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ICT for Development Education: ICT-based solutions and distance learning. ICT4D Lecture 7 Tim Unwin. Lecture outline. Educational context EFA and UPE Technologies and education Case studies Enlaces China Imfundo Use of radio in education Linking to lecture by

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ICT for DevelopmentEducation: ICT-based solutions and distance learning

ICT4D Lecture 7

Tim Unwin


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Lecture outline

  • Educational context

    • EFA and UPE

  • Technologies and education

  • Case studies

    • Enlaces

    • China

    • Imfundo

    • Use of radio in education

  • Linking to lecture by

    • Michelle Selinger (Cisco)

Lecture 7


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Context

  • Global agenda for education

    • But links between education and development are largely based on macro-level statistical correlations between ‘development’ and educational indicators

    • Need for process research

    • Are curricula relevant for development?

  • Great regional diversity

    • Contrasts between China, India, Africa, Latin America

    • Educational systems, curricula, political priorities

Lecture 7


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Global Agendas (EFA)

  • Much research indicating the links between education and development

  • Dakar 2000 World Education Forum

    • http://www.unesco.org/education/efa/wef_2000/index.shtml

    • Framework for Action

    • Education for All (EFA) by 2015

      • Annual global monitoring report

      • Generally interpreted as free universal primary education

      • Dominating donor agendas for education

Lecture 7


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Global Agendas (UPE)

  • Educational dimensions of the MDGs

    • Subtle differences with EFA agendas

  • MDG 2. Achieve universal primary education

    • Ensure that all boys and girls complete a full course of primary schooling

  • MDG 3. Promote gender equality and empower women

    • Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education preferably by 2005, and at all levels by 2015

  • MDG 8. Global partnership for development

    • In cooperation with the private sector, make available the benefits of new technologies—especially information and communications technologies

  • Lecture 7


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    Perceived strengths of new technologies in education

    • Reaching the masses

      • But not necessarily a cheap solution

    • Overcoming distance and accessibility

    • Enabling lifelong learning

      • Especially with dearth of teachers

      • Issues surrounding HIV/AIDS

    • Changing the system of learning

      • Towards constructivist models

      • Teacher as facilitator

    • Standardised curriculum materials

    • Limiting fraud in assessment process

    Lecture 7


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    Traditional use of technology in education

    • The traditional classroom

      • Books

      • Posters and displays

      • Blackboards

    • Alternative educational media

      • Theatre and dance

      • Radio and TV

      • Newspapers

    • Technology in education is not new

    Lecture 7


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    New ICTs in education

    • Drivers

      • Benevolent good will

        • Fuelled by civil society organisations

        • Computers in schools initiatives

      • Private sector interests

        • Catching them young

        • Expanding the market

    • Resistance from many traditional educationalists

      • Costs and benefits

        • If this money was spent on traditional educational methods might not the ‘results’ be better?

    Lecture 7


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    New ICTs in education: the potential

    • The ‘value’ of computers and use of CD-ROMs

      • Speed at which ‘calculations’ are done

      • Storage of vast amounts of information

        • Both educational ‘content’ and management systems

      • Multimedia

        • Learning also by sound and image

        • Showing activities that cannot be done in class

    • Networking and the Internet

      • Group and peer learning activities

      • Distance based opportunities

      • Sharing expertise

    Lecture 7


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    New ICTs in education: problems in practice

    • Bringing together an understanding of education and the potential of technologies

    • Education for ICT, not ICT for education

      • Driven largely by private sector interests

    • Lack of infrastructure provision

    • Sustainability

      • Costs of implementation and maintenance

      • Importance of community involvement

      • Potential of FOSS

    • Teacher training often ignored

      • Both pre- and in-service

    Lecture 7


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    The Enlaces Programme in Chile

    • A total integrated ICT based education programme http://www.redenlaces.cl/

    • But it took ten years to develop

      • Began in 1992; effective integration in 2000-2006 phase

      • Effective ICT4D solutions for education are neither quick nor simple

    • Key achievements (Laval)

      • Nationwide infrastructure

      • Basic teacher competence in ICT

      • Social and political recognition of value of project

      • National infrastructure for the future

    Lecture 7


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    Teacher training in rural China

    • Links with external donors

      • UNDP-DFID in the five Western Provinces http://www.undp.org.cn/modules.php?op=modload&name=News&file=article&sid=235&mode=thread&order=0&thold=0

      • EU-China Gansu Basic Education Sector

        http://www.eugs.net/en/indexstyle1.asp?NewsTypeId=1

    • Infrastructures

      • Extensive rural electrification

      • Satellite delivery of learning resources

      • Local teacher training Colleges

    • Practices

      • Use of TV in classrooms

      • Discussions of value of digital materials

      • Monitoring

    Lecture 7


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    African SchoolNets and NEPAD

    • Schoolnets

      • Examples from Uganda http://www.schoolnetuganda.sc.ug/homepage.php and Namibia

      • Importance of thin client and FOSS solutions

    • The role of SchoolNet Africa http://www.schoolnetafrica.net/index.php

      • Advocating role

      • High profile attempted projects

      • Networking

    • NEPAD (The New Partnership for Africa’s Development) http://www.nepad.org

      • E-Schools initiative

    Lecture 7


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    Imfundo: a donor-led initiative

    • 2000 UK Prime Ministerial initiative

      • Dot com bubble and the private sector

      • Interests in Africa

    • Innovative within DFID

      • Partnerships

      • Use of ICT

    • Achievements

      • 40 partners - a new partnership model

      • Support in eight African countries

        • Working for the most marginalised: street children and those with disabilities

      • http://imfundo.digitalbrain.com

    Lecture 7


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    Examples of radio in education

    • BBC World Service “Radio Teacher” in Somalia (http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/3003676.stm)

    • Zambia interactive radio http://www.dot-com-alliance.org/newsletter/article.php?article_id=57

    • Freeplay Foundation http://www.freeplayfoundation.org/

    • Advantages of radio

      • Broadcast

      • Can be used with local facilitators

      • Can be supported by ‘traditional’ feedback mechanisms

    Lecture 7


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    Conclusions

    • ICTs can make a substantial difference

      • Disseminating content and new ways of learning

    • But ICT needs to be carefully integrated

      • Must bring together the technology with the education

        • ICT for education, not education for ICT

      • Need to combine use of ICT with more traditional methods of education (Pye, 2003)

        • So that the most marginalised can benefit

      • Key role of teachers and their training

      • Infrastructures need to be put in place so that all can benefit

    Lecture 7



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