetic testing


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V. What are the implications of current and emerging biomedical, genetic, and reproductive technologies?

biomedical, genetics, and reproductive technologies

genetic probes

genetic testing

gene therapy


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V. What are the implications of current and emerging biomedical, genetic, and reproductive technologies?

biomedical, genetics, and reproductive technologies

genetic probes

forensic science

genetic testing

gene therapy


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V. What are the implications of current and emerging biomedical, genetic, and reproductive technologies?

biomedical, genetics, and reproductive technologies

genetic probes

forensic science

genetic testing

drug development

gene therapy


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V. What are the implications of current and emerging biomedical, genetic, and reproductive technologies?

biomedical, genetics, and reproductive technologies

genetic probes

forensic science

genetic testing

drug development

gene therapy

drug production


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V. What are the implications of current and emerging biomedical, genetic, and reproductive technologies?

biomedical, genetics, and reproductive technologies

genetic probes

forensic science

genetic testing

drug development

gene therapy

drug production

cloning


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V. What are the implications of current and emerging biomedical, genetic, and reproductive technologies?

biomedical, genetics, and reproductive technologies

genetic probes

forensic science

genetic testing

drug development

gene therapy

drug production

cloning

GMOs


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What is genomics and how will it affect my life?

CLICK HERE TO FIND OUT

What are some current genetic research projects in BC?

CLICK HERE TO FIND OUT


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THE END biomedical, genetic, and reproductive technologies?

Genome British Columbia, 2004 www.genomicseducation.ca


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