Download
1 / 40

F R O S T I N G R E E C E - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 279 Views
  • Uploaded on

U NIVERSITY O F T HESSALY L ABORATORY O F A GROMETEOROLOGY. An Overview of Environmental Hazards Related to Crops in Greece. By: Nicolas R. Dalezios.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'F R O S T I N G R E E C E' - Angelica


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
Slide1 l.jpg

UNIVERSITY OF THESSALY LABORATORY OF AGROMETEOROLOGY

An Overview of Environmental Hazards Related to Crops in Greece

By:

Nicolas R. Dalezios


F r o s t i n g r e e c e l.jpg

U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E S S A L Y L A B O R A T O R Y O F A G R O M E T E O R O L O G Y

F R O S T I N G R E E C E

EVENTS, CLIMATOLOGY, DAMAGES, FORECASTING-RISK ASSESSMENT

An Overview of Environmental Hazards Related to Crops in Greece Prepared for COST734


Frost events l.jpg

U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E S S A L Y L A B O R A T O R Y O F A G R O M E T E O R O L O G Y

FROST EVENTS

  • Advection frosts

  • Radiation frosts

  • A combination of both

  • THE MOST DAMAGING FROSTS ARE THE ADVECTIVE FOLLOWED BY RADIATION FROSTS

An Overview of Environmental Hazards Related to Crops in Greece Prepared for COST734


Climatology of frost l.jpg

U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E S S A L Y L A B O R A T O R Y O F A G R O M E T E O R O L O G Y

CLIMATOLOGY OF FROST

Trewatha’s world map (1954) shows the average length of frost-free period. Greece is divided in three zones

  • Zone 2 Occasional winter frosts. (Islands, Southern Greece)

  • Zone 3 Frost-free season > 240 days. (Central & parts of Northern Greece)

  • Zone 4 180 days < Frost-free season < 240 days (Northern Greece)

An Overview of Environmental Hazards Related to Crops in Greece Prepared for COST734


Agricultural damages in thousands euros l.jpg

U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E S S A L Y L A B O R A T O R Y O F A G R O M E T E O R O L O G Y

AGRICULTURAL DAMAGES(in thousands euros)

An Overview of Environmental Hazards Related to Crops in Greece Prepared for COST734


Crop damages contribution to total frost injuries l.jpg

U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E S S A L Y L A B O R A T O R Y O F A G R O M E T E O R O L O G Y

CROP DAMAGES & CONTRIBUTION TO TOTAL FROST INJURIES

An Overview of Environmental Hazards Related to Crops in Greece Prepared for COST734


Frost protection l.jpg

U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E S S A L Y L A B O R A T O R Y O F A G R O M E T E O R O L O G Y

FROST PROTECTION

  • MAINLY PASSIVE METHODS ARE USED (cost-effective and more beneficial than active protection methods)

  • Wind machines protect < 10% of the citrus crop in Greece

  • Sprinklers (over-plant and under-plant) protect < 20% of the citrus crop

An Overview of Environmental Hazards Related to Crops in Greece Prepared for COST734


Slide8 l.jpg

U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E S S A L Y L A B O R A T O R Y O F A G R O M E T E O R O L O G Y

FROST FORECASTING – RISK ASSESSMENTCASE STUDY: Frost risk mapping for the agricultural region of Central Greece

An Overview of Environmental Hazards Related to Crops in Greece Prepared for COST734


Slide9 l.jpg

U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E S S A L Y L A B O R A T O R Y O F A G R O M E T E O R O L O G Y

H A I L

An Overview of Environmental Hazards Related to Crops in Greece Prepared for COST734


Climatology of hail in greece l.jpg

U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E S S A L Y L A B O R A T O R Y O F A G R O M E T E O R O L O G Y

CLIMATOLOGY OF HAIL IN GREECE

Number of observed hail days for different areas in Greece.

An Overview of Environmental Hazards Related to Crops in Greece Prepared for COST734


Hail damages l.jpg

U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E S S A L Y L A B O R A T O R Y O F A G R O M E T E O R O L O G Y

HAIL DAMAGES

Total annual compensations given to farmers from hail losses

(prices are in million €)

An Overview of Environmental Hazards Related to Crops in Greece Prepared for COST734


Slide12 l.jpg

U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E S S A L Y L A B O R A T O R Y O F A G R O M E T E O R O L O G Y

Hail loss percent from total compensations given to farmers

An Overview of Environmental Hazards Related to Crops in Greece Prepared for COST734


Slide13 l.jpg

U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E S S A L Y L A B O R A T O R Y O F A G R O M E T E O R O L O G Y

Monthly distribution hail losses Percent of compensations

Example: The year 2004.

