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Note …. The motherboard is a field replaceable unit FRU. Selecting a Motherboard. Motherboard form factor Determines the size of the board Drives selection of power supply, case, CPU, cards ATX: still, most popular motherboard form factor BTX: the latest motherboard form factor.

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Note …

The motherboard is a field replaceable unit

FRU

IT Essentials 1


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Selecting a Motherboard

  • Motherboard form factor

    • Determines the size of the board

    • Drives selection of power supply, case, CPU, cards

  • ATX: still, most popular motherboard form factor

  • BTX: the latest motherboard form factor

IT Essentials 1


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IT Essentials 1



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Selecting a Motherboard

  • Some questions to ask when picking a motherboard

    • What form factor does the motherboard use?

    • Does the motherboard provide proper CPU support?

    • What type of BIOS does the motherboard use?

    • Does the board fit the case you plan to use?

    • What is the warranty on the board?

  • Embedded (on-board) component

    • Component located on the board

    • Avoid board with too many embedded components

      • Such boards do not easily accept add-on devices

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Buses and Expansion Slots

  • Buses are like highway transportation systems

  • Four types of cargo carried by a bus:

    • Power,

    • control signals,

    • memory addresses,

    • data

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Bus Evolution

  • Buses have evolved around data path and speed

  • Synchronous components work with clock cycle

  • Asynchronous components are out of step with CPU

  • There is a concept (mostly outdated now) called the Wait State: The processor could be put into a wait state by a peripheral device, until that device is ready to continue. In other words, a command to the CPU to wait for slower device

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Bus types

  • expansion,

  • local,

  • local I/O,

  • local video

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Expansion Buses

Buses that do not run in sync with the system clock

are correctly termed Expansion Buses, and connect to

the SouthBridge

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Local Bus

  • These buses run in sync with the system clock

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.. But …..

  • If a local bus feeds into the SouthBridge then it is correctly termed a Local I/O bus

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.. Otherwise…

  • If the local bus feeds into the NorthBridge then it is just termed a local bus

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…unless….

…. The local bus happens to support video (like AGP or PCI Express)….

… in which case it is correctly termed a local video bus

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ISA Slots

  • ISA = Industry Standard Architecture

  • Transferred 8 bits at a time at a rate of 4.77 MHz

  • Later increased to 16 bits at a time and a rate of 8.33 MHz

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PCI Slots

  • PCI = Peripheral Component Interconnect

  • Developed by Intel in 1991 to replace ISA

IT Essentials 1


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PCI

  • Original PCI bus supported 32 bits per transfer, at 33 MHz, and provided 5 V

  • Later adaptation – PCI 2.x had 64 bit transfer and provided 3.3 V

  • So, used a 32 bit or 64 bit parallel transfer scheme

  • Problem?

IT Essentials 1


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PCI Problem?

  • How to distinguish between 5 V and 3.3 V?

  • Solution – Use notch, giving 5 V PCI Card, 3.3 V PCI Card, and Universal PCI Card

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More on PCI…..

  • Now ‘PCI’ has 4 different slots and 6 possible PCI card configurations

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PCI-X

  • This is a later standard

  • PCI-X has 3 ‘revisions’ or sub-categories, the most current is PCI-X 3.0

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PCI Express

  • Intended to be the PCI standard and replace conventional PCI as well as PCI-X

  • PCI Express is not compatible with PCI or PCI-X

  • Uses a Serial Bus (bit after bit)

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PCI Express comes in 4 different slot sizes

  • PCI Express X 1 (4 wires make up a single data lane)

  • PCI Express X 4 (…)

  • PCI Express X 8

  • PCI Express X 16 ( .. 16 lanes)

    A ‘lane’ has 2 wires to send and 2 wires to receive.

    A PCIe X 1 can fit into a PCIe X 16 slot.

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The odd thing about PCI Express is…

  • Traditionally, PCI buses connected to the SouthBridge

  • Now, PCI express

    - defines a link for PCI e (for express) slots to the SouthBridge … and …

    - defines a link for one special PCI slot to the NorthBridge.

    The NorthBridge slot is the one intended to hold a PCIe Video Card.

IT Essentials 1






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Buses and Expansion Slots

  • The PCI buses

    • Intended to replace the 16-bit ISA bus

    • Types: Conventional PCI, PCI-X, PCI Express

  • On-board ports (integrated components)

    • Examples: keyboard, mouse port, parallel printer, USB

  • Internal connectors

    • EIDE, floppy drive connector, serial ATA, SCSI, 1394

  • Riser slots

    • Audio/modem riser (AMR)

    • Communication and networking riser (CNR)

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Hardware Configuration modem riser card

  • Three ways to configure the motherboard:

    • DIP switches, jumpers, CMOS RAM

  • Dual inline package (DIP) switch

    • Has ON (binary 1) and OFF (binary 0) positions

    • Reset DIP switch when adding or removing device

    • Use pointed instrument other than graphite pencil

  • Jumpers

    • Retain setup or installation information

    • Are opened and closed using jumper covers

    • Typical setting: enabling/disabling keyboard power-up

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Setup information about the motherboard can be stored by setting a jumper on (closed) or off (open). A jumper is closed if the cover is in place, connecting the two pins that make up the jumper; a jumper is open if the cover is not in place.

