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Pollution Prevention Michelle Bates. Hypercar. What is a Hypercar?. Ultralight, Low-Drag, Hybrid-Electric Vehicle (HEV) 2 Sources of energy: Fuel cells, gas turbines, diesels, lean burn gasoline engines Flywheels, batteries, ultracapacitors 2 Drive trains

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Hypercar

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Pollution Prevention

Michelle Bates

Hypercar


What is a Hypercar?

  • Ultralight, Low-Drag, Hybrid-Electric Vehicle (HEV)

  • 2 Sources of energy:

    • Fuel cells, gas turbines, diesels, lean burn gasoline engines

    • Flywheels, batteries, ultracapacitors

  • 2 Drive trains

    • Internal Combustion Engine- gas or alt. fuels

    • Battery driven electric


Drivesystems

  • Conventional

    • Internal combustion engine coupled to wheels through the transmission, driveshaft, etc.

  • Hybrid-Electric

    • Engine (or other power source) generates electricity from fuel, which then powers electric motors that turn the wheels


Six Main Sources of Energy Loss in a Conventional Car:


Hypercar Strategies to Reduce Energy Losses

  • Ultralight

    • 1994 Average U.S. Passenger car 1439 kg

    • 2000-2005 Hypercar (4-5 seat) 521 kg

  • Low Aerodynamic Drag

  • Hybrid-Electric Drivesystem

  • Efficient Accessories


Ultralight

  • Composites

    • Embed strong reinforcing fibers in a supporting "matrix" of polymer

  • Advanced Composites

    • Long or continuous reinforcing fibers such as carbon or aramid (kevlar) in addition to glass


Advantages

50-65% reduction in weight

Crashworthy

Design Flexibility

Durability

Manufacturing

Disadvantages

$

Advanced Composite Materials


GM’s 1991 Ultralite Concept Car


Mass Decompounding


Low-Drag Aerodynamic Design

  • Smooth underbody

  • Low-angle windshields

  • Tapered rear end

  • Minimized body seams

  • Aerodynamically designed air intakes, suspension, and wheel wells

  • Result: 40-50% decrease in drag


1/3 engine output lost

Solution

lightweight car

tire improvements

improved wheel bearing and brake design

Reduction in rolling resistance by 50-80%

Rolling Resistance


Series

Engine with generator to supply electricity for battery pack and electric motor

No mechanical connection

Power transferred electrically to wheel motor

Parallel

Direct mechanical connection between hybrid power unit and wheels

Electric motor drives the wheels

Example

Hybrid-Electric Drive


Series

Parallel

Hybrid-Electric Drive


Generate electricity from the fuel, powers wheel motors

Electric motors can recover part of the braking energy

Hybrid-Electric Drive

Wheel Motor


Hybrid-Electric Drive

  • Large decrease in engine size

    • reduces weight, cost, fuel consumption

  • Drive system efficiency doubled


Efficient Accessories

  • Avoid heat buildup by using:

    • Insulation, special heat-reflecting glass, solar-powered vent fans

    • Innovative cooling and dehumidification systems

    • Improved headlights and taillights

  • More efficient electronics and interior lighting systems


Hypercar


Whole Systems Approach

  • Optimizing parts individually results in inefficiency overall

  • Hypercar is cost effective when the entire system is designed for efficiency


Hypercar Safety

  • Advanced composites

  • Smaller propulsion system

    • room at both ends of the car for materials dedicated to crash energy management

  • Front and side airbags, harnesses with pretensioners and stress-limiters, padding, active headrests


Pollution Prevention

  • Hypercars would go roughly 2-4 times farther on a unit of fuel

    • decreased overall carbon dioxide emissions

    • lower emissions per vehicle mile traveled

  • Alternative fuels


Fuel Efficiency


Life Cycle Assessment

  • Advanced Composites are durable

    • won’t rust, dent or chip

  • Total weight is much less, so there is less pure waste produced


Current Status

  • Hypercars do not currently exist

  • Hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs) do exist

  • Chrysler, Ford and GM

    • Year 2000 prototype HEVs

    • Year 2003 release HEVs on the U.S. market

  • Department of Energy HEV Propulsion Program

    • Funds 50% of development costs


Japanese market for one year

Not ultralight (weighs 330 lbs. more)

66 miles per gallon

Emissions reduced to 1/10th the Japanese legal requirement

U.S. market year 2000

Toyota’s Hybrid-Electric Prius Sedan


Future Projections

  • Zero-Emission Vehicles (ZEVs)

    • One tenth of new cars sold in five U.S. states by 2004

  • Half of all vehicles Hypercars by 2020

    • Overall fuel consumption 25 percent less than today's level


Battery Electric

Run on electricity stored in onboard batteries

Gasoline contains 100 times more energy per pound than batteries

Several thousand pounds of batteries (mass compounding)

Range less than 150 miles

Battery Electric Cars vs. Hybrid-Electric Cars


Battery-Electric

Batteries must be replaced every few years

Batteries cost $2000-$15,000 each

Batteries not recyclable

Emission shifting

Battery Electric Cars vs. Hybrid-Electric Cars

GM’s EV1


Battery Electric Cars vs. Hybrid-Electric Cars

  • Hybrid-Electric Cars

    • Wheels powered by electric motor or motors, convert fuel into energy as they go

    • Alternative fuel sources (Ex: renewable fuel cells)

    • Decrease carbon dioxide emissions

    • Increased engine and drive systems efficiency

    • Mass decompounding


Economic Impacts: The Winners

  • Makers of power electronics, microelectronics, advanced electric motors and small engines, alternative power plants and storage devices, and software

  • Composite materials, structures, and tooling and manufacturing equipment suppliers

  • Providers of polymers, fibers, coatings, and adhesives for the composites industry

  • Aerospace firms


Economic Impacts: Losers

  • Iron and steel industries (a Hypercar has 92% less iron and steel)

  • Heavy machine tools

  • Oil for motor fuel

  • Automotive fluids and lubricants


For More Information

  • The Hypercar Center

    • www.hypercarcenter.org

  • Hybrid Electric Vehicle Program

    • www.hev.doe.gov

  • Rocky Mountain Institute

    • www.rmi.org

  • Toyota Prius

    • www.toyota.com


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