An Overview of Environmental Hazards Related to Crops in Greece Prepared for COST734


Slide14 l.jpg

U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E S S A L Y L A B O R A T O R Y O F A G R O M E T E O R O L O G Y

Peaches

Corn

Vineyards

Cotton

Vineyards

Tomatoes

Cherries

0

< 0.4 M €

< 1 M €

< 2 M €

< 5 M €

< 10 M €

> 10 M €

Compensations given per prefecture for the year 2004

and main agricultural products hit by hail

An Overview of Environmental Hazards Related to Crops in Greece Prepared for COST734


Hail protection the national hail supression programme nhsp l.jpg

U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E S S A L Y L A B O R A T O R Y O F A G R O M E T E O R O L O G Y

HAIL PROTECTIONTHE NATIONAL HAIL SUPRESSION PROGRAMME (NHSP)

The three protected agricultural areas of NHSP.

Differences in compensations given

before and during the NHSP

An Overview of Environmental Hazards Related to Crops in Greece Prepared for COST734


Drought l.jpg

U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E S S A L Y L A B O R A T O R Y O F A G R O M E T E O R O L O G Y

DROUGHT

  • Regional phenomena, referred to as "non events", since their basic cause is the lack of precipitation events in a region over a period of time.

  • Four drought categories: meteorological or climatological, hydrological, agricultural, and socioeconomic (American Meteorological Society, 1997).

  • Drought responsive parameters: rainfall, soil moisture, potential evapotranspiration, vegetation condition, ground-water and surface-water levels.

An Overview of Environmental Hazards Related to Crops in Greece Prepared for COST734


Drought indices l.jpg

U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E S S A L Y L A B O R A T O R Y O F A G R O M E T E O R O L O G Y

Drought indices

  • Describe the magnitude, duration, severity, and spatial extent of drought.

  • Based on meteorological and hydrological variables, such as precipitation, streamflows, soil moisture, reservoir storage, and groundwater levels.

  • Conventional drought indices based on ground measurements (e.g. PDSI, SPI, RDI, Rainfall Deciles, CMI, SWSI).

  • Satellite drought indices based on remote sensed data (e.g. NDVI, VCI, TCI, VHI).

An Overview of Environmental Hazards Related to Crops in Greece Prepared for COST734


District climatic characteristics of greece l.jpg

U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E S S A L Y L A B O R A T O R Y O F A G R O M E T E O R O L O G Y

District climatic characteristics of Greece

  • Western coast and the islands of the Ionian Sea: significant precipitation, small annual temperature range.

  • West coast of southern continental Greece and the islands of the Aegean Sea: low winter temperatures, high summer temperatures and low precipitation.

  • Northern and Central continent: long duration storms, short drought periods, low negative temperatures during winter and large annual temperature range.

  • Crete and southern Greece: with small annual precipitation and droughts long duration.

  • Pindous Mountain range: high annual precipitation and strong gradients of precipitation and temperature with elevation.

An Overview of Environmental Hazards Related to Crops in Greece Prepared for COST734


Drought in greece l.jpg

U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E S S A L Y L A B O R A T O R Y O F A G R O M E T E O R O L O G Y

Drought in Greece

  • Drought severity increased from the northern to the southern and from the western to the eastern regions (Dalezios et al., 2000;Loukas et al., 2002).

Isoseverity map of droughts in Greece, from Z-index values, for three-month duration and five-year return period.

An Overview of Environmental Hazards Related to Crops in Greece Prepared for COST734


Case study l.jpg

U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E S S A L Y L A B O R A T O R Y O F A G R O M E T E O R O L O G Y

Case Study

  • Use of RDI and SPI in Naxos island, Mornos and Nestos basin (Tsakiris and Vangelis, 2005; Tsakiris et al., 2006).

Normalised yearly RDI for Naxos meteorological station

for the period 1955/56 – 1991/92.

An Overview of Environmental Hazards Related to Crops in Greece Prepared for COST734


Slide21 l.jpg

U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E S S A L Y L A B O R A T O R Y O F A G R O M E T E O R O L O G Y

Nestos watershed: maximum water deficit at

Hryssoupoli station during the years 1988-1994.

Severe drought, in 1986-1994 (Achladia station)

and 1988-1996 (Ptelea station). maximum drought

intensity for the year 1984-85 (Potami station).

Mornos case study: maximum water deficit and the

most severe drought at Pentagi station during the years

1987-1995. The maximum annual drought intensity year

2000-2001.

An Overview of Environmental Hazards Related to Crops in Greece Prepared for COST734


Wheat and drought l.jpg

U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E S S A L Y L A B O R A T O R Y O F A G R O M E T E O R O L O G Y

Wheat and Drought

  • Drought: major environmental factor limiting for wheat growth during the early part of its life cycle.

