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Video Media Technology. Past, Present, and Future. Gary Floring COM 538: Evolution and Trends in Digital Media Technologies Instructor: Kathy Gill University of Washington – Seattle Fall 2003. Video Media Technology Outline. Topics of Discussion. Introduction Purpose / Thesis

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Video Media Technology

Past, Present, and Future

Gary Floring

COM 538: Evolution and Trends in Digital Media Technologies

Instructor: Kathy Gill

University of Washington – Seattle

Fall 2003


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Video Media Technology

Outline

Topics of Discussion

  • Introduction

  • Purpose / Thesis

  • The Past - ANALOG

  • The Present – DIGITAL

  • Media Capacity Comparison

  • Innovation-Diffusion Theory

  • The Future – Next Generation DVD

  • Conclusions and Projections

  • Q & A


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Video Media Technology

Introductionand Purpose / Thesis

  • Definitions & Terminology

  • VIDEO: Root English word is vision, from the Latin videre, “to see”

  • -- Originally, video referred to ”what is visible” in a TV broadcast

  • MEDIA: Plural of medium, from the Latin medius, “the middle”

  • ANALOG: Continuously varying value, such as a sine wave…

  • DIGITAL: Discrete values representing data samples…

  • DVD: Digital Versatile Disc

  • Purpose / Thesis

  • Examine the development of video media technology over the past 50 years

  • Identify DVD technology as a major innovation process currently having a rapid

  • diffusion throughout social systems

  • Determine current trends in the market battle over modern media formats

  • and standardization; understand impacts on popular culture & end user needs

  • Contribute useful data / findings to the communications discipline on

  • modern video media applications


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Video Media Technology

The Past - ANALOG

  • Video Media 1890s to 1950s

  • 1891: Thomas Edison invents Kinetoscope;

  • others patented similar devices

  • Late 19th century to mid-20th century:

  • plastic and celluloid film media

  • Post-WWII: magnetic-based videotape

  • developed for television broadcasts

Early 20th century Kinetoscope

  • Apr. 1956: Ampex Corporation demonstrates

  • world’s first videotape recorder (VTR)

  • Nov. 1956: CBS is first network to

  • broadcast using videotape

  • Nov. 1957: KING-TV studios in Seattle

  • received one of the first production VTRs

Ampex VRX-1000, world’s first videotape recorder


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Video Media Technology

The Past - ANALOG

  • Video Media 1960s to 1980s

  • 1960s: Sony and other Japanese companies

  • challenge Ampex for VTR dominance

  • 1970s: Sony emerges as a major innovator,

  • introducing several advances in media

  • and hardware miniaturization

  • 1975: Sony unveils Betamax, its flagship

  • consumer VCR; pricey but very popular

Sony SL-7200 Betamax VCR; $1,295

  • 1976: JVC fights back with cheaper, rival VHS system

  • 1977: Beta vs. VHS “format war” is on!

  • 1978: VHS introduces two major innovations

  • which consumers adopt immediately:

  • -- Two hour tapes vs. Beta’s one hour

  • -- RCA’s programmable VCT-400 allows time-shifting / tape delay recording

  • 1980s: VHS outsells Sony’s Beta VCRs and tape format 4 to 1

  • 1990s: Beta format widely considered obsolete; VHS had “won” the war

BETA

VHS


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Video Media Technology

The Present -- DIGITAL

Major Portable Media Types *

Magnetic Tape (DV) Compact Disc (CD) Digital Versatile Disc (DVD)

  • Records / stores “raw”

  • digital video signal;

  • little or no compression

  • Widely used in camcorders

  • Disadvantages:

  • Prone to signal dropout,

  • fading, stretching,

  • age-degradation

  • Records / stores digital

  • video using MPEG-1

  • compression

  • Capable of ~1 hour of VHS-

  • quality video (240 lines res.)

  • 700 MB capacity

  • Advantages:

  • Long term, non-volatile;

  • compatible with most

  • CD-DVD playback devices

  • Records / stores digital

  • video using MPEG-2

  • compression

  • Capable of ~2 hours of High

  • Quality video (480 lines res.)

  • 4.7 GB capacity

  • Advantages:

  • Long term, non-volatile;

  • very high resolution; allows

  • chapter and menu creation

* For this study, computer hard drives

are excluded as “non-portable” media.


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Video Media Technology

The Present

Digital Media Capacity Comparison*

Floppy Diskette

(non-video data)

CD

DVD (4.7 GB)

1.44

MB

(700 MB)


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Video Media Technology

Communications Theory

Annual

DVD

Sales

(billions)

Innovation-Diffusion Process

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

0

Pre-recorded DVDs

Recordable DVDs

Next Generation DVD

1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008


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Video Media Technology

The Present

Recordable DVD Format Choices

  • Currently a “format war” underway

  • DVD-RAM

  • DVD-R/-RW

  • DVD+R/+RW

  • DVD+VR

  • “General” Type for mass consumers

  • “Authoring” Type for professionals

  • All use “red laser” technology

  • Quality differences are not significant

  • Manufacturers currently introducing

  • “multi-format” recorders(e.g., Sony DRU 510A)

Red laser technology

for “burning” and playback

Laser beam wavelength is 650 nm,

with a focal point 350 nm wide

Findings to date indicate -R/-RW and +R/+RW formats exhibit highest

consumer adoption rates; -R and +R have widest compatibility


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Video Media Technology

The Future

Next Generation DVD

  • Currently under development, new DVD

  • format uses “blue laser” technology

  • Much greater storage capacity; up to 30 GB

  • -- Over 6 times greater than current DVDs

  • Developed to handle storage demands of

  • High Definition Television (HDTV)

  • -- Over 1,000 lines of resolution

  • “Backward compatibility” planned

  • with current DVDs; however…

  • Standardization war already under way

  • between Sony and Toshiba / NEC

  • -- Sony promoting “Blu-ray” format

  • -- Toshiba / NEC promoting “HD-DVD” format

Blue laser technology

for “burning” and playback

Laser beam wavelength is 405 nm,

with a focal point 70 nm wide

First blue laser discs and hardware expected in U.S. market in 2005


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Video Media Technology

The Future

Conclusions & Projections

Digital Media Technology will Continue to Rapidly Advance

  • Adoption of DVD technology has been “revolutionary” vs. evolutionary

  • Hollywood will use traditional film indefinitely

  • VHS and DV magnetic tape use will gradually decline as disc media dominates

  • Current DVD format wars will be decided by consumers; –R and +R are leading

  • Multi-format hardware will ease standardization issue

  • Next generation blue laser DVD will accelerate trend toward HDTV this decade

  • Sony’s “Blu-ray” format more likely to dominate Toshiba / NEC’s

    -- More than 25% greater storage capacity than rival HD-DVD

    -- Builds on current MPEG-2 compression standard for backward compatibility

  • Nanotechnology will drive storage capacities much higher within 5 years

    -- By 2010, DVDs will be capable of holding over 100 GB


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Video Media Technology

Q & A

Questions?


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