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Desk-top Publishing. Six Steps to Successful Desktop Publishing. Establish goals and organize your material Answer the who, what, where, when and why question. 2. Six Steps to Successful Desktop Publishing. Choose an appropriate format and page layout

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Six steps to successful desktop publishing l.jpg
Six Steps to Successful Desktop Publishing

  • Establish goals and organize your material

    • Answer the who, what, where, when and why question

2


Six steps to successful desktop publishing3 l.jpg
Six Steps to Successful Desktop Publishing

  • Choose an appropriate format and page layout

    • What is the overall look, how large, how many colours, columns, what sort of paper?

    • What graphics will direct the reader’s eye?


Six steps to successful desktop publishing4 l.jpg
Six Steps to Successful Desktop Publishing

  • Make appropriate typeface, type size, and spacing decisions

    • The majority of messages appear as headline and body copy - create headlines and titles which attract attention with body copy that’s transparent and doesn’t interfere with reader’s ability to quickly understand


Six steps to successful desktop publishing5 l.jpg
Six Steps to Successful Desktop Publishing

  • Add and manipulate visuals

    • Replace words with images/visuals where possible (photographs, illustrations, charts, graphs, tables, organization charts, flowcharts, timelines, etc)

    • Each requires careful placement on the page


Six steps to successful desktop publishing6 l.jpg
Six Steps to Successful Desktop Publishing

  • Build momentum into your pages

    • You’ve got readers attention, now keep them interested in your publication

    • Break material into bite-size chunks by using organisational devices such as subheads, pull quotes and sidebars.


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Six Steps to Successful Desktop Publishing

  • Refine and fine-tune ‘til you drop

    • Perfect wholes are the result of perfect detail

    • Break your project into component parts to fine tune (a singing group is destroyed by one bad singer)


Using design to enhance your ideas l.jpg
Using design to enhance your ideas!

  • design enhances readership

  • design provides organisation

  • design provides unity

  • design sets your publication apart

3


Readership l.jpg
Readership

  • Colin Wheildon (Australian) found:

    • changes in headline typography can increase readership from 57% to 92%

    • body copy comprehension jumped from 12% to 67% when a different typeface was used

    • subtle changes in line spacing increased body copy comprehension from 77 - 98%

    • setting body copy on a grey background could reduce comprehension from 70 - 3%

    • headline colours could reduce comprehension of body type from 67 -17%

    • revising the layout (with no change to words) can increase readership from 32-67%


Organisation l.jpg
Organisation

  • Effective design provides hierarchy making it easy for readers to tell what is important.

    • Reduces information overload


Unity l.jpg
Unity

  • Create a whole from a series of pages, brochures, newsletters

    • consistent margins, column placement, graphic accents, typeface, type size and colour choices

    • can create a company identity


Individuality l.jpg
Individuality

  • Set your publication apart - project an image

    • conservatism, contemporary, expensive and inexpensive


Design saves time l.jpg
Design Saves Time!

You make one decision regarding:

  • typeface

  • type size

  • margin

  • colour

  • line settings

    This decision will form the template for all documents

4


Typefaces l.jpg
Typefaces

  • refers to a particular design or “look” of a family of type (eg Times, Helvetica, Prestige)

  • within each family are variations

    • bold, semi-bold, condensed, italic, etc

  • a font is the complete character set including both upper and lower case, punctuations, etc

  • fonts allow you to instantly and nonverbally communicate atmosphere and image

5


Types of fonts l.jpg
Types of fonts

  • Scaleable - size is easily changed

    • resident - common fonts pre-loaded on your computer

    • downloadable - stored for use when needed

      • free downloadable

      • discretionary downloadable

6


Beware l.jpg
Beware

Expanding your font library can cause problems - it takes time to add and remove fonts when you work with them so they are usually left in memory where they reside making programs slow and clutters the font menu making the ones you need harder to find.

You should only use a maximum of 2 - 3 fonts per publication.