    Plant Protection from drought

  • Rational regime of irrigation.

  • Alternative plant production.

  • Selection of tolerant plant genotypes.

  • Pumping of groundwater.

  • Construction of off-stream reservoirs to store surface water sinks for collection of precipitation water.

  • Uses of desalinisation plants.

An Overview of Environmental Hazards Related to Crops in Greece Prepared for COST734


E x c e s s r a i n l.jpg

U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E S S A L Y L A B O R A T O R Y O F A G R O M E T E O R O L O G Y

E X C E S S R A I N

  • The duration and frequency of extreme rainfall rates are important climatological features to be considered in meteorology, agriculture, hydrology and civil engineering.

  • Heavy precipitation events in the world wide have caused great damage to crop production.

  • A warmer climate will be one in which the hydrological cycle will in general be more intense, leading to more heavy rain events (IPCC, 1996).

  • Enhanced hydrologic cycle is responsible for the increasing flood damage.

An Overview of Environmental Hazards Related to Crops in Greece Prepared for COST734


Precipitation related measures used for study of floods l.jpg

U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E S S A L Y L A B O R A T O R Y O F A G R O M E T E O R O L O G Y

Precipitation-related measures used for study of floods

  • Total precipitation

  • Number of wet days per station

  • Number of extreme precipitation days (>2 inches) per station

  • Number of 2-day heavy precipitation events per station

  • Number of 3-day heavy precipitation events per station

  • Number of 5-day heavy precipitation events per station

  • Number of 7-day heavy precipitation events per station

  • Percentage of an area with much above-normal cold season (October–April) precipitation

  • Percentage of an area with the number of wet days much above normal

  • Percentage of an area with much above-normal proportion of total annual precipitation from 1-day extreme events.

An Overview of Environmental Hazards Related to Crops in Greece Prepared for COST734


Damages of extreme precipitation l.jpg

U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E S S A L Y L A B O R A T O R Y O F A G R O M E T E O R O L O G Y

Damages of Extreme Precipitation

  • Anoxic conditions by excessively wet soils (Kozdrόj and van Elsas, 2000).

  • Increased risk of plant disease and insect infestation (Ashraf and Habib-ur-Rehman, 1999).

  • Large losses of crop yield and production.

Damages after extreme precipitation

An Overview of Environmental Hazards Related to Crops in Greece Prepared for COST734


Excess rain damages in greece l.jpg

U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E S S A L Y L A B O R A T O R Y O F A G R O M E T E O R O L O G Y

Rainfall

Extreme temperature Hail

Floods

Windstorms

Frost

Excess Rain damages in Greece

Total map damages in Greece for all agriculture disaster categories in thousands € from 1986 to 2003.

An Overview of Environmental Hazards Related to Crops in Greece Prepared for COST734


Excess rain and cotton l.jpg

U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E S S A L Y L A B O R A T O R Y O F A G R O M E T E O R O L O G Y

Excess rain and Cotton

  • Large damages are caused mainly in cotton and especially in end-grow season at September.

  • Effects in economy, quality and productivity of cotton in Greece and especially in Thessaly plain where cotton production is significant.

An Overview of Environmental Hazards Related to Crops in Greece Prepared for COST734


Slide28 l.jpg

U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E S S A L Y L A B O R A T O R Y O F A G R O M E T E O R O L O G Y

F O R E S T F I R E S

An Overview of Environmental Hazards Related to Crops in Greece Prepared for COST734


Types of forest fires l.jpg

U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E S S A L Y L A B O R A T O R Y O F A G R O M E T E O R O L O G Y

Types of Forest Fires

  • Ground fires.

  • Surface fires.

  • Crown fires.

    Meteorological parameters such as rainfall, high temperature, low relative humidity and wind velocity have serious effect in the initiation and spread of forest fires.

    Other factors affecting:

  • the variety and amount of fuel (vegetation and dead organic material),

  • the fuel moisture and

  • the topography (altitude, slope).

An Overview of Environmental Hazards Related to Crops in Greece Prepared for COST734


Causes of forest fires l.jpg

U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E S S A L Y L A B O R A T O R Y O F A G R O M E T E O R O L O G Y

Causes of Forest Fires

In Greece, the causes of wildfires are classified into three categories:

  • Wildfires caused by natural causes.

  • Wildfires caused by human activities.

  • Wildfires caused by dubious-unknown reasons.