IT Essentials 1


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Hardware Configuration setting a jumper on (closed) or off (open). A jumper is closed if the cover is in place, connecting the two pins that make up the jumper; a jumper is open if the cover is not in place.

  • CMOS RAM

    • Also called clock/nonvolatile RAM (RTC/NVRAM)

    • Stores most configuration for the motherboard

    • Can be accessed without opening the case

  • CMOS setup program

    • Stored on a floppy disk or ROM BIOS chip

    • Access built-in program by pressing key during POST

    • Menus: Main, Advanced, Power, Boot, and Exit

    • Brand name PCs, such as IBM, have custom screens

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How to access CMOS setup setting a jumper on (closed) or off (open). A jumper is closed if the cover is in place, connecting the two pins that make up the jumper; a jumper is open if the cover is not in place.

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CMOS Setup Main menu setting a jumper on (closed) or off (open). A jumper is closed if the cover is in place, connecting the two pins that make up the jumper; a jumper is open if the cover is not in place.

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The coin cell is the most common type of CMOS battery setting a jumper on (closed) or off (open). A jumper is closed if the cover is in place, connecting the two pins that make up the jumper; a jumper is open if the cover is not in place.

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Flashing ROM BIOS setting a jumper on (closed) or off (open). A jumper is closed if the cover is in place, connecting the two pins that make up the jumper; a jumper is open if the cover is not in place.

  • Programs stored in the ROM BIOS chip:

    • CMOS setup program

    • Startup BIOS that manages the startup process

    • System BIOS that manages basic I/O functions

  • Programs on ROM BIOS may need upgrades

  • Flashing: upgrading or refreshing ROM BIOS chip

  • Sources for ROM BIOS upgrades

    • Manufacturer’s Web site

    • http://www.esupport.com

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Intel displays a list of motherboard model numbers that have a Flash BIOS upgrade available

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Motherboard Drivers a Flash BIOS upgrade available

  • Located on CD bundled with motherboard

  • Motherboard CD may also contain useful utilities

  • Drivers are periodically updated by manufacturer

  • Dealing with an unstable motherboard

    • Check for updated drivers, especially chipset drivers

    • Install updated drivers for non-functioning devices

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Replacing a Motherboard a Flash BIOS upgrade available

  • Overview of the replacement process

    • 1. Verify that you have selected the right motherboard

    • 2. Determine the power configuration settings

    • 3. Remove components to reach the old motherboard

    • 4. Set any jumpers or switches on the motherboard

    • 5. Install the processor and processor cooler

    • 6. Install RAM into appropriate slots on motherboard

    • 7. Install the motherboard

    • 8. Attach cabling (case switches, power supply, drives)

    • 9. Install the video card on the motherboard

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Replacing a Motherboard (continued) a Flash BIOS upgrade available

  • Overview of the replacement process (continued)

    • 10. Plug in PC and then attach monitor and keyboard

    • 11. Boot the system and enter CMOS setup

    • 12. Make sure the settings are set to default

    • 13. Observe POST and verify that no error occurs

    • 14. Check for conflicts with system resources

    • 15. Install the motherboard drives

    • 16. Install any other expansion cards and drives

    • 17. Verify the system is up and running

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Preparing the Motherboard to Go Into the Case a Flash BIOS upgrade available

  • Read the manual before preparing the motherboard

  • Setting the jumpers

    • First step in preparing the motherboard

    • The manual explains jumper and DIP switch settings

    • Information differs from one motherboard to the next

  • Tasks performed after setting the jumpers

    • Install the processor and cooler

    • Install the memory modules

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BIOS configuration jumper settings a Flash BIOS upgrade available

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Installing the Motherboard in the Case a Flash BIOS upgrade available

  • Overview of the eight general steps:

    • 1. Install the faceplate (I/O shield)

    • 2. Install the standoffs (spacers)

    • 3. Secure the motherboard in the case

    • 4. Connect the power cord to the PI power connection

    • 5. Connect 4-pin auxiliary power cord to motherboard

    • 6. Connect the wire leads from front panel of case

    • 7. Refer to manual to verify wire to pin connection

    • 8. Connect USB connection (if present) to USB ports

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Completing the Installation a Flash BIOS upgrade available

  • Following the connection of cables and cords

    • Install the video card

    • Plug in the keyboard and monitor

    • Turn the system on

    • Look out for errors during POST

    • Install drivers from CD bundled with motherboard

    • Verify operations

    • Make OS and CMOS adjustments as needed

IT Essentials 1


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