Font editors l.jpg

Font Editors

Examples:

Altys Fontographer and Area Font Chameleon

Enables you to change the appearance of letters to your requirements

Font Editors

7


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Kerning Editors

Example:

Fontographer

Enable fine-tuning of letter spacing to improve appearance

Kerning Editors


Illustration programs text manipulation l.jpg

Free Drawing

Microsoft Word 6.0 for Windows Wordart

Enables you to stretch and compress type, distort it, set in circles or at an angle

Specialized Drawing

Aldus Freehand, Adobe Illustrator

More versatile

Illustration Programs- text manipulation

8


How to attract your reader s attention l.jpg
How to attract your reader’s attention!

  • create headlines that shout

  • set up a headline typography

    • choice of typeface and typesize

    • choice of line spacing

    • choice of alignment (columns)

9


Choice of typeface and type size l.jpg
Choice of typeface and type size

  • family approach larger and bolder versions of the same typeface

    • opposites attract approach

  • headline totally different from body copy

    • body in serif and headline in sans serif

  • composite approach

    • offers opportunity for variety and contrast because typefaces are designed to work together (choose from a family of typefaces designed to work together)

10


Slide22 l.jpg
Hint

  • Generally the best looking pages are those using condensed heavy sans serif typefaces for headlines combined with body copy set in an easy-to-read serif typeface.

  • Condensed typefaces take up less space and have greater impact

11


Serif and sans serif l.jpg

This is a serif typeface - it is Times New Roman

Serif typefaces have a serif

Serif typefaces have different width strokes

This is a sans serif typeface - it is Arial

Sans serif typefaces have no serif

Sans serif typefaces have regular width strokes

Serif and Sans Serif

b

b


Headlines in sans serif have greater impact but are harder to read l.jpg
Headlines in Sans Serif - have greater impact but are harder to read

Body copy in serif is easier to read


Headlines l.jpg
Headlines to read

Linespacing

  • reduce linespacing so lines appear closer together - in dtp terms this is called the leading (pronounced ledding) from when printers put lead between the lines to space

    • saves space

    • creates white space around the headline

12


Headlines26 l.jpg
Headlines to read

Alignment

  • centred heading are appropriate for classic, conservative or formal image

  • overuse indicates a novice approach

13


Centred headlines problem 1 l.jpg
Centred headlines - problem 1 to read

  • dissipated white space

    • white space is scattered either side rather than concentrated to one side

    • when a headline is set left it is set off by the large pool of white space to the right, creating more visual impact

14


Centred headline problem 2 l.jpg
Centred headline - problem 2 to read

  • differing line beginnings

    • means readers have to search for the beginning of the line

    • reduces reading speed


Centred headline problem 3 l.jpg
Centred headline - problem 3 to read

  • strange shapes

    • headlines of > 3 lines create distracting shapes (diamonds, triangles, upside down triangles)

    • fine tune to get rid of shape by substituting words or kerning


Centred headline problem 4 l.jpg
Centred headline - problem 4 to read

  • inadvertent justification

    • some centred headlines nearly fill the line which looks like a mistake in left justification


Centred headline problem 5 l.jpg
Centred headline - problem 5 to read

  • scattered alignment points

    • readers search for CLOSURE

    • to locate alignment points in a line’s beginning and endings - if left justified there is no ambiguity in the design, people won’t try to puzzle out the design

    • make your intentions clear in your design


Centred headline problem 6 l.jpg
Centred headline - problem 6 to read

  • difficult transition to text

    • people have to move their eye more from the end of the headline to body copy when the headline is centred



Headlines34 l.jpg
Headlines to read

This is important

To capitalize or not

  • don’t use all upper case

    • all upper case is harder to read

    • all upper case takes up more space

    • all upper case has less white space around - needs smaller font

    • lower case are more shapely when put together

  • don’t capitalize all first letters

    • only capitalize first letter and proper nouns

    • confusion regarding new sentence

15


Beware35 l.jpg
Beware to read

If you decide to use a font specially designed for headings which uses all capitals, be consistent in it’s use - and don’t use it for body copy


Headlines36 l.jpg
Headlines to read

Letter Spacing

  • defaults are usually too generous for headlines

  • tracking - reduces or increases letter spacing uniformly throughout a range of text

  • kerning - reduces or increases letter spacing in individual pairs of letters

16


Tracking l.jpg
Tracking to read

  • gains white space to the left or right of the headline

  • word shapes become more pronounced

  • the larger the headline the more important tracking becomes

  • In Microsoft Publisher:

    Choose Format, Spacing Between Characters. Notice that the default is Normal. Select Tight and print the page. If the letters appear too closely spaced, change to Normal.

