ict for development education ict based solutions and distance learning
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ICT for Development Education: ICT-based solutions and distance learning. ICT4D Lecture 7 Tim Unwin. Lecture outline. Educational context EFA and UPE Technologies and education Case studies Enlaces China Imfundo Use of radio in education Linking to lecture by

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ict for development education ict based solutions and distance learning

ICT for DevelopmentEducation: ICT-based solutions and distance learning

ICT4D Lecture 7

Tim Unwin

lecture outline
Lecture outline
  • Educational context
    • EFA and UPE
  • Technologies and education
  • Case studies
    • Enlaces
    • China
    • Imfundo
    • Use of radio in education
  • Linking to lecture by
    • Michelle Selinger (Cisco)

Lecture 7

context
Context
  • Global agenda for education
    • But links between education and development are largely based on macro-level statistical correlations between ‘development’ and educational indicators
    • Need for process research
    • Are curricula relevant for development?
  • Great regional diversity
    • Contrasts between China, India, Africa, Latin America
    • Educational systems, curricula, political priorities

Lecture 7

global agendas efa
Global Agendas (EFA)
  • Much research indicating the links between education and development
  • Dakar 2000 World Education Forum
    • http://www.unesco.org/education/efa/wef_2000/index.shtml
    • Framework for Action
    • Education for All (EFA) by 2015
      • Annual global monitoring report
      • Generally interpreted as free universal primary education
      • Dominating donor agendas for education

Lecture 7

global agendas upe
Global Agendas (UPE)
  • Educational dimensions of the MDGs
      • Subtle differences with EFA agendas
  • MDG 2. Achieve universal primary education
      • Ensure that all boys and girls complete a full course of primary schooling
  • MDG 3. Promote gender equality and empower women
      • Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education preferably by 2005, and at all levels by 2015
  • MDG 8. Global partnership for development
      • In cooperation with the private sector, make available the benefits of new technologies—especially information and communications technologies

Lecture 7

perceived strengths of new technologies in education
Perceived strengths of new technologies in education
  • Reaching the masses
    • But not necessarily a cheap solution
  • Overcoming distance and accessibility
  • Enabling lifelong learning
    • Especially with dearth of teachers
    • Issues surrounding HIV/AIDS
  • Changing the system of learning
    • Towards constructivist models
    • Teacher as facilitator
  • Standardised curriculum materials
  • Limiting fraud in assessment process

Lecture 7

traditional use of technology in education
Traditional use of technology in education
  • The traditional classroom
    • Books
    • Posters and displays
    • Blackboards
  • Alternative educational media
    • Theatre and dance
    • Radio and TV
    • Newspapers
  • Technology in education is not new

Lecture 7

new icts in education
New ICTs in education
  • Drivers
    • Benevolent good will
      • Fuelled by civil society organisations
      • Computers in schools initiatives
    • Private sector interests
      • Catching them young
      • Expanding the market
  • Resistance from many traditional educationalists
    • Costs and benefits
      • If this money was spent on traditional educational methods might not the ‘results’ be better?

Lecture 7

new icts in education the potential
New ICTs in education: the potential
  • The ‘value’ of computers and use of CD-ROMs
    • Speed at which ‘calculations’ are done
    • Storage of vast amounts of information
      • Both educational ‘content’ and management systems
    • Multimedia
      • Learning also by sound and image
      • Showing activities that cannot be done in class
  • Networking and the Internet
    • Group and peer learning activities
    • Distance based opportunities
    • Sharing expertise

Lecture 7

new icts in education problems in practice
New ICTs in education: problems in practice
  • Bringing together an understanding of education and the potential of technologies
  • Education for ICT, not ICT for education
    • Driven largely by private sector interests
  • Lack of infrastructure provision
  • Sustainability
    • Costs of implementation and maintenance
    • Importance of community involvement
    • Potential of FOSS
  • Teacher training often ignored
    • Both pre- and in-service

Lecture 7

the enlaces programme in chile
The Enlaces Programme in Chile
  • A total integrated ICT based education programme http://www.redenlaces.cl/
  • But it took ten years to develop
    • Began in 1992; effective integration in 2000-2006 phase
    • Effective ICT4D solutions for education are neither quick nor simple
  • Key achievements (Laval)
    • Nationwide infrastructure
    • Basic teacher competence in ICT
    • Social and political recognition of value of project
    • National infrastructure for the future

Lecture 7

teacher training in rural china
Teacher training in rural China
  • Links with external donors
    • UNDP-DFID in the five Western Provinces http://www.undp.org.cn/modules.php?op=modload&name=News&file=article&sid=235&mode=thread&order=0&thold=0
    • EU-China Gansu Basic Education Sector

http://www.eugs.net/en/indexstyle1.asp?NewsTypeId=1

  • Infrastructures
    • Extensive rural electrification
    • Satellite delivery of learning resources
    • Local teacher training Colleges
  • Practices
    • Use of TV in classrooms
    • Discussions of value of digital materials
    • Monitoring

Lecture 7

african schoolnets and nepad
African SchoolNets and NEPAD
  • Schoolnets
    • Examples from Uganda http://www.schoolnetuganda.sc.ug/homepage.php and Namibia
    • Importance of thin client and FOSS solutions
  • The role of SchoolNet Africa http://www.schoolnetafrica.net/index.php
    • Advocating role
    • High profile attempted projects
    • Networking
  • NEPAD (The New Partnership for Africa’s Development) http://www.nepad.org
    • E-Schools initiative

Lecture 7

imfundo a donor led initiative
Imfundo: a donor-led initiative
  • 2000 UK Prime Ministerial initiative
    • Dot com bubble and the private sector
    • Interests in Africa
  • Innovative within DFID
    • Partnerships
    • Use of ICT
  • Achievements
    • 40 partners - a new partnership model
    • Support in eight African countries
      • Working for the most marginalised: street children and those with disabilities
    • http://imfundo.digitalbrain.com

Lecture 7

examples of radio in education
Examples of radio in education
  • BBC World Service “Radio Teacher” in Somalia (http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/3003676.stm)
  • Zambia interactive radio http://www.dot-com-alliance.org/newsletter/article.php?article_id=57
  • Freeplay Foundation http://www.freeplayfoundation.org/
  • Advantages of radio
    • Broadcast
    • Can be used with local facilitators
    • Can be supported by ‘traditional’ feedback mechanisms

Lecture 7

conclusions
Conclusions
  • ICTs can make a substantial difference
    • Disseminating content and new ways of learning
  • But ICT needs to be carefully integrated
    • Must bring together the technology with the education
      • ICT for education, not education for ICT
    • Need to combine use of ICT with more traditional methods of education (Pye, 2003)
      • So that the most marginalised can benefit
    • Key role of teachers and their training
    • Infrastructures need to be put in place so that all can benefit

Lecture 7

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