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Publishing in Developing Countries: Problems and Solutions . Introduction. Who am I? Focus of session Academic books Scholarly journals Africa. The international need for national content.

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Introduction l.jpg
Introduction

  • Who am I?

  • Focus of session

    • Academic books

    • Scholarly journals

    • Africa


The international need for national content l.jpg
The international need for national content

  • A national newspaper, the New Vision, picked up a study published in the Ugandan journal African Health Sciences showing that about half of chloroquine tablets and injections in Uganda are fake or substandard

    • Implications for Malaria research …

    • Implications for efficacy trials of chloroquine …

    • Implications for public health policies …


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The need for a “local” publishing industry

  • Communicate local/regional science

    • Local/regional scope/problems

    • Local/regional language

  • Develop local capacity in editorship, publishing and writing

  • Acquire and increase credibility

    • Promote research on local problems

    • Encourage the use of science in decision-making


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Brief History

  • 1960s/70s high point for academic community

    • And consequently for academic publishing

  • High government investment in education at all levels

  • Followed by economic and social crash


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World Bank intervention

  • At a meeting with African vice-chancellors in Harare in 1986, the World Bank argued that higher education in African countries in Africa was a luxury: that most African countries were better off closing universities at home and training graduates overseas

  • That position was later modified but the Bank was still calling for universities in Africa to be trimmed and restructured to produce only those skills which the "market" demanded


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East African Common Market

  • Agreements between Kenya/Tanzania and Uganda to facilitate trade

  • Breakdown in 1970s

    • Difficulties in selling within the region

    • Rapidly rising cost of commodities

      • especially paper

      • Inflation

    • Departure of many of the multinational publishing companies

      • Harder to make sales inter-country – smaller markets


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Multinationals

  • Multinationals still control the majority of publishing within the continent

  • Control c.60% educational publishing in South Africa

    • Maskew Miller merged with Longman and now part of Pearson Group reports that they publish approximately one out of every three textbooks in South Africa


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Multinationals

  • Main players

    • Pearson (aka Longman)

    • Macmillan

    • OUP / CUP

  • Macmillan main (only?) publisher/book supplier in Botswana, Lesotho and Swaziland

    • there is no (reported) local publishing


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Volume of book production

  • Little data of publishing within the continent

  • Publishers Association (UK) provide market profiles for some countries – specifically for UK/international publishers to identify possible opportunities

    • Much publishing was/is controlled by government


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1995 comparison (the most recent year with comparative data)

  • Nigeria: pop.>120m, publication: 1,314 titles

    • 0.1095 per 1000 population

  • South Africa: pop >42m, publication: 5,418 titles

    • 0.129 per 1000 population

  • Norway: pop: 4.55m, publication: 7265 titles (excl. Textbooks)

    • 1.597 per 1000 population

  • Africa has 15% world's population, but produces c.2% total books

  • SA publishers c.80% Africa’s books (pers comm.)

    <source, UNESCO Inst for Statistics>


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Predominance of textbooks

  • c.95% all books are school textbooks

  • However, market not saturated

    • Tanzania The M-of-E reports book:student ratios 1:4 - 1:7

      • reality is estimated to be lower

      • Many government-subsidised books are diverted to bookshops were the well-to-do buy them


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University presses

  • Created to solve the problems of student textbook publishing

    • Local knowledge/research – appropriate for students

    • Affordable publication

  • Presses

    • Dar es Salaam (1979)

    • Nairobi University Press (1984)

      • Published 40 titles by 2000

    • Makerere University Press (1979)

      • Published 12 titles by 2000

    • Addis Ababa University Press (1967)


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University presses

  • Weak

  • Poorly funded

  • Expected to make profit

  • Frequently rely on authors to pay for publication

  • Rapid turn-round of (inexperienced, unskilled) staff

    • Addis Ababa, managed by senior faculty member on 3-5yr tenure, relies on volunteers, with permanent staff of 1, plus various admin


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Languages

  • c.2000 indigenous languages in Africa

    • Some have no written form

    • Kiswahili has >80million speakers (E Africa), written manuscripts since 1000 AD

      • But it is frequently seen as a “market language” – government, culture and education remain in the European tongues

  • Most education is in the language of the coloniser

    • French, Spanish, French

    • Variable fluency in these languages

  • Very small markets or publication in native languages


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Publishing networks

  • APNET: African Publishers Network

    • Formed in 1992

    • Provided training for publishers

    • Now, sadly, pretty much inactive

  • Zimbabwe International book fair

    • Annual since 1983, but reduced to provincial event, and now to be replaced by annual event in Cape Town (South Africa) in partnership with Frankfurt


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University publishing education

  • Three university courses

    • Moi University (Kenya) (within the school of Information Sciences, and includes librarianship, info.science, archives, records management and publishing)

    • KNUST (Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology), Kumasi, Ghana

    • University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa


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Book publishing solutions

  • Co-publication

    • e.g. James Currey

  • Out-of-Africa distribution

    • African Books Collective

    • African Books Centre

  • Technology

    • POD


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Breakout ……

  • What are the benefits and pitfalls of these three solutions

  • What other solutions are there for book publishing in Africa?