17


Kerning l.jpg
Kerning to read

  • distinguishes amateur and professional

  • problems occur when overhanging upper case letter (T,Y,W) appear next to short lower case letters (a,o,i) or periods or commas (.,)

  • In Microsoft Publisher:

    Choose Format, Spacing Between Characters. From the Spacing Between Characters dialog box, select Between Selected Characters Only and the Squeeze Letters Together. You can now modify letter spacing by clicking the up and down arrows.

18


Headlines39 l.jpg
Headlines to read

Line Breaks and Hyphenation

  • never hyphenate a headline

  • ideally headline should be broken into lines the same size

  • headline should be kept short

  • if headline is large, increase the size of the most important part (the beginning)

19


Body copy making type easy to read l.jpg
Body Copy to readMaking Type Easy To Read

  • the aim is to:

    “produce text so beautiful your readers won’t even notice it’s there!” Parker R

  • decisions

    • what typeface?

    • what type size?

    • leading?

    • alignment?

  • avoid long lines of small type

  • avoid short lines of large type

20


X height l.jpg
x-height to read

  • The x-height governs the amount of space needed between lines - how much air is needed between the lines of type

    • high x-height typefaces look larger that low x heights (even when both same size)

    • low x-heights need less leading than high x heights

p

this is the x-height


Slide42 l.jpg

This is a piece of text to show you how the xheight of different fonts can affect the look of the document.

This is a piece of text to show you how the xheight of different fonts can affect the look of the document.

These are Arial font - both in 28 pt size

normal leading

.8 leading


Slide43 l.jpg

This is a piece of text to show you how the xheight of different fonts can affect the look of the document.

This is a piece of text to show you how the xheight of different fonts can affect the look of the document.

These are Times New Roman font - 28 pt

normal leading

.8 leading


Leading concerns the x height fonts with high x height need more leading l.jpg

This is a piece of text to show you how the xheight of different fonts can affect the look of the document.

This is a piece of text to show you how the xheight of different fonts can affect the look of the document.

This is a piece of text to show you how the xheight of different fonts can affect the look of the document.

This is a piece of text to show you how the xheight of different fonts can affect the look of the document.

Leadingconcerns the x heightfonts with high x height need more leading

21


Alignment l.jpg

2 options different fonts can affect the look of the document.

left flush/ right jagged

different amounts of white space to right

justified

word spacing is adjusted, white space equal each side

choice depends on:

image

left flush/ragged right is friendlier, informal

line length

avoid narrow columns of justified text as these have large letter spacings and excessive hyphenation

available time

justified is more time consuming to get it looking good

word density

justified has more words per column

ease of reading

evidence suggests flush left/ragged right is easier to read because of consistent word spacing

Alignment

22


Alignment choice depends on l.jpg
Alignment choice depends on: different fonts can affect the look of the document.

  • image

    • left flush/ragged right is friendlier, informal

  • line length

    • avoid narrow columns of justified text as these have large letter spacings and excessive hyphenation

  • available time

    • justified is more time consuming to get it looking good

  • word density

    • justified has more words per column

  • ease of reading

    • evidence suggests flush left/ragged right is easier to read because of consistent word spacing


  • Practical exercise l.jpg
    Practical Exercise different fonts can affect the look of the document.

    • Using the text provided, edit it to produce a document with headlines which are easy to read and shout to the reader ‘Read Me’

    • experiment with the kerning and tracking options provided by Microsoft Publisher to provide a professional look

    • experiment with different leadings and fonts

    • use the spell checking facility

    • using copy and paste produce several versions to compare, select your best effort and compare it with your neighbour

    24


    Conclusion l.jpg
    Conclusion different fonts can affect the look of the document.

    During this presentation you have seen how fonts can be used to enhance readability, both of headlines and body copy.

    You should now be able to adjust kerning, tracking and leading of your text to create a professional look and you should have an idea of which fonts to use.


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