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Note …. The motherboard is a field replaceable unit FRU. Selecting a Motherboard. Motherboard form factor Determines the size of the board Drives selection of power supply, case, CPU, cards ATX: still, most popular motherboard form factor BTX: the latest motherboard form factor.

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slide1
Note …

The motherboard is a field replaceable unit

FRU

IT Essentials 1

selecting a motherboard
Selecting a Motherboard
  • Motherboard form factor
    • Determines the size of the board
    • Drives selection of power supply, case, CPU, cards
  • ATX: still, most popular motherboard form factor
  • BTX: the latest motherboard form factor

IT Essentials 1

slide3
Three types of motherboards you can select:
    • A board providing the most room for expansion
    • A board suiting the computer’s current configuration
    • A board falling in between current and future needs

IT Essentials 1

selecting a motherboard5
Selecting a Motherboard
  • Some questions to ask when picking a motherboard
    • What form factor does the motherboard use?
    • Does the motherboard provide proper CPU support?
    • What type of BIOS does the motherboard use?
    • Does the board fit the case you plan to use?
    • What is the warranty on the board?
  • Embedded (on-board) component
    • Component located on the board
    • Avoid board with too many embedded components
      • Such boards do not easily accept add-on devices

IT Essentials 1

buses and expansion slots
Buses and Expansion Slots
  • Buses are like highway transportation systems
  • Four types of cargo carried by a bus:
    • Power,
    • control signals,
    • memory addresses,
    • data

IT Essentials 1

bus evolution
Bus Evolution
  • Buses have evolved around data path and speed
  • Synchronous components work with clock cycle
  • Asynchronous components are out of step with CPU
  • There is a concept (mostly outdated now) called the Wait State: The processor could be put into a wait state by a peripheral device, until that device is ready to continue. In other words, a command to the CPU to wait for slower device

IT Essentials 1

bus types
Bus types
  • expansion,
  • local,
  • local I/O,
  • local video

IT Essentials 1

expansion buses
Expansion Buses

Buses that do not run in sync with the system clock

are correctly termed Expansion Buses, and connect to

the SouthBridge

IT Essentials 1

local bus
Local Bus
  • These buses run in sync with the system clock

IT Essentials 1

slide11
.. But …..
  • If a local bus feeds into the SouthBridge then it is correctly termed a Local I/O bus

IT Essentials 1

otherwise
.. Otherwise…
  • If the local bus feeds into the NorthBridge then it is just termed a local bus

IT Essentials 1

unless
…unless….

…. The local bus happens to support video (like AGP or PCI Express)….

… in which case it is correctly termed a local video bus

IT Essentials 1

isa slots
ISA Slots
  • ISA = Industry Standard Architecture
  • Transferred 8 bits at a time at a rate of 4.77 MHz
  • Later increased to 16 bits at a time and a rate of 8.33 MHz

IT Essentials 1

pci slots
PCI Slots
  • PCI = Peripheral Component Interconnect
  • Developed by Intel in 1991 to replace ISA

IT Essentials 1

slide16
PCI
  • Original PCI bus supported 32 bits per transfer, at 33 MHz, and provided 5 V
  • Later adaptation – PCI 2.x had 64 bit transfer and provided 3.3 V
  • So, used a 32 bit or 64 bit parallel transfer scheme
  • Problem?

IT Essentials 1

pci problem
PCI Problem?
  • How to distinguish between 5 V and 3.3 V?
  • Solution – Use notch, giving 5 V PCI Card, 3.3 V PCI Card, and Universal PCI Card

IT Essentials 1

more on pci
More on PCI…..
  • Now ‘PCI’ has 4 different slots and 6 possible PCI card configurations

IT Essentials 1

pci x
PCI-X
  • This is a later standard
  • PCI-X has 3 ‘revisions’ or sub-categories, the most current is PCI-X 3.0

IT Essentials 1

pci express
PCI Express
  • Intended to be the PCI standard and replace conventional PCI as well as PCI-X
  • PCI Express is not compatible with PCI or PCI-X
  • Uses a Serial Bus (bit after bit)

IT Essentials 1

pci express comes in 4 different slot sizes
PCI Express comes in 4 different slot sizes
  • PCI Express X 1 (4 wires make up a single data lane)
  • PCI Express X 4 (…)
  • PCI Express X 8
  • PCI Express X 16 ( .. 16 lanes)

A ‘lane’ has 2 wires to send and 2 wires to receive.

A PCIe X 1 can fit into a PCIe X 16 slot.

IT Essentials 1

the odd thing about pci express is
The odd thing about PCI Express is…
  • Traditionally, PCI buses connected to the SouthBridge
  • Now, PCI express

- defines a link for PCI e (for express) slots to the SouthBridge … and …

- defines a link for one special PCI slot to the NorthBridge.

The NorthBridge slot is the one intended to hold a PCIe Video Card.