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African journals - Indexing …

  • The Library of Congress Nairobi office catalogues c.300 serial publications (mostly scholarly)

  • Index to South African Periodicals includes 680 titles (250 recognised by the Academy of Science of South Africa)


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Journal titles …

  • Oldest titles include

    • South African Medical Journal, 1884

    • South African Law Journal 1884

    • East African Medical Journal, 1923

  • Most titles launched in 1970s/1980s

  • Large incidence of volume1-issue1 syndrome


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Journal publishing problems

  • Lack of publishers

    • Most journals are self-published

    • Editors frequently required to manage all publishing processes

    • Little awareness of publishing developments

  • Poor financial sustainability

    • Most owned by association/university, but little financial support

    • Lack of promotion, sales, financial systems


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More journal publishing problems

  • Poor editorial content

    • Authors unskilled in writing or publishing

      • Unethical behaviour

      • Low submission rates

    • Difficult peer reviewing (few peers, lack of knowledge about reviewing methodology, corruption, cultural issues)

  • Lack of online publishing

    • Majority of journals in print only

    • Majority of readers want/need print


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Supporting national publishing

  • Small number of programmes

    • More programmes devoted to getting “Western” information into developing countries

    • PERI, HINARI, AGORA, OARE

      • www.inasp.info/peri

      • www.who.int/hinari/en/

      • www.aginternetwork.org/

      • www.oaresciences.org/


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Supporting National publishing

  • Increasing emphasis to include content in health indexes –

    • Medline keen to include African Journals, actively encouraging submission

      • However technical problems due to need for XML submission

    • Re-launch of African Index Medicus (supported by World Health Organization – WHO)

    • Regional indexes, such as the Index Medicus for the Eastern Mediterranean region (WHO)


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Journal partnerships

  • Partnerships –

    • Africa Health Journals Partnership Project

      • funded by the US National Institutes of Health, Fogarty Institute

      • Twinned high-impact African journals to high profile Northern journals (e.g. African Health Science to the BMJ)

      • Provides some financial support for equipment, and digitisation

      • Provides some support for training and study tours

    • ALPSP partnership programme

      • ALPSP Membership for publishers in LDCs paid by existing northern members


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Publishing skills

  • Training workshops

    • Editorial

      • Few supported by HINARI, WHO and the Partnership project

    • Publishing skills

      • INASP supported 17 workshops since 2000

  • Study tours

    • Usually short, 2-week visits

  • Oxford Brookes

    • Scholarships for developing country students


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Online publishing

  • Support for online publishing

    • Websites to host journals – e.g.

      • Bioline - www.bioline.org.br

      • African Journals OnLine - www.ajol.info

    • Software

      • Open Journals System (http//pkp.sfu.ca/ojs/)

      • Submission/reviewing/tracking/publishing system

      • Open source software for downloading/using

    • Software/online services

      • Index Copernicus (www.indexcopernicus.com/)

      • Submission/reviewing/tracking/publishing system

      • Website to host/manage journals


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In-country support for scholarly publishing

  • Many national research associations and governments take no direct action on scholarly publishing

    • ASSAf have published a paper on the publishing strategy to be endorsed by the SA Government

    • Association of African Universities (AAU) supported a programme called DATAD (Database of theses and Dissertations), to capture grey literature from 11 organisations in 10 countries, to create an online database


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Sources of information

  • INASP (International Network for the Availability of Scientific Information) www.inasp.info

  • APNET - http://www.apnet.org/home.html

  • African Scholarly Publishing Essays (2007) Edited by A Mlambo, published by African Books Collective - http://www.africanbookscollective.com/

  • The Book Chain in Africa (2002) Compiled and edited by Roger Stringer, published by INASP - http://www.inasp.info/pubs/index.shtml

  • Notice about the Africa Health Journals Partnership Project - http://www.ehponline.org/docs/2005/113-7/niehsnews.html

  • Third World Academy of Science - http://wwww.twas.org/

  • SciDevNet -http://www.scidev.net/ - science journalism


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Sources of information

  • UNESCO Institute for Statistics - www.uis.unesco.org/

  • Report on a Strategic Approach to Research Publishing in South Africa published by the Academy of Science of South Africa - http://www.assaf.co.za/strat_report.html

  • Oforei-Adjei, D. et al. (2006) Have Online International Medical Journals Made Local Journals Obsolete PLoS Medicine 3 (8)

  • Smart, P., Pearce, C., & Tonukari, J. (2004) E-publishing in Developing Economies. Canadian Journal of Communication [Online], 29(3). http://www.cjc-online.ca/viewarticle.php?id=837

  • Nwagwu, W. (2005) Deficits in the visibility of African scientists: implications for developing information and communication technology (ICT) capacity. World Review of Science, Technology and Sustainable Development Vol. 2, No.3/4.

  • Priestley, C. (2000) Book and Publishing Assistance Programs: A review and Inventory. Revised Edition. Bellagio Studies in Publishing, no. 11.


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