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CGS 3269 COMPUTER SYSTEMS ARCHITECTURE Course Website: http://www.cs.ucf.edu/courses/cgs3269.spr2002. COMPUTER ORGANIZATION. DIFFERENCE IN PERCEPTION BETWEEN MAN AND MACHINE. HOW DO YOU MAP “PROBLEM SPACE” TO “MACHINE SPACE”? TWO DIFFERENT APPROACHES EXIST: TRANSLATION INTERPRETATION.

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Cgs 3269 computer systems architecture course website http www cs ucf edu courses cgs3269 spr2002 l.jpg

CGS 3269COMPUTER SYSTEMS ARCHITECTURECourse Website: http://www.cs.ucf.edu/courses/cgs3269.spr2002


Computer organization l.jpg

COMPUTER ORGANIZATION

DIFFERENCE IN PERCEPTION BETWEEN MAN AND MACHINE. HOW DO YOU MAP “PROBLEM SPACE” TO “MACHINE SPACE”?

TWO DIFFERENT APPROACHES EXIST:

TRANSLATION

INTERPRETATION


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COMPUTER ORGANIZATION

  • TRANSLATION: USER WRITES A PROGRAM, WHICH IS THEN TRANSLATED BY MACHINE INTO A “MACHINE-FRIENDLY” PROGRAM AND EXECUTED.

  • INTERPRETATION: MACHINE INTERPRETS EACH INSTRUCTION INDIVIDUALLY. THIS TECHNIQUE DOES NOT REQUIRE GENERATION OF A “MACHINE-FRIENDLY” PROGRAM; INSTEAD “MACHINE-FRIENDLY” INSTRUCTION(S) ARE GENERATED



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  • LEVEL 0: DIGITAL LOGIC LEVEL

    • GATES: DIGITAL DEVICES (AND, OR) MODELED FROM ANALOG COMPONENTS (TRANSISTORS)

    • GATES MODEL 1–BIT MEMORY (CAN STORE 0 OR 1) AND ALU (DISCUSSED LATER)

    • REGISTERS ARE MODELED FROM 4, 8, 16, 32 BIT MEMORY


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LEVEL 1: MICROARCHITECTURE LEVEL

LOCAL MEMORY IS FORMED FROM COLLECTION OF REGISTERS (TYPICALLY 8 TO 32 DEPENDING ON ARCHITECTURE)

GATES FORM ALU (ARITHMETIC LOGIC UNIT) CAPABLE OF ARITHMETIC OPERATIONS

REGISTERS ARE CONNECTED TO THE ALU TO FORM THE DATA PATH, OVER WHICH THE DATA FLOWS

DATA PATH OPERATION IS TO TAKE DATA FROM ONE OR MORE REGISTERS TO THE ALU, WHERE IT IS PROCESSED AND RETURN RESULT TO REGISTER(S)


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MICROPROGRAM

  • CONTROLS OPERATION OF THE DATA PATH

    OR

    DATA PATH CONTROL

    CAN BE HARDWARE BASED


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LEVEL 2: INSTRUCTION SET ARCHITECTURE LEVEL

MACHINE’S INSTRUCTION SET

INSTRUCTIONS CARRIED OUT “INTERPRETIVELY” BY THE MICROPROGRAM OR HARDWARE


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HISTORY OF COMPUTING

  • ZEROTH GENERATION – MECHANICAL COMPUTERS

  • FIRST GENERATION – VACUUM TUBES

  • SECOND GENERATION – TRANSISTORS

  • THIRD GENERATION – INTEGRATED CIRCUITS


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HISTORY OF COMPUTING

  • FOURTH GENERATION – VLSI

  • FUTURE TRENDS (QUANTUM COMPUTING?)


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COMPUTER FAMILIES

  • DESKTOPS/SERVERS/LAPTOPS – (WINDOWS/LINUX BASED)

    • INTEL, AMD

  • DESKTOPS/LAPTOPS – (MACINTOSH)

    • MOTOROLA


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COMPUTER FAMILIES

  • WORKSTATIONS/SERVERS – (SUN OS, SOLARIS BASED)

    • SPARC

  • CUSTOM PROCESSORS FOR MOBILE, EMBEDDED, LOW POWER APPLICATIONS


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COMPONENTS OF PC ARCHITECTURE

  • CPU

  • MEMORY

  • INPUT/OUTPUT

  • DISK STORAGE

  • PROGRAMS


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NUMBER SYSTEMS

  • BINARY

  • OCTAL

  • DECIMAL

  • HEXADECIMAL


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