An Overview of Environmental Hazards Related to Crops in Greece Prepared for COST734


Burned area in greece l.jpg

U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E S S A L Y L A B O R A T O R Y O F A G R O M E T E O R O L O G Y

Burned Area in Greece

An Overview of Environmental Hazards Related to Crops in Greece Prepared for COST734


Wildfire statistics for greece l.jpg

U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E S S A L Y L A B O R A T O R Y O F A G R O M E T E O R O L O G Y

Wildfire Statistics for Greece

Need for protection (prevention and suppression), monitoring, forecasting and risk assessment.

An Overview of Environmental Hazards Related to Crops in Greece Prepared for COST734


Monitoring and mapping l.jpg

U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E S S A L Y L A B O R A T O R Y O F A G R O M E T E O R O L O G Y

Monitoring and Mapping

K-study in Penteli, Greece (Domenikiotis et al. (2002).

  • Technique based on satellite derived NDVI.

  • NOAA/AVHRR and Landsat TM data.

(a) (b)

Images formed by NOAA/AVHRR data before (a) and after (b) the forest fire in Penteli, Greece. Bright areas in the first image indicate the presence of vegetation and the gray areas correspond to suburbs of Athens and the sea

An Overview of Environmental Hazards Related to Crops in Greece Prepared for COST734


Monitoring and mapping34 l.jpg

U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E S S A L Y L A B O R A T O R Y O F A G R O M E T E O R O L O G Y

  • (a) (b)

    • Landsat TM color composites images (7,4,1) before (a) and after (b) the forest fire in Penteli, Greece. This band compilation highlights the burned area.

Monitoring and Mapping

Burned areas: dark red, Vegetation areas: green(Landsat TM images).

Concluding, NOAA/AVHRR data can be used for operational monitoring and assessment of damaged area in near real-time with high degree of accuracy. Landsat TM is much more accurate (Domenikiotis et al. (2002).

An Overview of Environmental Hazards Related to Crops in Greece Prepared for COST734


Forecasting and risk assessment l.jpg

U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E S S A L Y L A B O R A T O R Y O F A G R O M E T E O R O L O G Y

Forecasting and Risk Assessment

K-study in Pelio, Greece (Spanos et al. 2002).

  • Use of three meteorological parameters and Angström’s indexfor risk assessment.

  • NDVI for detection of the burned areas.

The study highlighted the importance of local meteorological conditions in the fire risk assessment.

An Overview of Environmental Hazards Related to Crops in Greece Prepared for COST734


Grapes pest and diseases l.jpg

U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E S S A L Y L A B O R A T O R Y O F A G R O M E T E O R O L O G Y

GRAPES PEST AND DISEASES

Hadromycosis-Bertisillioseis / Verticillium dahliae, Verticillium albo-atrum

Bacillar necrosis / Xylophilus ampelinus

Botrytis (ash decay) vine / Botryotinia fuckeliana

Esca or Polisporiash / Phellinus igniarius, Stereum hirsutum (esca, black measles, apoplexy)

Necrosis of arms / Eutypa lata

Mildew of vine (downy mildew) / Plasmopara viticola

Decays of fruits from penikilla / Prnicillium digitatum, Penicillium italicum, Penicillium expansum

Fomopsi or exkoriosi of vine / Phomopsis viticola

Oidio of vine / Uncinula necator

An Overview of Environmental Hazards Related to Crops in Greece Prepared for COST734


Geographical distribution of indemnification for damages of mildew in greece source elga l.jpg

U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E S S A L Y L A B O R A T O R Y O F A G R O M E T E O R O L O G Y

Geographical distribution of indemnification for damages of mildew in Greece (source ELGA).

An Overview of Environmental Hazards Related to Crops in Greece Prepared for COST734


Protection measurements l.jpg

U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E S S A L Y L A B O R A T O R Y O F A G R O M E T E O R O L O G Y

Protection measurements

  • The care of soil and the fertilization

  • Corridors and areas released exempted of pests

  • Cares of leafage

  • Direct means of plant health protection (combating)

  • Estimate of danger and observation of enemy or pathogenic

An Overview of Environmental Hazards Related to Crops in Greece Prepared for COST734


The use of models for protection of diseases l.jpg

U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E S S A L Y L A B O R A T O R Y O F A G R O M E T E O R O L O G Y

The use of models for protection of diseases

  • PERO Model

    simulates the infection cycle development according to agrometeorological conditions, allowing the best timing for fungicide treatment.

  • PLASMO model

    Simulates the inflection cycle development and diseased leaf area

An Overview of Environmental Hazards Related to Crops in Greece Prepared for COST734


Slide40 l.jpg

U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E S S A L Y L A B O R A T O R Y O F A G R O M E T E O R O L O G Y

PERO Model Application Results

for the area of N. Aghialos in Greece for the year 2000

An Overview of Environmental Hazards Related to Crops in Greece Prepared for COST734


ad