IT Essentials 1

buses and expansion slots27
Buses and Expansion Slots
  • The PCI buses
    • Intended to replace the 16-bit ISA bus
    • Types: Conventional PCI, PCI-X, PCI Express
  • On-board ports (integrated components)
    • Examples: keyboard, mouse port, parallel printer, USB
  • Internal connectors
    • EIDE, floppy drive connector, serial ATA, SCSI, 1394
  • Riser slots
    • Audio/modem riser (AMR)
    • Communication and networking riser (CNR)

IT Essentials 1

hardware configuration
Hardware Configuration
  • Three ways to configure the motherboard:
    • DIP switches, jumpers, CMOS RAM
  • Dual inline package (DIP) switch
    • Has ON (binary 1) and OFF (binary 0) positions
    • Reset DIP switch when adding or removing device
    • Use pointed instrument other than graphite pencil
  • Jumpers
    • Retain setup or installation information
    • Are opened and closed using jumper covers
    • Typical setting: enabling/disabling keyboard power-up

IT Essentials 1

slide32

Setup information about the motherboard can be stored by setting a jumper on (closed) or off (open). A jumper is closed if the cover is in place, connecting the two pins that make up the jumper; a jumper is open if the cover is not in place.

IT Essentials 1

hardware configuration33
Hardware Configuration
  • CMOS RAM
    • Also called clock/nonvolatile RAM (RTC/NVRAM)
    • Stores most configuration for the motherboard
    • Can be accessed without opening the case
  • CMOS setup program
    • Stored on a floppy disk or ROM BIOS chip
    • Access built-in program by pressing key during POST
    • Menus: Main, Advanced, Power, Boot, and Exit
    • Brand name PCs, such as IBM, have custom screens

IT Essentials 1

slide35

CMOS Setup Main menu

IT Essentials 1

flashing rom bios
Flashing ROM BIOS
  • Programs stored in the ROM BIOS chip:
    • CMOS setup program
    • Startup BIOS that manages the startup process
    • System BIOS that manages basic I/O functions
  • Programs on ROM BIOS may need upgrades
  • Flashing: upgrading or refreshing ROM BIOS chip
  • Sources for ROM BIOS upgrades
    • Manufacturer’s Web site
    • http://www.esupport.com

IT Essentials 1

slide38

Intel displays a list of motherboard model numbers that have a Flash BIOS upgrade available

IT Essentials 1

motherboard drivers
Motherboard Drivers
  • Located on CD bundled with motherboard
  • Motherboard CD may also contain useful utilities
  • Drivers are periodically updated by manufacturer
  • Dealing with an unstable motherboard
    • Check for updated drivers, especially chipset drivers
    • Install updated drivers for non-functioning devices

IT Essentials 1

replacing a motherboard
Replacing a Motherboard
  • Overview of the replacement process
    • 1. Verify that you have selected the right motherboard
    • 2. Determine the power configuration settings
    • 3. Remove components to reach the old motherboard
    • 4. Set any jumpers or switches on the motherboard
    • 5. Install the processor and processor cooler
    • 6. Install RAM into appropriate slots on motherboard
    • 7. Install the motherboard
    • 8. Attach cabling (case switches, power supply, drives)
    • 9. Install the video card on the motherboard

IT Essentials 1

replacing a motherboard continued
Replacing a Motherboard (continued)
  • Overview of the replacement process (continued)
    • 10. Plug in PC and then attach monitor and keyboard
    • 11. Boot the system and enter CMOS setup
    • 12. Make sure the settings are set to default
    • 13. Observe POST and verify that no error occurs
    • 14. Check for conflicts with system resources
    • 15. Install the motherboard drives
    • 16. Install any other expansion cards and drives
    • 17. Verify the system is up and running

IT Essentials 1

preparing the motherboard to go into the case
Preparing the Motherboard to Go Into the Case
  • Read the manual before preparing the motherboard
  • Setting the jumpers
    • First step in preparing the motherboard
    • The manual explains jumper and DIP switch settings
    • Information differs from one motherboard to the next
  • Tasks performed after setting the jumpers
    • Install the processor and cooler
    • Install the memory modules

IT Essentials 1

installing the motherboard in the case
Installing the Motherboard in the Case
  • Overview of the eight general steps:
    • 1. Install the faceplate (I/O shield)
    • 2. Install the standoffs (spacers)
    • 3. Secure the motherboard in the case
    • 4. Connect the power cord to the PI power connection
    • 5. Connect 4-pin auxiliary power cord to motherboard
    • 6. Connect the wire leads from front panel of case
    • 7. Refer to manual to verify wire to pin connection
    • 8. Connect USB connection (if present) to USB ports

IT Essentials 1

completing the installation
Completing the Installation
  • Following the connection of cables and cords
    • Install the video card
    • Plug in the keyboard and monitor
    • Turn the system on
    • Look out for errors during POST
    • Install drivers from CD bundled with motherboard
    • Verify operations
    • Make OS and CMOS adjustments as needed

IT Essentials 1

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